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REPORT AND TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, 
AND ART. 



[TIVERTON, JULY, 1919.] 



VOL. LI. 

[VOL. I. FOURTH SERIES.} 



PLYMOUTH : 
W. BRENDON AND SON, Ltd., PRINTERS. 



1919. 

Copyright 1010. 



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[4 ] 





K-jr) 



(RECAP) 



«. The Council and the Editor desire it to be understood that 
they, are not answerable for any statements, observations, or 
opinions appearing in any paper printed by the Society ; the 
authors only are responsible. 

The Transactions of the Society are not published, nor 
are they on sale to the public. They are printed for 
Members only. 



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f 6] 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

List of Plates . . . ... 7 

List of Officers . ... 8 

Places of Meeting . . . . ... 9 

Rules . ... 11 

Bye-laws and Standing Orders . . . 16 

Report of the Council . ... 20 

Balance Sheet . 22, 23 

Selected Minutes of Council appointing Committees 24 

Proceedings at the Fifty-eighth Annual Meeting . 27 

Obituary Notices . . . ... 38 

President's Address . . . ... 47 

Thirtieth Report of the Committee on Scientific Memoranda ... 59 

Thirty-second Report of the Committee on Verbal Provincialisms . 65 

Thirty -eighth Report of the Committee on Barrows in Devonshire . . 79 

Tenth Report of the Church Plate Committee 80 

Eleventh Report of the Botany Committee 114 

Fourth Report of the Committee on Bibliography .130 

Thirty-seventh Report [3rd Ser.] of the Committee on the Climate 

of Devon . . . ... 134 

When the Saxons Came to Devon. Parti. J. J. Alexander, M. a., j. p. 152 

Cob Cottages for the Twentieth Century. T. J. \Toce . . 169 

Memorandum of Flint Implements Found on Dartmoor. T. V. Hodgson 175 

The Study of Place- and Field-Names. Mrs. Frances Rose-Troup . 177 



6 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Haccombe. Part II. (1830-1400). A. W. Searley . . 181 

The Baptismal Fonts of Devon. Part VI. Miss Kate M. Clarke . .211 

List of Diptera hitherto recorded from the County of Devon. Colonel 
J. W. Yerbury, F.Z.S., f.e.s. (Communicated by Coryndon 
Matthews, f.z. 8., f.e.s.) . . 222 

List of Members . . . ... 253 

Index . . . . . X . 271 



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PLATES. 



Barrow Report— 

Plan of Circle and Cairn on Brown Heath, near Ernie Pound To face p. 79 

«Chuboh Plate Ekpoet — 

Chalice. Sampford PevereD ........ 94 

Elizabethan Chalice and Cover. Cadeldgh. (By Richard Osborne of 

Exeter) . . . . .... 101 

Flint Implements Found on Dartmoor— 

Arrowheads and Spearheads ........ 175 

Hacoombe — 

Haccombe Church. " Typical Early Pointed Caps of Beer Stone " .. 181 

Archdeacon Pedigree .... 181 

Haccombe Church. " The Remains of a Vested Arm in Freestone " . .. 193 

The Baptismal Fonts or Devon— 

Plate I. Fonts at Ashwater and Bratton Clovelly .... 213 

„ II. Fonts at High BicMngton, Inwardleigh. and Sheepwash .. 215 

„ III. Fonts at Alverdiscott, Eggesford. and Landcross .. 217 

„ IV. Fonts at Instow. Hockworthy. Clovelly. and Upton Helions . .. 219 



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[ 8] 

OFFICERS 

1919-20. 



yrrftfflmt* 
The Very Rev. THE DEAN OF EXETER (Dr. H. R. Gamble). 

THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF TIVERTON 
(A. T. Gregory, Esq., j.p.). 



Lady AMORY. 

The Dowager Lady AMORY. 

Sir IAN HEATHCOAT AMORY, 

Bart., d.l., j.p. 
J. D. CAMPBELL, Esq. 
C. R. S. CAREW, Esq., b.a , m.p., j.p. 
H. J. CARPENTER, Esq., m.a., ll.m. 
Rev. E. S. CHALK, m.a. 
G. E. COCKRAM, Esq. 
F. B. DUNSFORD, Esq., j.p. 
C. E. EALES, Esq. 
F. B. FISHER, Esq., j.p. 



Mrs. S. H. FISHER. 

Rev. F. E. HUTCHINSON/m.a. 

W. H. HUXTABLE,^sq. * 

Miss LAZENBY, b.a. 

W. H MARTIN. Esq. 

H. C NEW, Esq., j.p. 

EMIL S. PERKIN, Esq. 

C E. PITMAN, Esq., o.i.e. 

J. FOLLETT PUGSLEY, Esq. 

Miss SCOTT, m.a. 

Miss EMILY SKINNER. 

A. E. WYNNE, Esq., m.a. 



ffcon. General treasurer. 
J. S. AMERY, Esq., Druid, Ashburton. 



y%- 



fton. General Secretaries. 

MAXWELL ADAMS, Esq., c/o Messrs. W. Brendon ds Son, Ltd., Printers, Plymouth. 

Major GEORGE E. WINDEATT, o.b.e., The Elms, Totnes. 

fcon. loral Setretarp. 
JOHN SIDDALLS, Esq., Drumore, Tiverton. 



$on. SUtiutor. 
Major ROBERT C. TUCKER, j.p., o.a. 



The Hall, Ashburton, 



Council. 



ADAMS, MAXWELL. 
*ADAMS, 8. P. 

ALEXANDER, J. J. 
* ALLEN, E. J. 

ALMY, P. H. W. 

AMERY, J. 8. * 

ANDREW, SIDNEY. 
•BARING-GOULD, Rev. S. 

BEEBE, Rev. W. N. P. 

BLACKLER, T. A. 

BRACKEN, C. W. 
*BURNARD, R. 

CHALK, Rkv. E. S. 

CHANTER, F. W. 

CHANTER, Rev. J. F. 
•CHAPMAN, Rev. C. 

CHAPPLE. W. E. PITFIELD. 

CHILCOTT, E. W. 

CHOPE, R. PEARSE. 

CLARKE, Miss K. M. 
•CLAYDEN, A. W. 

CLIFFORD, Colonel E. T. 
•COLERIDGE, Lord. 

CRESSWELL, Miss B. F. 
•CROFT, Sir A. W. 

DOE, G. M. 



DRAKE, F. MORRIS. 

DUNCAN, A. G. 

ELLIOT, E. A. 8. 

EVANS, H. M. 

FOSTER, M. T. 
•FROUDE, ASHLEY A. 
•GAMBLE, The Very Rev. 

H R 
•HALSBURY, Lord. 

HARRIS, G. T. 

HARTE, W. J. 
•HIERN, W. P. 

HODGSON, T. V. 

HUGHES, T. CANN. 

JENKINS, RHYS. 

JOCE T J 

JOHNSTON, Rev. J. CHAR- 
TERS-. 

JORDAN, W. F. C. 

JULIAN, Mrs. FORBES. 

LARTER, Miss C. Ethblinda. 

LAYCOCK, C. H. 

LOWE, HARFORD J. 

MORRIS, R. BURNET. 

MORSHEAD, J. Y. A. 

NECK, J. S. 



OLIVER, BRUCE W. 
•POLLOCK, Sir F. 

PROWSE, ARTHUR B. 

RADFORD, A. L. 

RADFORD, Lady. 

REED, HARBOTTLB. 

REICHEL, Rev. O. J. 
•ROBERTSON, Dr. 

SEARLEY, A. W. 

SIDDALLS, J. 

SKINNER, A. J. P. 

SKINNER, Miss E. 
*ST. CYRES, Viscount. 
•STEBBING, Rkv. T. R. R. 

TAPLEY-SOPER, H. 

TROUP. Mrs. ROSE- 
TUCKER, Major R. C. 

WARD, Rkv. J. H. 
*WATKIN, H. R. 

WEEKES, Miss LEGA-. 

WHITLEY, H. MICHELL. 

WINDEATT. E. 

WINDEATT, G. E. 

WOODHOUSE, H. B. 8. 

WOOLLCOMBE, G. D. 

WORTH; R. HANSFORD. 



** 



• Permanent Members of the Council. 



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[ 9 1 



PLACES OF MEETING 

OF 

THE DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 





Place of Meeting. 


1862. 


EXETKR 


1863. 


Plymouth 


1864. 


Torquay ^ . 


1865. 


Tiverton 


1866. 


Tavistock 


1867. 


Barnstaple . 


1868. 


Honiton 


1869. 


Dartmouth . 


1«70. 


DeVONPOBJT . 


1871. 


Bideford 


18721 


Exeter 


1873. 


Sidmouth 


1874. 


Teionmouth . 


1875. 


TORRINGTON . 


1876. 


ASHBURTON . 


1877. 


Einosbridoe . 


1878. 


Paignton 


1879. 


Ilfraoombe . 


1880. 


Totne8 


1881. 


Dawlish . - 


1882. 


Crediton 


1883. 


Exmouth 


1884. 


Newton Abbot 


1885. 


&EATON 


1886. 


St. Maryohurch 


1887. 


Plympton 


1888. 


Exeter 


1889. 


Tavistock . 


1890. 


Barnstaple . 


1891. 


Tiverton 


1892. 


Plymouth 


1893. 


Torquay 


1894. 


South Molton 


1895. 


Okehampton . 


1896. 


Ashburton . 


1897. 


KlNGSBRIDQE . 


1898. 


Honiton 



President. 
Sir John Bowring, ll.d., f.r.s. 
C. S pence Bate, Esq., f.r.s., f.l.s. 
E. Vivian, Esq., m.a. 
C. G. B. Daubeny, m.d., ll.d., f.r.s. 
Earl Russell, k.g., k.o.c, f.r.s., etc. 
W. Pengelly , Esq. , F. r. s. , F. g. 8. 
J. D. Coleridge, Esq., q.c, m.a., m.p. 
G. P. Bidder, Esq., c.E. 
J. A. Fronde, Esq., m.a. 
Rev. Canon C. Kingsley, m.a., f.l.s., f.g.sv 
The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Temple). 
Right Hon. S. Cave, m.a., m.p. 
The Earl of Devon. 
R. J. King, Esq., m.a. 
Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m.a. 
Ven. Archdeacon Earle, m.a. 
Sir Samuel White Baker, m.a., f.r.s., f.r.g.s.. 
SirR. P. Collier, m.a. 

H. W. Dyke Acland, m.a., m.d., ll.d., f.r.s^ 
Rev. Professor Chapman, m.a., ll.d. 
J. Brooking-Rowe, Esq., f.s.a., f.l.s. 
Very Rev. C. Merivale, d.d., d.c.l. 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, m.a. 
R. F. Weymouth. Esq., m.a., d.ht. 
Sir J. B. Phear, m.a., f.g.s. 
Rev. W. H. Dallinger, ll.d., f.r.s., f.l.s., etc. 
Very Rev. Dean Cowie, d.d. 
W. H. Hudleston, Esq., m.a., f.r.s., f.g.s., etc.. 
Lord Clinton, m.a. 
-R. N. Worth, Esq., f.g.s. fc 
A. H. A. Hamilton, Esq., m.a., j.p. 
T. N. Brushfield, m.d., f.s.a. 
Sir Fred. Pollock, Bart., m.a. 
The Right Hon. Earl of Halsbury. 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould, m.a. 
J. Hine, Esq., f.r.i.b.a. 
Lord Coleridge, m.a. 



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10 





Place of Meeting. 


1899. 


TORRINGTON . 


1900. 


T0TNB8 


1901. 


EXETRR 


1902. 


BlDEFOKD 


1903. 


SlDMOUTH 


1904. 


Tbignmouth . 


1905. 


Princetown . 


1906. 


Lynton 


1907. 


AXMINSTER . 


1908. 


Newton Abbot 


1909. 


La^JNCE8TON . 


1910. 


CULLOMPTON . 


1911. 


Dartmouth . 


1912. 


Exeter 


1913. 


Buckfastleigh 


1914. 


Tavistock . 


1915. 


Exeter 


1916. 


Plymouth . 


1917. 


Barnstaple . 


1918. 


Torquay 


1919. 


Tiverton 



PLACES OF MEETING. 

President. 

Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, b.d. 
. Lord Clifford, m.a. 

Sir Roper Lethbridge, k.c.i.r., m.a., d.l. 

Rev. W. Harpley, m.a., f c.p.s. 
. Sir Edgar Vincent, k. c. m. o. , m. p. 
. Sir Alfred W. Croft, k. c. i. e. , m.a. 

Basil H. Thomson, Esq. 
. F. T. Elworthy, Esq., f.s.a. 

The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Robertson). 

Lord Monkswell, d.l., lub. 
. The Lord Bishop of Truro (Dr. Stubbs). 

John D. Enys, Esq., f.o.s. 

Robert Burnard, Esq., f.s.a. 

The Viscount St. Cyres, m.a. 

Ashley A. Froude, Esq., cm g. 

Professor A. M. Worthington, b., f.r.s. 

Principal A. W. Clayden, m.a., f.g.s. 

E. J. Allen, Esq., D.sc, f.r.s. * 

W. P. Hiern, Esq., m.a., f.r.s., j.p., c.a. 
. Hugh R. Watkin, Esq. 
. The Very Rev. Dean H. R. Gamble, d.d. 



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[ 11 ] 



RULES. 



1. The Association shall be called the Devonshire Association 
for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art. 

2. The objects of the Association are — To give a systematic 
direction to scientific inquiry in Devonshire ; and to promote 
the intercourse of those who cultivate Science, Literature, or Art, 
in different parts of the county. 

3. The Association shall consist of Members and Honorary 
Members. 

4. Every candidate for membership, on being nominated by a 
member to whom he is personally known, shall be admitted by 
the General Secretary, subject to the confirmation of the General 
Meeting of the Members. 

5. Every person, admitted to membership under Rule 4, shall 
forthwith receive intimation that he has been admitted a Member, 
subject to confirmation at the next General Meeting of Members ; 
and the fact of the newly admitted Member's name appearing in 
the next issue of the printed List of Members, will be a sufficient 
intimation to "him that his election has been confirmed. Pending 
the issue of the volume of Transactions containing the Rules of 
the Association, the newly admitted Member shall be furnished by 
the General Secretary with such extracts from the Rules as he 
shall deem necessary. 

6. Persons of eminence in Science, Literature, or Art, or those 
who have rendered any special service to the Association, may, 
at a General Meeting of the Members, be elected Honorary Member * 
of the Association: but such Honorary Members shall not be 
entitled to take any part in the management of the Association. 

7. Every Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of Half a 
Guinea or a Life Composition Fee of Seven and a Half Guineas. 
But Members of not less than Ten Years' standing, whose Sub- 
scriptions are not in arrear, may compound by a single payment of 
Five Guineas. 

8. Annual Subscriptions shall be payable in advance, and shall 

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12 RULES. 

be due in each year on the first day of January ; and no person 
shall have the privileges of a Member until the Subscription for 
the current year or a Life Composition has been paid. 

9. Any Member who does not, on or before the first day of 
January, give notice, in writing, to the General Secretary of his 
intention to withdraw from the Association, shall be regarded 
as a Member for the ensuing year. 

10. Whenever a Member is in arrear in the payment of his 
Annual Subscription, the Treasurer shall apply to him for the 
same. 

11. Whenever, at an Annual Meeting, a Member shall be two 
years in arrear in the payment of his Annual Subscriptions, the 
Council may, at its discretion, erase his name from the List of 
Members. 

12. Every Member, whose Subscriptions are not in arrear,. 
shall be entitled to a copy of the volume of the Transactions 
for the year. 

13. Every Member shall be entitled to a lady's ticket for the 
Annual Meeting. 

14. Only ladies shall be eligible for admission as Associates to 
an Annual Meeting, on payment of the sum of Five Shillings each. 

15. The Association shall meet annually, at such a time in July 
or August and at such place as shall be decided at a previous 
Annual Meeting. 

16. One month at least before the Annual Meeting each Mem- 
ber shall be informed by the General Secretary, by circular, of the 
place and date of the Meeting. 

.17. The affairs of the Association shall be managed by a Council, 
which shall consist exclusively of the following Members of the 
Association : — 

(a) Those who fill, or have filled, or are elected to fill, the offices 
of President, General and Local Treasurers, General and Local 
Secretaries, and Secretaries of Committees appointed by the 
Council. 

(b) Authors of papers which have been printed in extenso in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

The Council so constituted shall have power to make, amend* 
or cancel the Bye-laws and Standing Orders. 

18. With the exception of the ex-Presidents, every Councillor 
who has not attended any Meeting of the Council for twenty-four 
calendar months, shall forfeit his place as a Councillor, but it 
shall be competent for him to recover it by a fresh qualification. 



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RULES. 13 

19. The Council shall hold a meeting at Exeter in the month 
of February in each year, on such day as the General Secretary 
shall appoint, for the due management of the affairs of the Asso- 
ciation. 

20. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, all Meetings of 
the Council shall be held at Exeter, unless some other place shall 
have been decided on at a previous Council Meeting. 

21. Every Meeting of the Council shall be convened by circular, 
sent by the General Secretary to each Member of the Council not 
less than ten days before the Meeting is held. 

22. The General Secretary, or any four Members of the Council, 
may call extraordinary Meetings of their body for any purpose 
requiring their present determination, by notice under his or 
their hand or hands, addressed to every other Member of 
the Council, at least ten clear days previously, specifying the 
purpose for which such extraordinary Meeting is convened. No 
matter not so specified, and not incident thereto, shall be deter- 
mined at any extraordinary Meeting. 

23. The officers of the Association shall be a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, a General Treasurer, one or more General 
Secretaries, one or more Auditors, a Local Treasurer,. and one or 
more Local Secretaries. 

24. A Committee shall be appointed annually by the Council 
to consider at what place the Association shall hold its Annual 
Meeting, and who shall be invited to fill any official vacancies 
which may from time to time occur, as follows : — 

(a) The President subject to confirmation by the Council. 

(b) All other officers (except Vice-Presidents, the Local Treasurer, 
and Local Secretary or Secretaries) subject to confirmation at a 
General Meeting of the Members of the Association. 

25. The Vice-Presidents, Local Treasurer, and Local Secretary 
or Secretaries shall be elected by the local Reception Committee 
appointed by the Authorities of the city or town issuing the in- 
vitation to the Association, subject to confirmation by the Council 
of the Association ; and the Council shall have power to add to 
the number of Vice-Presidents elected by the Local Authorities 
from among the Members of the Association. 

26. The President shall enter on his duties at the Annual Meeting 
for which he has accepted office-: the General Treasurer, General 
Secretary or Secretaries, the Vice-Presidents and Local Officers shall 
enter on their duties as soon as convenient after their election. 

27. The Council shall have power to fill any official vacancy 
which may occur in the intervals of the Annual Meetings, on the 
recommendation of the Committee appointed under Rule, 24. 



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14 RULES. 

28. The President shall be eligible for re-election, provided^ that 
the same person does not hold office in two consecutive years. , rbMi» 

29. The General Treasurer shall receive all sums of money due to 
the Association ; he shall pay all accounts due by the Association 
after they shall have been examined and approved ; and he shall 
report to each Meeting of the Council the balance he has irriiand, 
and the names of such Members as shall be in arrear, with the 
sums due respectively by each. 

30. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually,, 
by one or more Auditors appointed at each. Annual Meeting, but 
who shall not be ex-officio Members of the Council. 

31. All investments of the funds of the Association shall be 
made in the names of three trustees to be elected by the Council, 
in securities authorized by law for the investment of Trust 
Funds. 

32. The Association shall have the right at its discretion of 
printing in extenso in its volume of Transactions all papers read at 
the Annual Meeting. The copyright of a paper read before any 
Meeting of the Association, and the illustrations of the same which 
have been provided at his expense, shall remain the property of 
the Author : but he shall not be at liberty to print it, or allow it 
to be printed elsewhere, either in extenso or in abstract amounting 
to as much as one-half of the length of the paper, until after 
the issue of the volume of Transactions in which the paper is 
printed. 

33. The Association shall, within a period not exceeding six 
months after each Annual Meeting, issue to each Member and 
Honorary Member its volume of Transactions, which shall in- 
clude the Rules and Bye-Laws, Selected Minutes of the Council ap- 
pointing Committees, a Financial Statement, a list of the Members, 
the Report of the Council and of the Proceedings, the President's 
Address, and such Papers, in abstract or in extenso, read at the 
Annual Meeting, as the Council shall decide to print, together 
with, if time allows, an Index to the volume. 

34. Should the extra charges for small type, and types other 
than those known as Roman or Italic, and for the Author's correc- 
tions of the press, in any paper printed in the Transactions, 
amount to a greater sum than in the proportion of ten shillings 
per sheet, such excess shall be borne by the author himself, and not 
by the Association; and should any paper exceed three sheets, 
the cost beyond the cost of the three sheets shall be borne by the 
author of the paper. 

35. If proofs of papers to be printed in the Transactions are 
sent to authors for correction, and are retained by them beyond 
four days for each sheet of proof, to be reckoned from the day 



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RULES. 15- 

marked thereon, by the printers, but not including the time need- 
ful for transmission by post, such proofs shall be assumed to require- 
no further correction. 

36. Authors of papers printed in the Transactions shall receive » 
twenty-five copies, free of expense, and shall be allowed to have 
any further number printed at their own expense by private - 
arrangement with the printers of the Association. The Honorary 
Secretaries of Committees appointed by the Council for speciaL. 
service may be supplied, if required, with any number of copies 
of their Reports printed in the Transactions, not exceeding forty, 
free of expense; but the Secretary of the Committee on the 
Climate of Devon may be supplied, if required, with any number 
of copies of his or her Report printed in the Transactions, not 
exceeding fifty, free of expense. In each^ase the Secretary of 
the Committee will note on the proof of his or her Report, for 
the information of the printers, the number of copies actually 
required, subject to the above limitations. 

37. No Rule shall be altered, amended, or new Rule added, except 
at an Annual General Meeting of Members, and then only pro- 
vided that notice of the proposed change has been given to the 
General Secretary, and by him communicate 1 to all the Members 
at least one month before the Annual General Meeting. 

38. Throughout the Rules, Bye-laws, and Standing Orders 
where the singular number is used, it shall, when circumstances 
require, be taken to include the plural number, and the masculiner 
gender shall include the feminine. 



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[ 16 | 



BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 



1. It is desirable that a copy of the President's Address shall 
be in the hands of the General Secretary not later than the twenty- 
fourth day of June in each year, in order that it may be printed 
and distributed to the Tress in time for publication in newspapers 
issued on the day after its delivery. The President's Address 
shall be considered a confidential document until after its delivery. 

2. Papers to be read at the Annual Meetings must strictly relate 
to Devonshire, and the procedure for the submission, selection, 
and reading of papers shall be as follows : — 

(a) Papers and Reports of Committees to be read at any Meeting, 
together with all drawings, photographs, maps, etc., to illustrate 
the same, must be submitted to the General Secretary, so as to 
reach him not later than the twenty-fourth day of June in each 
year. 

(6) All Papers and illustrations considered unsuitable shall be 
returned to the authors as soon as possible. 

(c) The General Secretary will obtain from the printers of the 
Association for presentation to the Council a statement showing 
the number of pages each Paper and Report will occupy when 
printed, the estimated extra cost of printing tables, of the use of 
special type or change of type, and of all other extra charges, if 
any, in each Paper and Report, as well as the estimated cost of 
all charges connected with the preparation, binding and issue of 
the volume of Transactions. 

(d) The General Secretary will communicate the printers' report 
and estimates to the Council, at the Meeting of that body on the 
first day of the Annual Meeting. The Council will then select the 
Papers and Reports to be read on the two following days. 

3. Papers which have already been printed in extenso cannot be 
accepted unless they form part of the literature of a question on 
which the Council has requested a Member or Committee to 
prepare a Report. 

4. The reading of any Report or Paper shall not exceed twenty 
minutes, or such part of twenty minutes as shall be decided by the 



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BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 17 

Council as soon as the Programme of Reports and Papers shall 
have been settled, and in any discussion which may arise no speaker 
shall be allowed to speak more than five minutes. 

5. The Council will arrange Papers for reading to meet the con- 
venience of the authors, as far as possible. Papers shall be read in 
the order appointed by the Council, but in the event of the author 
of any Paper not being present to read his Paper, and in the absence 
of any arrangement by the author of a Paper for its reading by 
some Member present at the meeting, such Paper or Papers, if 
more than one, shall be held over till the conclusion of the reading 
of the Papers, when it shall be put to the vote of the Meeting 
whether such Paper or Papers shall be read by substitute or not. 

6. Papers which have been accepted by the Council cannot be 
withdrawn without the consent of the Council. 

7. Papers communicated by Members for Non-Members, and 
accepted by the Council, shall be placed in the List of Papers for 
reading below those furnished by Members themselves. 

8. In the event of there being at an annual Meeting more 
Papers than can be disposed of in one day, the reading of the 
residue shall be continued on the day following. 

9. At the close of the Annual Meeting in every year there 
shall be a Meeting of the Council, and the Council shall then 
decide what Reports and how many of the Papers accepted for 
reading the funds of the Association, as reported by the Treasurer, 
will permit of being printed in the volume of Transactions. 

10. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be sent to the 
printers, together with all drawings required for illustrating them, 
as soon as possible after the close of the Annual Meeting at which 
they were read. 

11. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
•decide not to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be returned 
to the authors as soon as possible after the close of the Annual 
Meeting at which they were read; and abstracts of such Papers 
to be printed in the Transactions shall not exceed such length 
as the General Secretary shall suggest in each case, and must be 
sent to him within seven days after such Paper has been returned 
to the author. 

12. The printers shall return every Manuscript to the author as 
soon as it is in type, but not before. They shall be returned intact, 
provided they are written on one side of the paper only and each 
sheet numbered. 

VOL. LI. B 

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18 BYE-LAWS AtfD STANDING ORDERS. 

13. Excepting mere verbal alterations, no Paper which has beep 
read to the Association shall be added to without the written 
approval and consent of the General Secretary, or in the event tit 
there being two Secretaries of the one acting as Editor ; and no 
additions shall be made except in the form of footnotes or brief 
postscripts, or both. 

14. The author of every Paper which the Council at any Annual 
Meeting shall decide to print in the Transactions shall pay for the 
preparation of all such illustrations as in his judgment and that of 
the Council the said Paper may require. That is to say, he shall 
pay for the preparation of all necessary drawings, blocks, litho- 
graphic transfers or drawings on stone ; but the Association will 
bear the cost of printing (by the Association's printers), paper and 
binding ; provided that should any such illustrations be in colours 
or of a size larger than can be inserted in the volume with a single 
fold, or be desired to be executed in any other process than printing 
from the block or lithography, then in each and either of these 
cases the author shall himself bear the whole cost of production 
and printing, and should the Council so decide shall also pay any 
additional charge that may properly be made for binding. 

15. The pagination of the Transactions shall be in Arabic 
numerals exclusively, and carried on consecutively, from the 
beginning to the end of each volume ; and the Transactions of 
each year shall form a distinct and separate volume. 

16. The Council shall from time to time, when deemed advisable, 
revise the prices fixed for each volume of the Transactions and all 
other publications of the Association. „ 

17. The General Secretary shall report to each Annual Meeting 
of the Members the number of copies in stock of each volume of 
the Transactions, and other publications of the Association, with 
the price per copy of each volume ; and such Report shall be printed 
in the Transactions. 

18. The General Secretary shall prepare brief Obituary Notices 
of Members deceased during the previous year, and such notices, 
shall be printed in the Transactions. 

bees for special service for 
ransactions. 

■ reprinting Eeports of 
pplied to authors under 

e are permitted to reprint 
ral Secretary is required 



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BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 19 

before any Report may be reprinted, the copyright of all Reports 
printed in the Transactions being vested in the Association. 

(c) The printers shall pay to the General Secretary on behalf of 
the Association, as royalty, a sum of sixpence per fifty copies for 
each half-sheet of eight pages, any number of copies less than fifty 
or between two exact multiples of fifty being regarded as fifty, 
and any number of pages less than eight or between two exact 
multiples of eight, being regarded as eight. 

(d) Each copy of the reprint shall have printed on the first page 
the words, " Reprinted from the Transactions of the Devonshire 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art 

for by permission of the Council of the Association," 

the year in which the Report was originally printed being indicated. 

(e) The reprint shall be an exact copy of the Report as originally 
printed in the Transactions, without addition, abridgment, or 
modification, the necessary corrections for printer's errors and 
changes in pagination alone excepted. 

21. An amount not less than eighty per cent, of all Compositions 
received from Life Members of the Association shall be invested. 

22. At each of its Ordinary Meetings the Council shall deposit at 
interest, in such bank as they shall decide on, and in the names of 
the General Treasurer and General Secretary of the Association, 
all uninvested Compositions received from Life Members, all 
uninvested prepaid Annual Subscriptions, and any part, or the 
whole of the balance derived from other sources which may be in 
the Treasurer's hands after providing for all accounts passed for 
payment at the said Meeting. 

23. The General Secretary is authorized to spend any sum not 
exceeding Twenty Pounds per annum in employing a clerk for 
such work as may be found necessary, and any sum not exceeding 
Two Guineas for the preparation of an Index to each annual volume 
of the Transactions. * 

24. Only Members and Ladies holding Ladies' tickets are 
admitted to the Association Dinner, when one is held. Members 
and Ladies intending to dine must send in their names to the 
Honorary Local Secretary not less than two clear days before the 
date of the Dinner. 



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[20] 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Presented to the General Meeting held at Tiverton, 22nd July, 1919. 



The Council have the honour to present their Report for 
the past year. 

The ordinary meetings of the Council were held at 
Torquay on the 23rd and 25th July, 1918, and at Exeter 
on the 27th February, 1919. 

A Committee was appointed by the Council for the 
purpose of considering the practicability or otherwise of 
twelve suggestions, made by Mr. Hugh R. Watkin, for 
the reconstruction of the Association. 

The thanks of the Council were conveyed to authors 
who presented Plates of Illustrations to their Reports and 
Papers printed in Vol. L of the Transactions, and also to 
those Members who have generously contributed to the 
funds of the Association. 

A copy of Vol. L of the Transactions has been sent to 
«very Member not in arrear with his or her subscription, 
and to the following Societies : the Iinnean Society, the 
Royal Institution, the Royal Anthropological Institute, the 
Geological Society, the Library of the British Museum, the 
Natural History Museum (Cromwell Road), the Bodleian 
library, the University library, Cambridge, the Devon 
and Exeter Institution, the Plymouth Institution, the 
Natural History Society, Torquay, the North Devon 
Athenaeum, Barnstaple, the Royal Institution of Cornwall, 
Truro, the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, Taunton, the Dorset Natural History and 
Antiquarian Field Club (c/o Rev. Herbert Pentin, m.a., 
Hon. Secretary, St. Peter's Vicarage, Portland), and the 
National library of Wales, Aberystwyth. 



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REPORT OP THE COUNCIL, 



21 



The stock of Transactions, Wills, etc., now in hand is 
as follows : — 



1902 


Transactions, Vol. XXXTV 


58 copies 




Wills, Part IV . 


61 


>» 




Index to Vol. XXXTV 


80 


»> 


1903 


Transactions, Vol. XXXV 


23 


»> 




Wills, Part V 


23 


>» 


1904 


Transactions, Vol. XXXVI 


41 


»» 




Wills, Part VI 


40 


>» 


1905 


Transactions, Vol. XXXVEI 


66 


*» 




Wills, Part VII 


67 




1906 


Transactions, Vol. XXXVIII 


21 


»» 




Wills, Part VIII 


24 


»> 


1907 


Transactions, Vol. XXXIX 
(No Wills issued) 


. 60 


»» 


1908 


Transactions, Vol. XL 


68 


»> 




Wills, Part IX 


66 


»» 


1909 


Transactions, Vol. XLI 
(No Wills issued) 


58 


»» 


1910 


Transactions, Vol. XLII . 


43 


>> 




Wills, Part X . 


62 


>> 


1911 


Transactions, Vol. XLIII . 


33 


» 


• 


Wills, Part XI 


58 


>» 


1912 


Transactions, Vol. XLIV . 


25 


>» 




Wills, Part XII 


7 


»» 


1913 


Transactions, Vol. XLV 
(No Wills issued) 


49 


» . 


1914 


•Transactions, Vol. XL VI . 


. 48 


>> 




Wills, Part XIII 


54 


»> 


1915 


Transactions, Vol XL VII . 


. 105 


>> 


1916 


Transactions, Vol. XL VIII 


84 


>» 


1917 


Transactions, Vol. XLIX . 


61 


»» 


1918 


Transactions, Vol. L . * 


52 


»> 



Maxwell Adams, 

George E. Windeatt, Major, 

Hon. General Secretaries, 



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[ 22] 



Treasurer's Receipts and Expenditure far the 



iii8. 


- 


•Receipts. 


£ *. 


d. £ jr. < 


By Subscriptions : — 










1916 (4) 


. 




2 2 





1917 (11) 


. 




5 15 


6 


1918 (401) 


. 




. 210 10 


6 


Lady Associates (4) 




1 













219 8 


,, Life Compositions 


(2) 




. 


. 15 15 


,, Sale of Transactions 


* 




3 11 2 


„ Dividends — 










£400 India 3 per 


cent 




8 14 





£300 Consols 


. 




5 8 10 


Bank Interest 


• 




4 5 


1 

18 7 11 


„ Donations 


. 




83 





„ Extras 


• 




. 25 3 


2 
ins a q 



Balance from 1917 . 



£365 5 3 
. 50 2 6 

£415 7 9 



JOHN S. AMERY, Son. Treasurer. 



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[ 23] 
Year ending the Zlst day of December, 1918. 



1918 - payments. 

£ x. d. £ s. d, 
To;Printing Notices, Tickets, etc., Messrs. Brendon . 118 5 



Winget, 30s. ; Dent, 7s: 6<L ; Lamason, 
&»• 9d « . . . .273 



•,, Secretaries* Expenditure . 10 14 11 

Clerical Assistance . . 16 10 

Index, including slips . . .14 1 

„ Treasurer's Expenditure . 3 11 

„ Local Secretary's Expenditure . 2 3 6 



13 15 8 



„ Messrs. Brendon and Son, Ltd. :— 

Printing Vol. L, 550 copies . 269 8 

Authors' Reprints . 13 18 6 

Addressing, packing, and postage . 24 5 



34 



307 11 6 
„ Plus 10 per cent to meet extra cost of materials, etc. 28 7 

335 18 6 

„ Insuranee of Stock to December 31st, 1919 . . .110 



£384 18 8 
Balance (1918) . . . . . . 30 9 1 



£415 7 9 



Account Audited thi$ Twelfth day of July, 1919. 

ROBERT C. TUCKER, Auditor. 



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[ 24] 



SELECTED MINUTES OF COUNCIL APPOINTING^ 
COMMITTEES. 

Passed at the Meeting at Tiverton, 22nd July, 1919. 



That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. Robert Burnard, Sir A. Croft, 
Mr. W. P. Hiern, Mr. H. R. Watkin, Rev. J. F. Chanter, and 
Lady Radford be a Committee for the purpose of considering at 
what place the Association shall hold its Annual Meetings, and 
who shall be invited to fill any official vacancy or vacancies which 
may occur ; and that Mr. Maxwell Adams be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. Robert Burnard, Mr. G. M. Doe, 
Mr. E. A. S. Elliot, Mr. H. Montagu Evans, and Mr. H. B. S. 
Woodhouse be a Committee for the purpose of noting the discovery 
or occurrence of such facts in any department of scientific inquiry, 
and connected with Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place on 
permanent record, but which may not be of sufficient importance 
in themselves to form the subjects of separate papers; and that 
Mr. G. M. Doe be the Secretary. 

That Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. G. M. 
Doe, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, Mr. J. S. Neck, Lady Radford, 
Mrs. Rose-Troup, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse be a Committee for 
the purpose of collecting notes on Devonshire Folk-lore ; and that 
Lady Radford be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, 
Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. Laycock, Rev. G. D. Melhuish, 
Rev. 0. J. Reichel, and Mrs. Rose-Troup be a Committee for the 
purpose of noting and recording the existing use of any Verbal 
Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either written or spoken language ; 
and that Mr. C. H. Laycock and the Rev. 0. J. Reichel be the 
Secretaries. 

That Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. Burnard, and Mr. R. 
Hansford Worth be a Committee to collect and record facts 
relating to Barrows in Devonshire, and to take steps, where 
possible, for their investigation ; and that Mr. R. Hansford Worth 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. A. H. Dymond, and Major R. C. 
Tucker be a Committee for the purpose of making arrangements 
for an Association Dinner or any other form of evening entertain- 
ment as they may think best in consultation with the local 
Committee; and that Major R. C. Tucker be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, and Mr. R. Hans- 
ford Worth be a Committee to collect and tabulate trustworthy and 



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MINUTES APPOINTING COMMITTEES. 25 

'comparable observations on the Climate of Devon ; and that Mr. 
R. Hansford Worth be the Secretary. 

That Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, Mr. F. W. 
Chanter, and Mr/E. Windeatt be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating and reporting on any Manuscripts, Records, or Ancient 
Documents existing in, or relating to, Devonshire, with the nature 
of their contents, their locality, and whether in public or private 
hands ; and that Mr. E. Windeatt be the Secretary. 

That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. R. Burnard, Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, Mr, J. D. Pode, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a 
Committee for the purpose of exploring Dartmoor and the 
. Camps in' Devon ; and that the Rev. S. Baring-Gould be the 
Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Col. Arthur B. Prowse, and Major G. Windeatt be a 
Committee, with power to add to their number, for compiling 
complete Indexes to the First and Second Series of the Trans- 
actions ; and that the Rev. J. F. Chanter be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, 
Miss B. Cresswell, Rev. O. J. Reichel, Mr. A. J. V. Radford, Mr. 
A. L. Radford, Mr. Harbottle Reed, Major George E. Windeatt, and 
Rev. J. F. Chanter be a Committee, with power to add to their 
number, to prepare a detailed account of the Church Plate of the 
County of Devon; and that Mr. Harbottle Reed and the Rev. 
J. F. Chanter be the joint Secretaries. 

That Miss Rose E. Carr-Smith, Miss Chichester, Mr. G. T. 
Harris, Mr. W. P. Hiern, Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. Laycock, 
Mr. C. V. B. Marquand, Mr. H. G. Peacock, Miss C. Peck, and 
Col. A. B. Prowse be a Committee, with power to add to their 
number, for the purpose of investigating matters connected with 
the Flora and Botany of Devonshire ; and that Miss C. E. Larter 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, Mr. Robert Burnard, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. W. E. P. 
Chappie, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. A. W. Clayden, Miss B. F. 
Cresswell, Mr. G. M. Doe, Mr. M. T. Foster, Mr. T. V. 
Hodgson, Rev. S. M. Nourse, Mr. H. Lloyd Parry, Col. A. B. 
Prowse, Mr. A. L. Radford, Lady Radford, Mr. Harbottle Reed, 
Mr. F. R. Rowley, Mr. H. Tapley-Soper, Mr. H. R. Watkin, 
Mr. E. Windeatt, Mr. G. D. Woollcombe, and Mr. R. Hansford 
Worth be a Committee for preparing a list of "Ancient Monu- 
ments" in the county of Devon, which it is considered desirable 
should be handed over, with the consent of their owners, to the 
custody of the First Commissioner of Works, under the provisions 
of the Acts of 1882, 1900, and 1913, with the view to their 
preservation and protection ; and that Mr. Maxwell Adams be the 
Secretary. 



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26 * MINUTES APPOINTING COMMITTEES. 

That the Rev. J. A, Balleine, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse ' 
Chope, Mr. C. H. Laycock, Col. Arthur B. Prowse, Rev. 0. J. 
Reichel, Mr. F. W. Chanter, krs. Rose-Troup, and Mr. H. B. S. 
Woodhouse be a Committee for the purpose of collecting and 
recording information concerning Place-Names and Field-Names in 
Devonshire ; and that Col. Arthur B. Prowse be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. Hugh R. 
Watkin, Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse, Miss B. F. Cresswell, Mr. R. 
Burnet Morris, Mr. J. Northmore, and Mr. H. Tapley-Soper be a 
Committee for the compilation of a Bibliography of the County of 
Devon ; and that Mr. R. Burnet Morris be the Secretary. 

That Mr. JV J. Alexander, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Mr. R. Pearse 
Chope, Prof. W. J. Harte, Lady Radford, Mrs. Rose-Troup, Mr. 
Hugh R. Watkin, and Mr. E. Windeatt be a Committee with 
power to add to their number, for the purpose of collecting and 
arranging information relating to the history of Devon and its 
inhabitants during the first ten centuries of the Christian Era, and 
that Mr. Alexander be the Secretary. 



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[ 27] 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL 
MEETING, HELD AT TIVERTON, 22nd TO 25th 
JULY, 1919. 



In ideal weather the 58th Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion was held at Tiverton on the 22nd to 25th July, 1919, 
and was largely attended, the numbers present varying 
from 200 to 250 from day to day. This was the third visit 
of the Association to Tiverton, the two previous visits 
being in 1865 and 1891 respectively. 

On Tuesday, 22nd July, a meeting of the Council was " 
held at 2 p. m. in the Committee Room of the Town Hall, 
which was followed by a General Meeting of the members 
at 3.30 p.m., in the Mayoralty Room, at which, among 
other business, eighty-one new members were elected and 
the Hon. Secretary reported that a cordial invitation had 
been received and accepted to hold next year's meeting 
at Totnes, and that it had been decided to invite Alderman 
Edward Windeatt to accept the presidency for 1920-21. 

A vote of thanks was also given to Mr. Siddalls for the 
trouble he had taken with the local arrangements. 

At 4.30 p.m., a civic reception was accorded the members 
in the Court Room of the Guildhall by the Mayor and 
Corporation of Tiverton. 

Addressing the assembly the Mayor said : The important 
thing to remember x ladies and gentlemen, is that tea 
awaits you in another room, and I must not weary you 
with many words. It gives me great pleasure to welcome 
you to this ancient borough. You were here in 1865, when 
you (that is, the Association) were three years old. I was 
not with you on that occasion : I was elsewhere, engaged 
in acquiring the elements of an inadequate education. 
You came again in 1891 ; and then it was my privilege 
to be the hon. secretary of the Local Reception Committee. 
Now after four years of war you are here celebrating peace ; 
and I hope your discussions and researches may help to 
inspire and guide us for the duties and tasks of the new 
age. You will, I hope, find „ in this town and district 



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28 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

" Sermons in stones, books in the running brooks, and 
good in everything." The water running through our 
streets is a reminder of the feudal age, when Tiverton was 
a collection of huts dependent on the great family at the 
Castle. The carvings of Greenway's chapel and almshouses 
recall the spacious days of Good Queen Bess ; and the 
stones of Qld BlundelTs are a memento of Lord Justice 
Popham who, when he presided at the trial of Francis Bacon 
perpetrated a grave omission — he did not ask the prisoner 
whether he wrote Shakespeare's plays. The present Lord 
Chief Justice would doubtless have elicited this informa- 
tion. (A Voice : "Mr. Justice Darling would.") In con- 
clusion, the Mayor advised all interested in the spectacular 
reproduction of history to come to the Tiverton Victory 
Pageant on August 14th and 16th. 

The retiring President (Mr. Watkin) returning thanks, 
to the Mayor, recalled that the Tiverton meeting in 1891 
was one of the most interesting in the history of the 
Association. Their third meeting in that town found them 
full of the deepest gratitude that they were permitted in 
peace to continue their work and records. Speaking of the 
history of Tiverton, he said it appeared to have got into a 
habit of being burnt down and rebuilt. In the course of 
two- centuries the town was almost destroyed by fire no 
fewer than nine times. It was not usual to boast of one's 
calamities ; but such a succession of disasters had appar- 
ently imbued Tivertonians with a rare spirit of dogged 
industry. Tiverton was noted for its race of men, as any 
list of Devon worthies would show. Its motto must be 
" Industry." It might be recommended as a health resort 
for the habitually idle. Its atmosphere might work wonders. 

The members were then entertained at tea by the kind 
invitation of the Mayor and Mayoress, after which the 
Town Charters, dated respectively 1615, 1683, 1688 and 
1724, were inspected and explained by the Town Clerk, 
J. Follett Pugsley, Esq., and the Corporation regalia and 
plate were on view. The Rev. J. F. Chanter, having 
.examined the maces, said they were made by Benjamin 
Pyne in 1727, who also at the same period made the maces 
of Westminster and Winchester. They are of unusual 
form, their open-arch crowns rising from a circle of crosses 
and fleur-de-lis. The shaits, very richly decorated, are of 
unusual elegance, being of baluster form, with raised and 
chased conventional foliage. On the flat plate at the top 



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PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 29 

under the open arches are the royal arms. The round heads 
are divided into four compartments. The first contains a 
shield with the arms of the borough ; others a harp, fleur- 
de-lis, and rose, each with the crown over it. The Tiverton 
water bailiff's staff is rare there being only two others in 
England — at Hull and Harwich. On a long bamboo, it 
has no hall marks, but is probably of the end of the seven- 
teenth century. It has a silver ball top, surmounted by a 
shield with arms of the borough. 

A visit was then paid to Old BlundelTs School, where 
the party was received by the Headmaster, Mr. A. E. 
Wynne, and directed to points of interest by the late head- 
master, Mr. A. L. Francis. Mr. Francis, during whose 
head-mastership the school was removed from the old 
'building to the new, related some amusing personal experi- 
ences of the old buildings, which, he said, were subject to 
floods. A particularly high flood reached the height of 
five feet at the entrance gate, spoiled furniture in the house, 
and enabled him to swim in his garden. It synchronized 
with, and had considerable influence upon, the meeting of 
governors, at which the change of site was decided upon. 
Mr. Francis also recalled the names of many famous men 
who were educated there, fought each other there, and 
washed — or were supposed to — at the pump. He said it 
had taken a long time to live down the idea that no other 
washing accommodation than the pump was provided at 
BlundelTs. 

In the evening, at 8.30 p.m. in the Mayoralty Room, the 
President, the Very Rev. H. R. Gamble, d.d., the Dean of 
Exeter, delivered his Presidential Address (see p. 47). In 
introducing the President, the retiring President, Mr. 
Hugh R. Watkin, said that the Dean was already well 
known in the county. Although Dean Gamble joined the 
Association rather as a Devonian than as a Churchman, 
he continued a long line of ecclesiastical dignitaries who 
had occupied the presidency. At the head of the list stood 
the honoured name of Charles Kingsley. Of all Kingsley's 
literary work, his Address to the Devonshire Association 
in 1871 was, perhaps, the least known, yet it was one of the 
most thoughtful productions of his pen, and in the light 
of what had transpired in the last half-century, almost 
prophetic. 

The Mayor, in thanking the Dean, on the conclusion of 
his Address, said the subject of the Address was of special 



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30 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

interest to him, inasmuch as forty-seven years ago he stood, 
a shy nervous boy, before Charles Kingsley to receive some 
prizes won more by good luck than by merit. He recalled 
the slight stutter with which Charles Kingsley said to 
him, " Here are your books ; I hope . . . you'll have 
strength enough to carry them." Hq (the Mayor) had 
come to the conclusion that Kingsley's teaching on social 
problems was that every man was a trustee of his talents, 
opportunities, and possessions and not an absolute owner. 

The Dean briefly responded. 

On Wednesday, the 23rd July, the reading of the 
Reports and Papers was commenced in the Mayoralty 
Room, at 10 a.m., and continued till 1 p.m., when the 
members adjourned for lunch. 

At 2 p.m. a meeting of the Council was held to consider 
the Report of the Special Committee appointed by the 
Council to enquire into the practicability or otherwise of 
Mr. Hugh R. Watkin's twelve suggestions for the recon- 
struction of the Association, at which it was eventually 
decided that the further consideration of this Report be 
deferred till a meeting of the Council to be held in the 
month of October, each member of the Council mean- 
while being furnished with copies of the Reports of the 
Committee. At 3.30 p.m., the members visited St. Peter's 
Church, where they were received, in the absence of the 
Rector, the Rev. Prebendary Burroughs, m.a., by the Rev. 
E. S. Chalk, m.a., Rector of Kentisbeare, who gave an 
account of the church and pointed out that it was a fine 
example of the single church of a mediaeval trading town — 
" built on the woolsack." The chief events in its history 
are, he said : — 

A.D. 

1073. Consecrated by Leofric of Exeter. 

1146. Given to St. James' Priory, Exeter, by Baldwin, 

Earl of Devon. 
1157. Equally divided between the Priory and two 

Secular Priests. 
1291. Four Portioners hold the Benefice. 
1500c. The Tower built. 

1529. John Greenway rebuilt most of the church. 
1645. Siege of Church and Castle : destruction of Cour- 

tenay chapel completed. 
1819. A disastrous restoration of the fabric ; church lands 

largely squandered. 



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PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 31 

1853. Drastic restoration ; screen shattered ; piers de- 
stroyed. 
1884. Bishop Temple abolishes " Four Portions." 
1916. Greenway brasses moved. 

Here are buried Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devon, 1419, 
and Princess Catherine (Courtenay), daughter of Edward IV. 

Miss E. K. Prtdeaux, of Exton, explained the carvings 
on the church fa9ade. 

The members then viewed Tiverton Castle by the kind 
permission of Mrs. Wingfield, where a short account of its 
history was given by H. J. Carpenter, Esq., M.A., the 
principal events connected with' it being : — 
1106. Built by Richard de Redvers, first Earl of Devon. 
1293. Passed on the death of his descendant Isabella de 
Fortibus, Countess of Devon and of Albemarle, to 
Hugh de Courtenay. 
1556. Passed on the death of Edward Courtenay, Earl of 
Devon, to his four coheiresses. 
Thence by purchase to Roger Giffard and subse- 
quently through the West family to the Carews of 
Haccombe, the present owners. 
1645. Besieged and taken by the Parliamentarians. 

At 5 p.m., about 250 members drove to Knightshayes 
Court to a Garden Party given by Sir Ian and Lady 
Heathcoat Amory, where they received a "true Devon- 
shire welcome " and greatly enjoyed the beautiful grounds 
and gardens of the Court. 

At 9 p.m. a large party assembled at a Conversazione at 
Blunder's School, on the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. 
A. E. Wynne. 

On Thursday, 24th July, the reading of the Papers 
was resumed at 10 a.m. till noon, when a General Meeting 
was held at which votes of thanks were passed to the 
local authorities of Tiverton for the use of rooms so kindly 
placed at the disposal of the members ; to the local 
secretary, J. Siddalls, Esq., for his efficient services ; to 
the Mayor and Mayoress, Sir Ian and Lady Heathcoat 
Amory, Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Wynne, and to Major and 
Mrs. English for their hospitality so kindly extended to 
the members ; to Mrs. Rayer, Major and Mrs. English 
and Mrs. Wingfield for their courtesy in permitting the 
members to view Holcombe Rogus Court, the Priory 
House and Tiverton Castle respectively ; and to the 
following ladies and gentlemen who so kindly described 



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32 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

the various, places and objects of interest visited by the 
Association, viz. : Miss E. K. Prideaux, the Reverends 
E. J. Barton, E. S. Chalk, J. J. Rees, S. Cox and*H. Wade 
Smith, Major English and Messrs. J. Follett Pugsley, 
A. L. Francis, and H. J. Carpenter. 

This was followed by a meeting of the Council, at which 
the Reports and Papers to be printed in "this volume were 
determined and the Editor was instructed to draw atten- 
tion in these Proceedings to a paper by a member, Mr. 
Inkerman Rogers, f.g.s., with notes by A. Smith Wood- 
ward, ll.d., f.r.s., f.g.s. , on " Fossil Fish in the Devonian 
Rocks of North Devon," published in the Geological 
Magazine for March, 1919, pp. 100-3. 

In the afternoon an excursion was made to visit Hol- 
combe Rogus Church, where the members were received 
by the Vicar, the Rev. E. J. Barton, who, in describing the 
church, reminded them that the village was on the border 
line between Somerset and Devon, which he thought 
probably accounted for the fact that the roof of the south 
aisle was Somerset work and that of the north aisle Devon 
work. Under the plaster of the nave roof was a cradle oak 
roof ; the cost of removing the plaster was at present 
prohibitive. The original rood screen has vanished except 
a small piece about two feet deep on the north side. Around 
the " Court " pew is a Jacobean (or Flemish) screen carved 
with Old Testament subjects. In front of the Bluett 
Chapel (the Bluetts were the former feudal lords) — which 
embodies striking tombs in marble and colour dating from 
1613— is a screen taken from St. Peter's Church, Tiverton, 
seventy years ago, when St. Peter's was restored. It was 
going to be thrown away, but Mrs. Rayer's grandfather, 
who was one of the four rectors of Tiverton in those days, 
valued it, and had it put in Holcombe Church. Referring 
to the above-mentioned tombs, the Vicar said the Bluett 
of the older was evidently the student (indicated by his 
robes), and he of the 1636 tomb the soldier of the family. 
In the latter tomb the lady lies recumbent above her lord, 
indicating higher rank. All the children, who are figured 
holding skulls, were girls who probably died young, before 
the monument was put up. One monument in the chancel, 
erected in 1783, records the fact that " Luckland Nut- 
combe Bluett, the survivor of all his father's children, 
married Elizabeth Colan, of Little Colan, Cornwall, and 
by her had thirteen sons and nine daughters ! " 



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PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 33 

In the vestry the visitors were shown the sacred vest- 
ments and plate, the Jatter particularly fine, and including 
a gold-plated chalice given by Mrs. Rayer, in which are 
mounted her jewels. But perhaps the most valuable posses - 
sion of the church is the Register, which dates from 1540, 
-and there is no indication of a break in the Common- 
wealth. The sixth entry therein is very curious. It reads : 
"A lousy poor beggar was buried 27th January, 1540." 
Immediately outside the tower was noted by some who well 
remember him the memorial of the last popular and kind- 
hearted Squire of the Court : " William Carew Rayer, born 
26th September, 1820, passed away 11th January, 1892." 

The Rev. J. F. Chanter also gave a description of the 
-church as well as of Holcombe Rogus Court, one of the 
most interesting buildings in Devon, as it dates from the 
reign of Edward VI, of which there are very few examples 
in the county. 

The Vicar intimated that Mrs. Rayer would be very glad 
for any of the party to take a " stroll " over the grounds of 
the Court, while he would be pleased to throw open the 
Vicarage grounds for a visit and for tea. Both invitations, 
so kindly given, were accepted and the privilege much 
appreciated. The beautiful grounds of the Court were 
much admired, as well as the fine old trees and the ponds 
stocked with rainbow trout and on which wild duck 
sported ; also the lovely borders in which the old-fashioned 
flowers predominated. 

In the evening, at 8.30 p.m., R. Pearse Chope, Esq., B.A., 
gave a most interesting illustrated lecture on " Devon's 
Greatest Worthy : Sir Walter Ralegh," in the Court . 
Room of the Town Hall, which was open to the public and 
was very largely attended. 

For Friday, 25th July, excursions to Exmoor, Bampton, 
Sampford Peverell, and Halberton had been arranged. 
A party of about sixty members left by the 8.16 a. m. train 
for Dulverton and thence by road transport to the moor. 

The Exmoor trip proved delightful and exhilarating. 
The heather was still in bloom, interspersed with whortle- 
berries bearing heavy crops. A halt was first made at a 
stone marking the burial-place of an ancient British chief. 
Great interest was evinced in this, and the age-old stone 
was closely scrutinized. Dr. G. W. Sydenham, of Dulver- 
ton, explained that the stone was placed there about 2000 
years ago, but the building around it was erected about 

vol. li. * o 

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34 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

twenty years ago by the late Major Thomas AcIancL 
The credit of discovering the stone belonged to his father- 
in-law, the late Rev. John James Coleman. The stone was 
found to be inscribed CARAACI NEPVS, meaning the 
descendants of Caractacus. 

Leaving this scene, the party tramped through the 
exquisite heather to the " Devil's Punch Bowl." A refresh- 
ing rest was taken at " Barrows," on the top of which Dr. 
Sydenham gave an interesting description of the country 
around, associating in his remarks some incidents narrated 
in Blackmore's Lorna Doone. A move was then made in 
the direction of the place where the brakes were awaiting 
to take the company to Simonsbath. Arrived there 
luncheon was provided* in two sittings, at the Exmoor 
Forest Hotel. Various points around here of interest — 
including " Simon's Bath," from which Simonsbath derived 
its name — were visited. 

After a few hours' stay amid the picturesque scenery 
of this spot, the party, under the leadership of Mr. John 
Siddalls, returned to Dulverton via Exford, Winsford, 
Exton, and Bridgtown. 

At Exford tea w&s served, and then the church wa& 
inspected. At Winsford a visit was also made to thia 
church. These visits proved very interesting. The brakes 
then started off with Dulverton as their destination, 
arriving at the station in good time for the 7.25 p.m. train. 
The times arranged in Mr. Siddalls' methodical programme 
were well kept all day. At Tiverton station Mr. Siddalls 
was heartily congratulated on his excellent organisation 
of the day's excursion. 

A party for Bampton started at a later hour. Arriving 
at the church, its most interesting features were pointed 
out by the Vicar, the Rev. S. Cox and the Rev. J. F„ 
Chanter. The old tombs of the Bouchiers were noted with 
interest, and the parts of the screen which remain. The 
visitors also commented on the two very fine old yew treea 
in the churchyard. As there are no castle remains at 
Bampton the visitors contented themselves with viewing 
the Mound (locally called the "Mote") at a distance. It 
was remarked that the Bouchier monument above- 
mentioned used to be covered with brass. This has been 
stolen, and only the holes, where the brass had been, 
remain. 

In the afternoon another party drove to Sampford 



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PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 35 

Peverell and Halberton. At Sampford Peverell Mr. 
Chanter pointed to a very remarkable chalice, probably- 
French or Low Country work, sides embossed ; also to an 
early Exeter chalice by J. Jones, dated 1573. All the other 
church plate is early eighteenth century, and has been 
heavily regilt in recent years. 

Miss Beatrix Cresswell read a very interesting paper on 
local church and manor history. Before Domesday the 
church belonged to Brictric, of Gloucester. After the Coji- 
quest it was given to Queen Matilda, Early in the twelfth 
century the Peverells acquired the manor. The church 
was dedicated by Bishop Bronescombe, 10th December, 
1259. In 1324 Sir Charles Cottell was the patron, he 
having married the Peverell heiress. That family died 
out, leaving their name associated with the place. The 
manor was afterwards owned by the Dinhams and Ash- 
thorpes. Sir Wm. Ashthorpe died without issue, and the 
property lapsed to the Crown. It was granted by Henry IV 
to John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, and came into the 
possession of his daughter Margaret of Richmond, mother 
of Henry VII. Margaret' of Richmond lived here tradi- 
tionally in the house below the church (near the canal 
bridge). The church has been considerably altered. The 
tower was rebuilt in 1815. Before that it was an Early 
English tower with a spire. The bowl of the old Norman 
font was placed outside to catch drippings ; but is now 
in the church and restored. The church was entirely 
restored in 1864 by the Rev. G. W. R. Ireland, and he did 
it most faithfully and carefully. The south aisle was built 
by Margaret of Richmond. The north wall is almost un- 
touched in its old Early English characteristics. In the 
chancel there is a recumbent effigy said to be of Sir Hugh 
Peverell, who was patron in 1278. Another interesting 
object in the church is a brass of Margaret Poulett, who died 
1602. She was the wife of Sir Amias Poulett, who was 
keeper of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay. Noted in 
the chancel was an early aumbry and on the north and south 
sides a double piscina of Early English work. The north 
entrance to the church is through a little door which is a 
very typical specimen of the type of Early English door 
which figures in nearly every book on architecture. 

Richmond House, the traditional residence of Margaret 
of Richmond, just below the church, was next inspected. 
Over the main entrance is inscribed the following : " Mar- 



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36 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

garet of Richmond and Derby, house and school of St. 
John the Baptist; erected" a.d. 1500; restored 1851." 
The fine old oak roofs were admired. Some of the walls 
are more than three feet thick. It was pointed out that 
one room used to be the village school down to 1870. 
The premises are now private property, having been pur- 
chased by the late Rev. G. W. R. Ireland, and the purchase 
money invested with the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, the 
income from interest being devoted to Sunday-school prizes. 

Before the visitors left for Halberton cordial thanks 
were extended to the Rector, Rev. J. J. Rees, Mrs. Rossiter, 
and "Mr. Candey for their courtesy in connection with the 
foregoing inspections. 

At Halberton the visitors were received by the Vicar, 
Rev. H. Wade Smith, and Mr. Chanter gave a short 
description of the church. The Vicar said he understood 
that the pulpit dated from about 1430 and was almost in 
its original state. Miss Cresswell fixed the date of the 
Font at about 1180. The Vicar said the church was 
dedicated to St. Andrew. The two doors in the screen 
were unusual (there is generally only one). The Vicar 
took the visitors into the vestry, one of the oldest 
parts of the fabric, and showed them two very fine 
old doors affixed to the cupboard containing the sacred 
vestments. Those doors were the original ones in the 
screen, and he could not think why they were removed. 
He hoped one day they would be refixed in the screen. 
The door leading into the vestry from the chancel is also 
very old, and the Vicar observed that all old keys seemed 
to be made to go into locks upside down. As to the several 
manors of Halberton, the Vicar said he could give no 
information, but Bridwell (dating from about 1600) was 
the principal manor to-day. 

The company then proceeded to the " Old Priory/ ' the 
residence to-day of Major and Mrs. English, where they 
were entertained at tea. 

Major English, in giving an account of Priory House, 
from particulars obtained from the Record Office, said 
that Halberton was in the See of Bristol and that the 
College was maintained under Letters Patent granted by 
Henry II, in 1154. Its occupants consisted of a small 
assembly of monks of the Order of St. Augustine, locally 
named the " Friday Circle " from the strictness with which 
they kept the Friday Fast. The College was dedicated to 



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PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 37 

St. Jude. The monks of the Friday Circle were disbanded 
by common consent, and, fearing embarrassment, migrated 
to Bristol in 1539. It is supposed that the building was 
then converted into a dwelling-house. The oak-work and 
door are good examples of that date (1550-1600) as com- 
pared with the specimen at the South Kensington Museum, 
Major English has still in his possession two panes of 
coloured glass, presumably from a chapel, which had 
been preserved in a lattice window, and also the three 
small " lights " of a chapel which were removed from an 
outbuilding by a former owner. The name of the house 
" Priory " is a misnomer. It should be " College," but in 
these days that appellation would be misleading. After 
thanking Major and Mrs. English for their hospitality, 
which was much appreciated, and the Vicar for his descrip- 
tion of the church, the party returned to Tiverton and thus 
one of the most interesting meetings of the Association 
and one which was more largely attended than any since 
that of 1912, was brought to a close. 

The best thanks of the members are due to the local 
Secretary, Mr. John Siddalls, for his excellent arrangements 
and for his unvarying courtesy and to Major Dixon for 
organising the transport. 

Members are also greatly indebted to Dr. and Mrs. 
Leisching for so kindly permitting them to view their 
residence, the Great House, Tiverton, during their visit to 
the town, an interesting building of the Tudor and Queen 
Anne periods and originally a Wool House. 



In addition to the Reports and Papers printed in this volume, 
the following Papers were also read at the Tiverton Meeting, viz : — 
" Some Notes on Tiverton Castle and its Subterranean Way," by 
Miss Emily Skinner ; " John Cross, the Tiverton Artist," by T. Cann 
Hughes, m.a., f.s.a. ; "The Hundred of Tiverton in Early Times, 
with Index, " by the Rev. 0. J. Reichel, b.c.l , m.a., f.s.a. ; "The 
Centenary of Charles Kingsley, ,> by Mrs. Hester Forbes Julian, m.r. 
Anthrop. Inst., f.g.s. ; " William Brewer, the Crusading Bishop of 
Exeter," by the Rev. D. Perceval Lancefield, m.a. ; " Some Brick 
Buildings of the XVIIIth Century, in N.E. Devon," by the Rev. 
E. S. Chalk, m.a. ; " Recent Discoveries at Mount Batten, Plymouth," 
by T. V. Hodgson ; " Proofs of Age of Devonshire Families," by 
H. M. Whitley, m.insT.c.b. ; and "Great Tiverton Fires," by F. J. 
Snell. 



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[ 38] 



#frituarp JJotices* 



Sir Charles Thomas Dyke Acland, m.a., d.l., j.p., 
c.a. Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, as he was generally known 
in life, who died at Killerton Park, near Exeter, on the 
18th* February, 1919, became a member of the Devonshire 
Association in 1901. 

He was the twelfth baronet, and the representative of 
one of Devonshire's most notable families. The Aclands, 
although associated with the shire of the Sea Kings, 
certainly since the days of King Richard II., and probably 
long before that date (for according to tradition they are 
the descendants of Hugh de Accalan of Accalan, who 
lived c 1136), do not appear to have contributed any 
prominent member of the family to the naval service. 
One or two of them made their mark as soldiers, notably 
Sir John Acland, who garrisoned his house at Columb- 
John for the King in 1643 ; and John Dyke Acland, who 
went with General Burgoyne's ill-fated expedition to 
America in 1775, where he acquitted himself with con- 
spicuous bravery. 

It was in the arts of peace that the Aclands excelled, 
and none more so than the late baronet. Always striving 
for the well-being of the people around them, they made 
every use of their position to bring about a better state 
of things — morally and socially. The cause of education 
was placed in the forefront. It was Sir Thomas Acland's 
grandfather who built the Broadclyst Jubilee School in 
1810, in commemoration of the Jubilee of George III., 
one of the first schools in England founded on the national 
system. He also erected, at a cost of £700, similar schools 
at Budlake, a hamlet close to the family seat at Killerton. 
Sir Thomas Acland's father, too, will long be remembered 
in the county as one of its leading men in the matter of 
education. Sir Thomas himself was an alderman of the 
County Council, and chairman of the County Technical 
Education Committee. He was especially interested 

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OBITUARY NOTICES. 39 

in rural education. He insisted that training should 
be made practical, as, for example, in real nature study. 
He encouraged the establishment of continuation schools ; 
was a strong supporter of the principle of itinerant in- 
structors and an enthusiastic practical agriculturist. 

Sir Thomas Acland was a Liberal — his father having 
been a close personal friend of the late Mr. Gladstone — and 
a staunch Churchman. Sir Thomas's Parliamentary 
career was not a long one. He unsuccessfully contested 
We£t Somerset in the Liberal Interest in 1880 ; two years 
later he was elected for East Cornwall, for which con- 
stituency he sat until 1885. Then he represented the 
Launceston Division of Cornwall until 1892. Prom 
January to July, 1886, he was Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Board of Trade, and for some time occupied the 
post of second Church Commissioner. Like his father, 
the late baronet took an active interest in the Volunteer 
Force, and held a commission in the Royal 1st Devon 
Yeomanry. He was an M.A. of Oxford, a J.P. and D.L. for 
the counties of Somerset and Devon, and was called to 
Bar in 1868 by the Hon. Society of the Middle Temple. 
Born on July 16th, 1842, he married on November 1, 1879, 
Gertrude, third daughter of the late Sir John W. Waldron, 
Bt., and sister of Lord Waleran. Sir Thomas was High 
Sheriff of Devon in 1903, and a deputy warden of the 
Stannaries. He possessed extensive estates both in Devon, 
Cornwall, and Somerset, his seat in the latter county — 
Holnicote — being placed in a land of exceptional beauty. 

Included in the family property was much of Exmoor, 
and to safeguard this beautiful country so far as he could 
from such dangers as might possibly arise from disfigure- 
ment or injury through building development or otherwise 
he leased to the National Trust some 7000 or 8000 acres 
to ensure the preservation of its natural features. 

Sir Thomas left no issue, and the baronetcy has passed 
to his brother, the Right Honourable Arthur Herbert 
Dyke Acland, p.c, formerly M.P. for Rotherham and 
Vice-President of the Committee of Council on Education. 

Charles Aldridge, m.d. Dr. Aldridge who died at 
Belle Vue House, Plympton, on the 19th April, 1919, at 
the age of 71, was a native of Leeds and after practising 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire he took up residence 
with his father, the late Mr. Joseph Aldridge, at Plympton 

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40 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

House, about 1874, and was joint proprietor and resident 
physician there. His father died in 1889, and in 1899. Dr. 
Aldridge was joined in partnership by Dr. Turner, tho 
present physician, but he retired about seven years later. 
At one time he was also physician to Plymouth Public 
Dispensary. 

Dr. Aldridge did much useful work in other directions- 
For a long period he was rector's warden at Plympton St. 
Maurice Parish Church, an office in which he succeeded 
his father. He was also for a long term a member of the 
Plympton Board of Guardians and the then Sanitary 
Authority, and afterwards the Rural Council. He also acted 
as hon. secretary and treasurer of St. Elizabeth House of 
Rest at Plympton. 

He became a life member of the Devonshire Association 
in 1886 and when the Association visited Plympton in 
1887 did much to make the meeting a success. 

Dr. Aldridge, who had artistic tastes, was a member of 
the Devonport Camera Club, "and had the distinction of 
having one of his pictures hung at the Photographic 
Salon, Londoit. He leaves a widow. 

The Rt. Rev. Alfred Earle, d.d. Dr. Earle, who died 
at Torquay on the 28th December, 1918, at the age of 
ninety-one, was born in 1827, and was the son of 
Mr. Henry Earle, f.r.c.p., f.r.s., Surgeon-in-Ordinary 
to the late Queen Victoria. He was educated at Eton, and 
proceeded to Magdalen Hall (now Hertford College), 
Oxford, where he was Lushby Scholar. He graduated 
B.A. in 1854, and after spending some time at Wells 
Theological College was ordained by the Bishop of Salis- 
bury deacon in 1858, and, priest in 1859. His title was a& 
curate of St. Edmund's, Salisbury, where he remained 
until 1863, when he was made rector of Monkton Farleigh,. 
Wilts. From 1865 to 1877 he held the livings of West 
Alvington with South Milton, South Huish, and Marl- 
borough, Devon, but in 1877 the two latter benefices were 
separated from the two former, of which Dr. Earle retained 
the vicariate for ten years. Having served the office of 
rural dean from 1867 to 1872, in the latter year he was 
appointed a prebendary of Exeter Cathedral and Arch- 
deacon of Totnes. In January, 1888, it was announced 
that Dr. Temple, who was then Bishop of London, had 
nominated Archdeacon Earle as an additional bishop- 
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OBITUARY NOTICES. 41 

suffragan for the Diocese of London, the only other bishop- 
suffragan at that time for the metropolis north of the 
Thames being the then Bishop of Bedford (Dr. Walsham 
How, afterwards Bishop of Wakefield). The title Bishop 
of Marlborough was chosen because it was one of the places 
mentioned in the Act of Henry VIII. 

He was also presented by the Draper's Company to the 
well-endowed rectory of St. Michael, Cornhill, and eight 
years later he removed to the still more valuable rectory 
of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, when it was vacated by the 
death of the Rev. William Rogers. The fact of holding 
these rich City livings whilst his episcopal work lay at the 
West End of London, made Dr. Earle's position difficult, 
but in spite of these drawbacks he soon won his way into 
the affections of Church-people. 

In 1890 he was appointed a prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, but continued to serve as suffragan under Bishop 
Creighton, and in 1900 he accepted from the Crown the 
deanery of Exeter, which fell vacant through the death 
of Dr. Cowie, and he returned to the county where he had 
spent so many years of his ministerial life. He resigned 
the deanery in July, 1918. Dr. Earle rendered devoted 
service to the Church in the dioceses of both London and 
Exeter. He had a high ideal of the episcopal office, and dis- 
charged his duties with great conscientiousness and dignity. 

He will perhaps be remembered best through his con- 
nection with the Colenso controversy when he was offered 
and refused the Bishopric of Petermaritzburg. 

It is interesting to note that the first Dean of Exeter 
was appointed a.d. 1225, or 175 years after the See had 
been removed from Crediton to Exeter. Dr. Earle was the 
62nd Dean of Exeter, and was the first Bishop to hold 
that office. 

Dr. Earle joined the Association in 1901, but was Presi- 
dent of the Association while he was Archdeacon of Totnes 
when it met at Kingsbridge in 1877. 

Dr. Earle married a daughter of Mr. William Roope 
Hbert who was Sheriff of Devon in 1837, who died February, 
1911, and was buried at West Alvington. 

His only surviving son is Lieutenant Colonel F. A. 
Earle of Bowringsleigh, near Kingsbridge, late of the 
Royal Warwickshire Regiment, who served against the 
Turks in Egypt and Galhpoli. He is a J.P. and County 
Councillor for Devon. 



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42 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Mrs. Flora Jordan. Mrs. Jordan was the second 
daughter of Charles Beaufort Grimaldi by his marriage 
with Flora Langley, and was born on Sunday, 23rd July, 
1882, and from five years of age until her marriage with 
W. F. C. Jordan on 17th June, 1908, she resided with her 
aunt, the late Miss Louisa Beaufort Grimaldi, first at 
Eastry in Kent and subsequently at Newton Abbot. 

The Grimaldi family is very ancient, and the late Mrs. 
Jordan traced direct desqent from Grimaldi, Prince of 
Monaco, a.d. 920, who was descended in the male line 
from Pharamond, King of the Francks, a.d. 425. Thus 
the family traces its descent both from the line of Saxon 
kings and from the Emperor Charlemagne. The Iibro 
d'Oro, or Golden Book of Genoa, being a register of the 
Nobles of the Republic, contains all the entries of the 
Grimaldi Family. The first of the Grimaldis to settle in 
England was Alexander, Marquis Grimaldi of Genoa, 
born 1659, who quitted Genoa after its bombardment and 
destruction by Louis XIV in 1684. In 1705, he married 
Dorcas, one of the granddaughters and co-heiresses of 
Sir Francis Anderson, Knight, of Bradley Hall, Durham, 
M.P. for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a loyal Cavalier. The 
grandson of this Alexander Grimaldi was William Grimaldi 
(Flora Jordan's great grandfather) ; he became celebrated 
as a miniature and enamel painter and was appointed as 
such to several members of the Royal Family and in 1800 
was received by the King (George III) and Queen at a 
private audience. 

In spite of congenital delicacy of constitution, Flora 
Jordan was endowed with exceptional energy of mind 
and bodily activity ; she was possessed of considerable 
business capacity and quick intuition. Her unwavering 
faith in eternal verities augmented rather than diminished 
the keen interest she took iif passing events ; it em- 
phasised the artistic taste she inherited and her love for 
the beautiful in nature, and it quickened the goodness of 
heart, sincerity, and affectionate disposition with which 
she was gifted. 

From its inception in 1914, she was deeply interested 
in the Belgian Refugees' Relief Movement and did con- 
siderable work as a local secretary. She won the regard of 
many of the Refugees, and her work was not merely 
appreciated by the Devon and Cornwall War Refugees' 
Committee, but she was presented by the King of the 



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OBITTTABY NOTICES. 43 

Belgians with the Belgian Medaille de la Reine Elisabeth, 
1914-1918, with an accompanying letter of thanks. 

Mrs. Jordan was elected a Member of the Council of the 
Association (which she had joined the same year) in 1913, 
and read a paper on " Dawlish Parish Church " at the 
Meeting at Buckfastleigh in 1913. 

She passed away very suddenly on 11th December last. 

Sir Roper Lethbridge, k.c.i.e., d.l., j.p., m.a. Sir 
Roper Lethbridge who died on the 15th February, 1919, 
became a member of the Devonshire Association in 1897, 
and was President of that Society in 1901 when he gave 
his noted Presidential Address, entitled " Hands Across 
the Sea," in which he gave a very interesting history of the 
various Devonshire men who had settled in America, the. 
Dominions, and the Colonies of Great Britain from the 
seventeenth century onwards. In response to a circular 
he issued, he received particulars concerning nearly 2000 
individuals and over 300 families living in the United 
States of America and various parts of the British Empire, 
including the remote Norfolk Island, 34 of whom bore the 
name of Lethbridge. His other contributions to the 
Transactions of the Association were (1) a paper, in 1902, 
on a " Proposed Railway between Bideford and Oke- 
hampton in 1831 " ; (2) " Some Hatherleigh Worthies of 
the Seventeenth Century," in 1904, and (3) " Tithe Com- 
mutation in Exbourne in the Seventeenth Century," in 
1912. Another local publication, issued in 1914, con- 
cerned the Ancestry of John Endecott, first Governor of 
Massachussetts, who Sir Roper traced to Chagford. 

Sir Roper who was the son of Mr. Edward Lethbridge 
of St. Addresse, near Dieppe, in France, was born on the 
23rd December, 1840. He was educated 1853 to 1858 at 
the old Marmamead School, which was afterwards amal- 
gamated with the Plymouth College under Dr. Peter 
Holmes, a fine teacher of advanced and original views. 
At Exeter College, Oxford, Sir Roper won a Stapledon 
Scholarship in 1859, took a First Class in Mathematical 
Moderations in 1861, a Second Class in the Final Mathe- 
matical Schools in 1863, and an Honorary Fourth Class in 
Lit. Humaniores in 1862. He graduated B.A. in 1863 
with double classical and mathematical honours ; M.A. in 
1866 ; and in 1880 was called to the Bar by the Honourable 
Society of the Inner Temple. While at Oxford he was a 



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44 OBITUARY NOTICES 

considerable figure in the musical world there and was- 
for some time secretary of the Amateur Musical Society. 

After leaving Oxford he was appointed to the Pubfia 
Record Office and in 1868 was appointed by the Secretary 
of State for India to the Bengal Educational Department, 
and became successively Professor of History and Political 
Economy in the Presidency College of Calcutta, a Professor 
at the Hugli College, and Principal of the Krishnagar 
College. In 1877, he became a Fellow of the Calcutta 
University and was also Secretary to the Simla Education 
Committee, and in 1878, on the creation of the new post 
of Press Commissioner with the Government of India, Sir 
Roper was transferred to that office with the rank of 
Political Agent of the First Class. In the same year he was 
created a Companion of the Indian Empire in consideration 
of his services in the cause of education in India, knighted 
in 1885, and became a K.C.I.E. in 1890. 

While in India, and afterwards, he published many 
works on Indian subjects, and was Editor of the Calcutta 
Quarterly Review from 1871 to 1878. 

On his retirement from the Indian Service he became 
a candidate for Whitby in 1884 and in that year was- 
founder and one of the Committee of the Imperial Service 
League. He represented North Kensington in Parliament 
in 1885 and 1886 until 1892. 

On his return from India he resided for some years at 
Lynsted Lodge, Sittingbourne, Kent, and afterwards 
settled at Exbourne Manor, of which he was the lord and 
the patron of one living. This maflor, which was the 
Etcheborne of Domesday, was acquired by the Lethbridge 
family in the seventeenth century. A quaint survival is 
the entry in the rent roll of this manor, which amounts to 
£5 17s. 6d, of the reservation of an annual payment to the 
lord of " six new laid eggs and three dahlia blooms " in 
respect of one holding. Here Sir Roper formed a fine 
library, and took an active part in the affairs of his native 
county, of which he was a Deputy Lieutenant and a Justice 
of the Peace both for Devon and Kent besides holding 
other public appointments. 

His literary activities were great and varied. Besides 
his many works on Indian subjects, referred to above, 
he contributed largely to English periodical literature 
almost up to his death, and in 1915 privately printed a. 
History of the Lethbridge Family. 



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OBITUARY NOTICES. 45 

Sir Roper was twice married. His first wife whom he 
married in 1865 and who died in 1895, was Eliza, daughter 
of Mr. Washington Finlay, and great grand-daughter of 
i;he eleventh Baron Tyenham, by whom he had two sons 
.and one daughter, who married in 1894, Mr. Frederick 
(now Sir Frederick) Gorell Barnes, of Shiplake, formerly 
M.P. for the Faversham Division of Kent. The elder son, 
Lieutenant Colonel F. W. Lethbridge, d.s.o., of the 10th 
Battalion the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, who dis- 
tinguished himself in France and Italy in the Great War of 
1914^-18, survives him. The younger son, Captain W. A. 
L. Lethbridge, who served in the South African War in 
the King's Own Lancashire Regiment, died in 1909. 

In 1897, Sir Roper married, secondly, Emma, daughter 
of Mr. John Neave, and widow of Mr. Frederick Burbidge 
of Micklefield. 

William Powell, m.b., f.r.c.s. Dr. Powell who be- 
came a life member of the Association in 1878, died at 
Hill Garden, Torquay, on May, 10th, 1919, in his eightieth 
year. He was the second son of Henry Powell, m.d. 
(Edinburgh), who died in 1855, at 36, Finsbury Square, 
E.C. 

Dr. William Powell entered at the London Hospital in 
1858, and in due course became House Surgeon and Resident 
Medical Officer. He took his M.B. London (by exam.), 
in 1862 and F.R.C.S., England, in 1865. In 1866, he 
accepted the post of House Surgeon to the Torbay Hospital \ 
Torquay. Here he remained for eight years, and in 1874 
started in private practice in which he was very successful. 
On resigning his appointment as House Surgeon, he ac- 
cepted the position of Physician, which he held for the 
remainder of his life. He was, therefore, connected with 
the Torbay Hospital for 53 years, during which time he 
earned the high respect of his colleagues, who highly 
valued his advice. His death will leave a great blank 
in the ranks of the profession. He died in the complete 
possession of his mental faculties, in harness, at the finish 
of his day's work (10 p.m.). 

Colonel Sir Frederick Robert Upcott, k.c.v.o., c.s.i. 
Sir Frederick Upcott, who joined the Association in 1910, 
was the son of the late Mr. J. S. Upcott, of Cullompton. 
He was born in a beautiful old Elizabethan house in that 



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48 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

town, where his father and his forbears lived for many 
generations as woollen manufacturers, once the staple 
industry of Cullompton. Sir Frederick was educated at 
Sherborne School and King's College, London, and went 
to India as a " Stanley " engineer. For seven years ho 
was engaged on the survey and construction of the Indus 
Valley line. Later, he won official commendation for 
railway service in the Afghan War, and for his part in the 
building of the Victoria Bridge over the Jhelum and in the 
construction of the' Sind-Sagar line. After serving from 
1893 to* 1896 as Consulting Railway Engineer in Madras 
he went to headquarters as Director-General of Railways, 
and afterwards as Railway Secretary in the Public Works 
Department. He came home in 1901 on appointment as 
Government Director of Indian Railways, but returned 
in 1905 to serve for three years as Chairman of the newly 
constituted Railway Board. His varied experience and 
expert knowledge were important in working out the great 
experiment whereby Lord Curzon brought about the 
transformation of railway administration in India. Sir 
Frederick, who received the K.C.V.O. during the Indian 
tour of the King and Queen, as Prince and Princess of 
Wales, left to his successor a field of work largely cleared 
of the obstacles by which his own efforts had Jbeenimpeded. 
After retiring he became Chairman of the East Indian and 
Assam Bengal Companies, and he was a member of the 
Royal Commission on Railways appointed in 1913. Sir 
Frederick, who was an elder brother of the Headmaster of 
Christ's Hospital, married, in 1878, Jessie, daughter of the 
late Mr. Harold Turner, and their only child is a medical 
man. 

He was also a member of the Devonian Society and 
enjoyed its gatherings both at Calcutta and in London. 

Sir Frederick died at the age of seventy-one, at St. 
James' Court, London, after a prolonged illness, on 15th 
October, 1918. 



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ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, 

THE VERY REVEREND THE DEAN OF EXETER, 
22nd July, 1919. 



CHARLES KINGSLEY. 

When I was honoured by an invitation to be President, 
for this year, by the Devonshire Association, and to deliver 
the Presidential Address, I naturally began to consider 
what subject I could take : and it was one of your secre- 
taries who was good enough to make a suggestion which 
I have ventured to adopt. He pointed out to me that the 
year 1919 marked the centenary of the birth of Charles 
Kingsley — a name which Devonshire delights to honour — 
and expressed his opinion that an address on Charles 
Kingsley would be appropriate to the occasion. I hope 
that he was not mistaken in thinking that the subject 
would be acceptable to my audience ; at any rate I have 
chosen it ; and I would begin by a brief sketch of his life 
before I attempt to estimate his value as Novelist, Poet, 
Reformer, Divine ; or in any other aspects of his manifold 
career. 

Charles Kingsley, then, was born on June 12th, 1819, at 
Holne, under the brow of Dartmoor, where his father was 
curate of the parish. His mother, a remarkable woman, 
described as "full of poetry and enthusiasm " (as was her 
son also), always hoped that her love of Devonshire scenery 
would be transmitted to him, and though he was destined 
to leave Devonshire at the age of six weeks, her wish 
was fulfilled. " The thought," he said years afterwards, 
'* of the West-countiy will make me burst into tears at 
any moment." For the present, however, he was not to 
see much of it, his father moving, shortly after he was 
born, to Clifton in Nottinghamshire and then to Barnack — 
being appointed to that living for six years by the Bishop 
of Peterborough to " keep it warm for his son " — a practice 
now happily abandoned. Barnack, I believe, now presents 



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48 dean of exbter's presidential address. 

a pastoral landscape ; but, in those days, it was in the 
midst ot the still undrained Fen Country, and its influence 
on the boy can be seen in one of his novels, Hereward the 
Wake, in the preface of which he writes, " They have 
a beauty of their own, these great fens ; a beauty as of 
the sea, of boundless expanse and freedom. Overhead the 
arch of Heaven spreads more ample than elsewhere, and 
that vastness gives such cloudlands, such sunrises, such 
sunsets as can be seen nowhere else within these isles." 
It was a sporting county too ; and his experiences there 
when the boy used to accompany his father on his shooting 
expeditions, and help to bring back the wild duck and 
•coot, bittern and bustard, ruffs and reeves, doubtless were 
the spring of two of his own strongest passions — his love 
of nature and his love of sport. Then came another 
change. When Mr. Kingsley had kept Barnack " warm " 
for the assigned period, he returned to Devonshire as rector 
of Clovelly ; and it was here that the love of the West- 
country was really kindled in the heart of 'the boy. He 
was sent to school at Helston, and though one learns with 
regret that he did not excel at cricket — and was reported 
never to have made a score — he shone as a runner and 
jumper, and began to display that taste for physical 
science, and especially for botany and geology, which 
only increase4 with increasing years. But then came 
another change. His father was presented by Lord 
Cadogan to the Rectory of Chelsea, and the whole family 
moved to London — to the intense disgust of Charles, who 
disliked both London and the never-ending duties of a 
London parish. " We have nothing," he wrote, " but 
clergymen, talking of nothing but parochial schools, and 
duties, and vestries, and curates," etc. Here he attended 
King's College, from which he went in 1838 to Cambridge. 
At Cambridge he was beset by the religious doubt and 
difficulties by which most young men are beset; but he 
seems to have taken them more to heart than most of 
them do, and became wretched and restless, trying to 
silence the " obstinate questionings " of the intellect by 
all kinds of excitement — boating, hunting, driving; fencing, 
boxing, duck-shooting on the fens ; and only in his last 
year reading with a ferocious energy which was rewarded 
by Classical and Mathematical honours. By this time his 
doubts had been chased away — he had evidently passed 
through some great religious experiences which, perhaps, 



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dean of exeter's presidential address. 49 

like most experiences of that kind, can never fully be 
-described in " black and white " ; and he was ready to 
take Holy Orders. His first curacy, as we all know, was 
at Eversley — a long-neglected country parish in Hamp- 
shire — where he worked hard, but in deep anxiety ; for 
he had already met the girl whom he desired to make his 
wife, and " by poverty depressed " saw no chance of 
marrying her. Things, however, were destined to come 
right. Obtaining a " better " curacy he ventured to 
marry, and was soon after appointed to the Rectory of 
Eversley — where he was destined to remain until his 
•death. 

It is not necessary to follow his career in all its details. 
Already, by his publication of the Saint's Tragedy, he was 
well known, and as time went on, and his fame increased, 
honours of one kind and another fell upon him. He 
became one of the Queen's chaplains, and in 1860 was 
made Professor of' Modern History at Cambridge. This 
appointment, it must be confessed, was rather a surprising 
•one, for as a historian Kingsley was something of an 
amateur. One is reminded of the selection, many years 
before, at Cambridge of Dr., afterwards Bishop, Watson, 
who had been chiefly known for his scientific studies, to 
the Chair of Theology. " On receiving the appointment," 
«ayB the Bishop in his autobiography, " I at once applied 
myself to the study of the subject." Perhaps Kingsley 
did the same. Anyhow his lectures were found very 
Tefreshing by the Cambridge undergraduates, especially, 
perhaps, as he began by declaring all history to be un- 
trustworthy. It was this statement, coupled with the 
fact that, at the same time, his brother-in-law, Mr. Froude, 
an historian noted more for brilliancy than accuracy, was 
denouncing the English clergy, that drew some mordant 
lines from Dr. Stubbs, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. 

" The Rev. Mr. Kingsley cries 
That history is a pack of lies, 
While Froude instructs the British youth 
That parsons cannot speak the truth. 
Whence comes these judgments so malign ? 
One word explains the mystery ; 
Froude thinks that Kingsley's a divine, 
And Kingsley goes to Froude for history." 

After resigning his Professorship he became a Canon of 
Chester, then of Westminster. But his tenure of the latter 

VOL. LI. D 



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50 dean of exeter's presidential address. 

office was a very brief one. His health, never good, gave- 
way under the strain of his constant and varied labour,, 
and he died in 1876 at the age of 55 : being buried at 
Eversley in the grave which bears the inscription, " Ama- 
vimus, amabus, amabimus." 



n 

There are, as we have said, many aspects of Kingsley's- 
life and character : and it seems natural to consider him 
first as social reformer or, as he called himself, " Christian 
Socialist." Kingsley began what may be called his public 
life in the "hungry forties." It was a time when the con- 
dition of the working classes was such as to arouse deep 
discontent among themselves and deep anxiety among 
all who cared for the welfare of the country. The " In- 
dustrial Revolution " had destroyed the old kindly feeling 
between employer and employed ; and, in the rush for 
wealth, which the new factory system had provoked, the 
workmen, who had hardly began to combine, became the 
victims of a ferocious " competition." " In 1842," say» 
Mr. Gibbins, "the country was horrified by reports as ta 
the conditions of working in mines and collieries. A 
Commission of inquiry was instituted and ... it waa 
rhown that a very large proportion of the workers under- 
ground were less thaft thirteen years old, and most of 
them began work at about eight years, and some even as 
low as four or five. Men and women, girls and boys, were 
all alike employed underground ; and very often they were 
below during the whole week, and never saw the light 
except on Sunday." The work of transporting the coal 
from the men's workings to the shaft was performed by 
women, girls, and boys, who had to crawl on hands and 
feet — along passages as narrow and wet as common 
sewers with an enormous weight of coal in trucks behind 
or before them. " Boys and girls performed this duty aa 
beasts of burden, either by being regularly harnessed to 
the waggons by straps, or wearing a girdle round their 
waists, to which was attached a chain passing between 
the legs." Thus panting and straining at their loads, they 
toiled through eighteen hour3 or even thirty-six continually. 
They were often cruelly beaten, and education was totally 
neglected. It is hardly necessary to add that the morals 
of the mining population were in the lowest possible state. 



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dean of exeter's presidential address. 51 

There were other evils of sweated labour in the towns, while 
in the country the wages were low, the bread dear, and 
the game laws oppressive. It was in the face of such 
conditions as these that men like Carlyle, Ruskin — born like 
Kingsley in 1819 — F. D. Maurice and Tom Hughes (author of 
Tom Brown's Schooldays) tried to rouse the conscience of 
the nation : and Kingsley soon became immersed in the 
same interests. The times, indeed, were perilous and the 
spirit of revolution was abroad. The year 1848 is remem- 
bered for the numerous risings in many European coimtries, 
and everywhere there was a sound of falling thrones. In 
this country the Chartist movement was gathering strength, 
and the threat of a Chartist demonstration in London on 
April 10th, 1843, frightened a large number of timid persons. 
It was at this time that Kingsley began to take his part in 
public and political affairs. He and his friends started a 
periodical called Politics for the People, to which he con- 
tributed a series of " Letters to the Chartists," under the 
name of " Parson Lot." These letters, regarded at the time 
as being of a most sanguinary nature, do not sound very 
terrible to-day. Far from advocating any revolutionary 
measures he warned the' working classes against trusting 
too much to any legislation. He speaks very plainly to 
them of their own sins, as well as those of their oppressors, 
and tells them that " men's hearts can never be changed 
by Act of Parliament," " Be fit to be free and God Himself 
will set you free," " God will only reform society on con- 
dition of our reforming every man his own salf, while the 
devil is quite ready to help us to mend the laws and the 
Parliament, earth and heaven, without ever starting such an 
impertinent and 'personal' request, as that a man should 
mend himself." Perhaps his strongest statement of 
opinion was in a sermon preached about this time, or a 
little later, in which he said, " All systems of society 
which favour the accumulation of capital in a few hands, 
which oust the masses from the soil which their fore- 
fathers possessed of old, which reduce them to the level 
of serfs and day-labourers, living on wages and on alms, 
which crush them down with debt, or in any wise 
degrade or enslave them, or deny them a permanent stake 
in the commonwealth, are contrary to the kingdom of 
God which Jesus proclaimed." 

It was, then, out of his social sympathies that Kingsley's 
first novel sprang. Considered merely at a novel Yeast, I 



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52 DEAN OF EXETER'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

must own, appears to me a poor book. A novel written 
with a purpose is apt to degenerate into a tract, and 
Kingsley did not escape this peril. In Dickens the purpose 
is always subordinated to the human interest of the char- 
acters with which he deals, and his exquisite art does not 
allow it all times to force itself upon his readers. But 
Kingsley's characters in Yeast are for the most part mere 
mouthpieces for uttering opinions which he wishes to 
proclaim. Yet it is a book which shows real knowledge 
of and sympathy with the agricultural labourer. "The 
description of his daily labour in the fields, his miserable 
and filthy and overcrowded home, his dull and sodden 
amusements, his hopelessness and lurking savagery — all 
are drawn in painfully livid colours." It contains also 
one of his most spirited ballads', " The Bad Squire," or 
" A rough rhyme on a rough matter." 

" The merry brown hares came leaping 
Over the crest of the hill, 
Where the clover and corn lay sleeping 
Under the moonlight still. . . . 
A poacher's widow sat sighing 
On the side of the white chalk bank, 
Where under the gloomy firwood 
One spot in the ley there sank. . . . 
I am long past wailing and whining — 
I have wept too much in my life ; 
I've had twenty years of pining 
As an English labourer's wife. . . . 
There's blood on your new forest shrubs, squire, 
There's blood on your pointer's feet, 
There's blood on the game that you sell, squire, 
And there's blood on the game you eat. . . . 
When to kennels and liveried varlets 
You have cast your daughter's bread ; 
And worn out with liquor and harlots 
Your heir at your feet lies dead ; 
When your youngest, the mealy-mouthed rector, 
Lets your soul rot asleep to the grave, 
You will find in your God the Protector 
Of the freeman you fancied your slave. ..." 

Just as Yeast was produced by the contemplation of the 
ills of the country labourer, so Kingsley 's next novel, Alton 
Locke, is concerned with the grievances of his brother in 
the town. Alton Locke, though pronounced " crude " by 
Carlyle, is a much superior work to its predecessor. It 
deals, as we know, with the " sweating system," especially 
in the tailoring trade. Already as "Parson Lot " he had 



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dean of bxeter's presidential address. 63 

published Cheap Clothes and Nasty, in which he had 
dealt, plainly and strongly, with the sweaters, and quotes 
the evidence of many of their victims. " Very often/' 
said one, " I have made only 3s. and 4d. in the week." 
" One sweater I worked with had four children and si* 
men and they together with his wife, sister-in-law, and 
himself all lived in two rooms, the longest of which was 
about eight feet by ten. We men worked in the smaller 
room, and fclept there as well — all six of us. There were 
two turn-up beds in it and we slept three in a bed." Such 
were some of the conditions which led to the writing of 
Alton Locke, but though the hero of it says many fierce 
things, the thought of Kingsley is expressed in one of 
his utterances : " For my part I seem to have learnt that 
the only thing to regenerate the world is not more of any 
system, good or bad, but simply more of the Spirit of God." 
But Kingsley did not merely write novels on social 
questions ; he engaged also in practical work. He threw 
hiThself, with men like Hughes, Ludlow and Neal, heart 
and soul into the great co-operative movement, from 
which, at one time, so much was expected. He was an 
ardent sanitary reformer ; and felt, before many others, 
the crying need of better houses — a matter which is 
occupying our minds to-day. He would have said with 
Ruskin, " Your first business is to make your homes 
healthy and delightful." 

As time went on, Kingsley seemed to many to leave 
behind him what people had called his " Socialism." He 
took a more cheerful view of the country, and even in 
1859, in the preface to the fourth edition of Yeast thought 
those things were much improved, and discovered a 
growing moral earnestness in the aristocracy. No doubt, 
he " mellowed " ; but the truth is that he never was a 
Socialist. At heart he was always a Tory, with deep 
sympathy with the poor, and a deep sense of the duties 
which rank and wealth lay in their possession ; but he had 
no faith in democracy, and the theories of " Socialism" 
inspired in him the most cordial aversion. He wrote, 
as we saw, the poem called " The Bad Squire," but it was 
sometimes said of him, especially in his later years, that 
he regarded a good squire as the noblest work of God ; 
and this is not exactly the socialistic view- 
It is impossible, of course, to deal at any length with his 
other novels. In Two Years Ago his zeal for sanitary 

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54 dean of exetbr's presidential address. 

reform is displayed, and the vivid description of the 
cholera at Aberalva is coloured by his own experiences of 
an outbreak at Bermondsey. In Hypatia he turned to 
different scenes, and gives in it a brilliant sketch of fifth- 
century life in Alexandria. But, perhaps, to us Devonians 
no book has quite the same interest as Westward Ho ! 
There the " spacious days of great Elizabeth " live again ; 
we hear familiar nalnes ; we catch something of the 
thrill of an age which was full of wonder and excitement, 
of romance and adventure ; the age in which Shakespeare 
lived ; in which England began to realize her own great- 
ness. Of course it is all one-sided ; it is full of hatred of 
Spain, and Rome ; but it is inspired by a genuine passion 
for liberty, and contains many magnificent passages. 
Who can forget that passage in which Amyas Leigh, 
blind and softened, has his vision at last of his old enemy, 
the Spanish captain, in his ship at the bottom of the sea. 
" And I saw him sitting in his cabin, like a valiant gentle- 
man of Spain ; and his officers were sitting round him, 
with their swords upon the table at their wine. And the 
prawns and the crayfish and the rockling, they swam in 
and put above their heads ; but Don%azman, he never 
heeded, but sat still, and drank his wine. . . . Then he 
spoke to me, and called me, right up through the oar- 
weed and the sea : * We have had a fair quarrel, Senor ; 
it is time to be friends once more. . . .' And I answered, 
/ We ace friends, Don Gazman : God has judged our 
quarrel and not we.' Then he said, * I sinned and I was 
punished.' And I said, 'And, Senor, so am I. Then he 
held out his hand to me : and I stooped to take it and 
woke.*" That is Kingsley's way of teaching us that 
national hatreds must not last for evermore. 

But it is time to turn for a moment to Kingsley as a 
Poet. He was a very young man when he first made, 
his name by the publication of the Saint's Tragedy. I 
suppose that there are people who can still read the 
Saint's Tragedy, but I confess that I am not one of 
them. like some of Kingsley's other writings, it seems 
to me to suffer from being too obviously written " with 
a purpose " ; but probably the fault is in myself. Of one 
thing, however, I feel quite sure that, whatever may be 
the fate of his longer poems, he has written lyrics and 
ballads which will never be forgotten and on which, it 
may be, his fame will chiefly rest in the time to come. 



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DEAN OF EXETER'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS* 55 

I have already quoted from " The Bad Squire," and there 
are other poems, like that, poured out from a heart hot 
with the sense of the evils and injustices of the world, or 
trembling with anxiety before the signs of the times. Such 
are Alton Locke's song : 

"Weep, weep, weep and weep 
For pauper, dolt and slave ! 
Hark ! from wasted moor and fen, 
Fevered alley, stifling den 
Swells the wail of Saxon men — 
Work ! or the grave." 

Or " The Day of the Lord " : 

" The Day of the Lord is at hand, at hand ; 

Its storms roll up in the sky ; 
The nations sleep starving on heaps of gold : 

All dreamers toss and sigh : 
Tie night is darkest before the morn : # 

When the pain is sorest, the child is born, 

And the Day of the Lord is at hand." 

Or " The Dead Church " : 

" Wild, wild wind, wilt thou never cease thy sighing ? 
Dark, dark night, wilt thou never wear away ? 
-Cold, cold Church in thy death-sleep lying, 
The Lent is past, thy Passion here, but not thine Easter Day." 

Still more, however, will Kingsley be remembered for some 
of those songs which, in their grace «and simplicity, have 
appealed to the heart and imagination of almost all of us. 

Such are : 

" Three fishers went sailing away to the west." 

Or • 

-v " O Mary, go and call the cattle home 

Across the sands of Dee." 

Or from Th$ Saint's Tragedy : 

" O that we two were maying." 

Or from the Water-Babies the exquisite little lyric, 
" Young and Qld " : 

" When all the world is young, lad, 

And all the trees are green ; 
And every goose a swan, lad, 

And every lass a queen ; 
Then hey for boot and horse, lad, 

And round the world away ; 
Young blood must have its course, lad, 

And every dog his day. 



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56 £BAN OF EXETER'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

When all the world is old, lad, 

And all the trees are brown ; 
And all the sport is stale, lad, 

And all the wheels run down ; 
Creep home, and take your place there, 

The spent and maimed among : 
God grant you find one face there, 

You loved when all was young " 

And while we are thinking of Kingsley as a poet, forgive 
me if I turn aside for a moment to remind you of another 
Devonshire poet who, though the world knew little of him 
has one peculiar claim on your attention. Edward Capern 
was born at Tiverton in the same year as Kingsley, 1819. 
In the preface to the first edition of his works, in 1856, 
Mr. Rock describes him as a "rural letter-carrier from 
Bideford te Buckland Brewer, and its neighbourhood, 
distributing the mail through a discursive walk of thirteen 
miles daily, including Sundays ; for which his salary is 
ten shillings and sixpence per week." To the world, as I 
have said, Capern is little known, but there is no doubt 
that he was a real poet, with a genuine love of nature, 
and a deep sense of her changing moods. If his poems are 
slight, they are full of music, and breathe a spirit of true 
religion and Christian piety. Among the subscribers to his 
first book I notice the name of Charles Kingsley, and 
though I must deny myself 4;he pleasure of quoting any 
of his verses, it seems but right that I should pay this 
passing tribute to one who was a native of your town, 
Edward Capern, the " Postman-Poet." 

It is time, however, that I brought my discourse to an 
end, and I will conclude with a few words on Kingsley 
the man. It is impossible to read his life without being 
struck, above all, by the depth and strength of his religious 
convictions ; his faith in God and his devotion to Christ. 
Some of his sermons are red-hot with the glow of spiritual 
passion ; and in his letters the religious enthusiast pours 
out his heart But he is never morbid or sentimental. As 
a parish priest he was indefatigable — visiting his people in 
health and sickness, sharing their joys and sorrows, and, 
for a long time, giving up every evening to classes and 
meetings. He is sometimes spoken of as the Apostle of 
" muscular Christianity/ ' and, though he repudiated the 
phrase, it seems perhaps to suggest the kind of religion 
— open air, unconventional, unecclesiastical — which he 



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peak of exeter's presidential address. 57 

preached and taught. He had a peculiar horror of " asceti- 
cism," which he regarded as an insult to human nature, 
and a slight upon the " holy estate of matrimony " and 
all those natural ties which he believed to be the divinest 
thing in the world. It was, perhaps, this feeling which 
prompted his suspicion of the High Church party and his 
strenuous animosity towards Rome — an animosity which,on 
one occasion, led him into considerable trouble. In a review 
of Froude's History of England, Kingsley wrote : " Truth 
for its own sake had never been a virtue with the Roman 
clergy. Father Newman informs us that it need not be 
and, on the whole, ought not to be." The mention of 
Newman's name was the undoing of Kingsley who soon 
found himself — " impar congressus Achilli " — in con- 
troversy with a man of an intellect far more keen and subtle 
than his own. Against Newman's polished sarcasm and 
brilliant sword-play, he was really helpless. By this rash 
statement, and still more "by his blundering defence of it, 
he did himself considerable harm and led the* way to the 
publication of one of the great books of our language, 
Newman's Apologia pro vita sua. But we need not make 
too much of this blunder, for which he had to pay so dearly. 
The man himself was transparently honest, sinceie, and 
fearless. More than once he got into sail trouble with the 
religious world of his day ; refusing to pray for fine weather 
when they thought that they had had enough rain ; 
advocating the opening of the Crystal Palace on Sundays 
in opposition to the Sabbatarians ; expressing his strong 
dislike of militant teetotalism ; and indulging freely in the 
ude of tobacco — the virtues of which he proclaimed in 
words too familiar for quotation. He was a keen fisher- 
man, aS all men knew ; and a keen botanist and geologist, 
loving, as at Chester where he started a " Natural History 
Society," to interest others in his own pursuits. He liked 
all sorts and conditions of men, and was " the friend of 
publicans and sinners." Eager, impetuous, restless, with 
a stammer which he never overcame, with keen eyes 
flashing from his " warrior " face — he loved life and saw 
good (lays. He loved life, with its many interests ; but his 
health was never strong and perhaps we may find in this 
fact, the strange longing, which appears again and again in 
the midst of all his activities, for rest, mingled with an 
intense curiosity about the " life of the world to come." 
"What a blessed day it will be," he wrote to his wife, 



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58 dean of exeter's presidential address. 

" when we lie together in that dear churchyard." It is ex- 
pressed in his poem : 

" O that we two lay sleeping 
In our nest in the churchyard sod, 
With our limbs at rest in the earth's quiet breast, 
And our souls at home with God ! " 

So again, " God forgive tne if I am wrong, but I look 
forward to it with an intense and resonant curiosity ; " or 
once more, "Death, beautiful, wise, kind Death, when 
will you come and tell me what I want to know ? " It 
is the very spirit of one of our seventeenth-century poets : 

" Dear, beauteous death ! the jewel of the just, 
Shining nowhere but in the dark, 
What mysteries do lie beyond thy dust, 
Could man outlook that mark ! 



O Father of eternal life and all 

Created glories under Thee, 
Resume Thy spirit from this world of thrall 

Into true liberty, 
Either disperse these mists which blot and fill 
9 My perspective still as they pass ; 
Or else remove me hence unto that hill, 

Where I shall need no glass." 



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THIRTIETH REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC 
MEMORANDA COMMITTEE. 

Thirtieth Report of the Scientific Memoranda Committee 
— consisting of Messrs. J. 8. Amety, Robert Burnard, 
O. M. Doe, E. A. S. Elliot, H. Montagu Evans, and 
H. B. 8. Woodhouse. 

Edited by George M. Doe, Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Tiverton, 28rd July, 1919.) 



Though the Twenty-ninth Report of this Committee was 
read at the Meeting of the Association at Torquay last 
year, it really formed the Report of the previous year 
(1917) at Barnstaple. Hence there has been an interval 
of a year between the two reports. 

The contributions are from Messrs. T. J. Joce, V. C. 
Paine, G. F. Tregelles, E. Vidal, and H. B. S. Woodhouse. 

I. Aurora. 

On the evening of Christmas Day (1918), looking from 
Lynton northwards across the Bristol Channel, I noticed 
-a greenish-yellow light in the sky, which, from its position 
-and the time (6 p.m.), could by no possibility have to do 
with the sunset. Its arched form and peculiar colouring 
made me think of an aurora, though we generally associate 
that with a frost, and there was no frost on the Devon side 
of the Channel, whatever there may have been among the 
Welsh hills. It was an intermittently cloudy night and I 
saw no streamers rising from the northern glow. A 
Correspondent writing from Shute in East Devon to The 
Times, describes the same phenomenon and attributes it to 
the Aurora. No doubt many others saw it and correctly 
read its character, but thought the event too common- 
place to be worth writing about. 

This aurora was pretty generally noticed, and is figured 
-and described in Nature of 23rd January, 1919. — G. F. 
Tregelles. 



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60 THIRTIETH REPORT OF THE 



II. Geology. 



In the Quarterly Journal of the Oeological Society for 
Aug., 1884, appeared a paper by Mr. H. G. Spearing "On 
the Recent Encroachment of the Sea at Westward Ho ! 
North Devon." In describing the contents and composi- 
tion of the deposits the sea was attacking, he refers to 
split pebbles. Earlier in the paper he describes the Pebblo 
Ridge as " being Much broader at the North East corner 
of the Burrows, where there are three or four distinct banks 
of stone, forming altogether a bank about 150 yards wido 
and over a quarter of a mile long." The pebbles move 
northwards. This bank, which now continues further, and 
runs some way up the shore of the estuary of the Taw and 
Torridge, began to form when the Ridge and foreshore 
began to succumb to the various forces that brought about 
the erosion Mr. Spearing studied. The sandhills, at the 
foot of which it lies, and which it protects, had, prior to 
1866, when the beginnings of the new bank were noted 
and recorded, been regarded as likely to suffer severely 
from the attacks by tidal waters, and had sustained recent 
damage therefrom. 

I fear I have not the exact date, but it is some yeara^ 
say twelve at least, since I first noticed split pebbles lying 
about on the landward slope of that bank. I was informed 
they probably were an interesting illustration of the process 
known as " subaerial denudation," i.e. it was alternating 
heat and cold had* split them. I have often seen pebbles 
that have been broken by the force of waves, or cracked by 
fires having been lighted over them, but these split pebbles 
seem to me something different altogether and comparable 
with those of ancient date Mr. Spearing saw. Mr. Spearing 
noticed many pebbles in one bed at any rate were split 
lengthwise and one half almost invariably pushed an inch 
or two beyond the other. The recently split pebbles I 
should suppose split parallel to " bedding planes," which 
in some cases leads to their not being split lengthwise. 
Early this summer I noticed one, a long pebble, had been 
split across at two points. I that day walked along this 
" new " pebble bank from its commencement just north 
of the Inland Sea to near the site of the Old life Boat 
House, i.e. a little south of the mouth of the estuary. I 
found one split pebble not many yards south of the Old 



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SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA COMMITTEE. 61 

Life Boat House, but they dojiot seem to me very common 
except at the southern end of the bank. Whether this is 
■due to their having lain there undisturbed longest, I 
cannot pretend to say. I submit what I have noticed as a 
phenomenon worthy of investigation by persons more 
methodical than myself and better able to get to the place. 
It should be studied in light of the contents of a paper " On 
oertaininstancesof Concentric Laminationobserved amongst 
the Pebbles on the Northam Badge " published in the Trans- 
actions of the Association for 1871 and written by Mr. T. M. 
Hall, who deserves to be recognized as the real fountain 
head of knowledge about the pebbles and coast erosion in 
North Devon. He suggests the lamination may have 
been brought about by a pebble getting wedged in 
amongst other pebbles, or otherwise brought to a halt 
and battered by other pebbles as they passed. 

Apart from other considerations, the state of my health 
forbade my continuing attempts to study local coast erosion 
and the pebble problem, but I got far enough to see the im- 
portance of attending to anything Mr. Hall wrote or said, 
and also the importance of not mentally separating the 
" Pebble Bidge " off Northam Burrows, either from the rest 
of the great bank of which it forms part, and which extends 
down to beyond Hartland Point, or from its predecessors, 
of which traces still survive, the " raised beaches " indica- 
ting an elevation of the land, the banks below present high- 
water mark indicating a subsidence. I fear this note is 
very long and hardly sufficiently record of " contemporary 
event/' but I should like to add as a point for further and 
better inquiry whether some of the latter banks do not 
contain a larger admixture, than either the raised beaches, 
or the present pebbles, of stone not found now in the local 
cliffs. What I have noticed in and near " gullies " between 
Westward Ho ! and Bock's Nose makes me suspect that 
" On the Beach " is the answer to the old question where 
can the people who made flint implements at Westward Ho ! 
have found the flints they used ? It seems to me much 
bigger flints than one would expect occasionally occur in 
the gullies, and I cannot see why on some old cliff long 
since washed away, there should not have been a deposit 
of flints such as occurs at Orleigh, the flints from it, when 
the cliff disappeared, having either been washed onwards 
to the beach the flint implement makers frequented, or 
being still halting maybe on their road thither ! I have 



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62 THIRTIETH REPORT OP THE 

heard that Mr. T. M. Hall towards the end of his life was 
more and more inclined to think " pebbles came up out of 
the sea," i.e. did not travel along the beach only. Till the 
gullies have been carefully watched, and till all that is 
known or thought by people along the coast about the 
movements of the pebbles has been examined by experts. 
I don't myself think we can assume much is known either 
about the movement of the pebbles in general, or about the 
extent to which the supply of stone falling from the modern 
cliffs is supplemented by pebbles coming up out of ancient 
and subaqueous banks. My brother, the late Prebendary 
Sealy, once noticed on the beach near Greenacliff a large 
number of pebbles which he took me to see and which 
we agreed seemed to have come up out of the sea. I 
was telling the late Mr. Land of Appledore about these, and 
he reminded me there had shortly before gone up the 
Bideford river an extraordinary wave, suggestive of 
seismic disturbance. Seismic disturbances are no doubt 
rare, but I would suggest even their occasional occurrence 
should be allowed for when searching for the " forces " 
that account for the movements of the pebbles, the progress 
of coast erosion and the phenomena observed in old 
pebble banks in North Devon. — E. Vidal, 



III. Meteorology. 
Thunderstorms, 

A south-easterly gale of considerable violence was re- 
corded at Plymouth on the 6th January, 1919. Tho 
rapid dropping of the barometer was followed by rain, and 
the wind reached its highest velocity about 10.30 after 
which the rain fell more heavily. On the night of the 4th 
preceding the gale the glass is said to have touched a lower 
point than that recorded on the occasion of the great 
blizzard of 1891. Between 10 and 11 p.m. a portion of 
the plate-glass window of Messrs. Spooner's establishment 
in Bedford Street was blown in. 

A severe thunderstorm accompanied by torrential rains 
occurred on the 14th May, 1919, at Plympton, causing 
temporary floods in low-lying parts, and men had to be 
engaged to clear the mud and water from one of the inns, 
there. 



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SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA COMMITTEE. 65 

IV. Zoology. 
Swallows, 

An observer (T. J. J.), in the summer of 1918, noticed 
the strange actions of some swallows on a cottage chimney 
at Newton Abbot whence a dense coal smoke was rising, 
and watched them through an opera-glass (which reduced 
the distance to about twelve yards). The birds, about 
eight in number, were ridding themselves of parasites by 
the scientific method of fumigation. They stood on the 
edge of the pot for some minutes in the thick of the smoke, 
and turning tail, treated that end in like manner, and to 
complete the work, fluttered in the column of smoke about 
a foot above the chimney keeping their wings going rapidly. 
At the end of some ten minutes of this intelligent process 
they departed together, apparently quite delighted at the 
result. — T. J. Joce. 

An Aerial Combat. 

I was one day the eyewitness of a battle royal between a 
Sparrowhawk and a Rook, which would have ended in a 
decided victory for the Rook, but for my intervention. 

Cycling along a main road into Barnstaple I saw a 
Sparrowhawk sitting on the telegraph wires, he also saw 
me, as when I approached his post of observation, he glided 
from his perch and sailed over a field. Almost immediately 
a Rook charged at him from a neighbouring oak. The 
Sparrowhawk cleverly dived and evaded the Rook's 
onslaught and then rose swiftly above the Rook, poised 
for a moment, then nose-dived with wonderful rapidity 
and aim, crashing into his opponent with such force that 
the Rook came to the ground leaving a trail of feathers 
in its wake. 

I jumped on the hedge in time to see the Rook rise 
in the air, as the Sparrowhawk came at him again. Once 
more they met in mid-air, repeatedly charging one 
another until at last they both came to the ground in a 
confused bundle. 

Jumping into the field, I ran towards the two combatants 
and coming up to them saw that the Sparrowhawk was 
lying on its back, fighting the Rook with beak and talons, 



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64 SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA COMMITTEE. 

whilst the latter was administering sledge-hammer blows 
with its powerful beak into the breast of the Sparrowhawk. 
Hearing in my imagination the whistle of " half-time " 
I ran in and separated them, as I felt loath to let such an 
interesting and plucky fight end in death. — V. C. Paine. 



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THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF 

THE COMMITTEE ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL 

PROVINCIALISMS. 

Thirty-second Report of the Committee — consisting of 
Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. C. H. 
Laycock, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Rev. G. D. Melhuish, Rev. 
0. J. Reichel, Miss C. E. Larter, and Mrs. Rose-Troup ; 
Mr. C. H. Laycock and Rev. 0. J. Reichel being Joint 
Secretaries — for the purpose of noting and recording the 
existing use of any Verbal Provincialisms in Devon- 
shire in either written or spoken language, not included 
in the lists already published in the Transactions of the 
Association. 

Edited by Charles H. Laycock. 

(Read at Tiverton, 23rd July, 1919.) 



The Rules and Regulations of the Committee were last 
reprinted with the Twenty-eighth Report in 1915 y Vol. 
XL VII, p. 94 ; together with a complete Index of all the 
words contained in Reports 1-28 inclusive. Should any 
Member desire a copy, the Editor will be pleased to supply 
him with one on his application. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Each provincialism is placed within inverted commas, 
and the whole contribution ends with the initials of the 
observer. All remarks following the initials are Editorial. 
The full address of each contributor is given below, and it 
must be understood that he or she only is responsible for 
the statements bearing his or her initials. 

CONTRIBUTORS. 

E. S. C. =Rev. E. S. Chalk, Kentisbeare Rectory, 

Cullompton. 
R. P. C. =R. Pearse Chope, 30, Blythwood Road, 

Crouch Hill, N. 

VOL. U. E 



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66 THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

G. M. D. =George M. Doe, Enfield, Great Torrington. 

M. T. F. =Murray T. Foster, Fore Street, Cullompton. 

S. B. G. =Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Lew Trenchard, Lew- 
down. 

T. J. J. =T. J. Joce, 3, Manor Crescent, Newton Abbot. 

C. E. L. =Miss C. E. Larter, 2, Summerjand Terrace, 
St. Marychurch. 

C. H. L. =Charles H. Laycock, Cross Street, Moreton- 
hampstead. 

R. L. =The late Sir Roper Lethbridge. 

H. T. S. =H. Tapley-Soper, The Monastery, Waverlejr 
Avenue, Exeter. 

H. B. V. =H. B. VarweU, Sittaford, West Avenue, 
Exeter. 

H. R. W. =Hugh R. Watkin, Chelston HaU, Torquay. 

H. B. S. W.=H. B. S. Woodhouse, 7, St. Lawrence Road, 
Plymouth. 

" Bolting. In a Plymouth seed merchant's advertise- 
ment of seeds, three sorts of cabbage are mentioned, to 
which are attached the qualification, 'the finest non- 
bolting stocks.' What is the intended meaning of the word 
bolting? H.B.S.W." 

To bolt, of plants, means to run to seed. So in the above 
advertisement the meaning implied is that this particular 
cabbage seed is from a variety which does not quickly run 
to seed, or, as we generally say, " rin up to a spill." 

M. E. bolt, a straight rod. 

A.-S. bolt, an arrow. 

Cp. also the " bolt " of a door. 

" Born-days. In giving a description of a very un- 
usual occurrence : ' I niwer zeed zich a zight not in all 
my born-days ! ' H.B.S.W." 

Very common phrase for literary " lifetime." 

" BuTCHiNG=following the trade of a butcher. There 
is a question asked in Notes and Queries (London) for April,. 
1918. The instance given is quoted from the Cornish and 
Devon Post, concerning a local recruit, that he had learned 
the ' butching ' in Launceston. And the query is, is this 
a common variant of ' butchering ' in Cornwall ? Is the 
expression used in Devon ? H. B. S. W." 

Yes, this form is still heard frequently in many parts of 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 67 

the county, especially from dialect speakers of the older 
generation ; the younger folk usually say butcheriri*. 
Butching is an exception to the usual rule as to trades, 
which is that the frequentative flection -ing is added not 
to the verb, but to the verbal noun, e.g. farmering, tailor- 
ing, masoning, etc. While butching is evidently formed 
straight from the verb " to butch " ; though I have never 
heard the present tense of this verb used in Devon, I see 
from the Eng. Dial. Diet, it is so used in the north of 
England. 

Somewhat analogous to butching in our dialect is farring 
=to practise the art of a farrier, where we should expect 
farriering. 

Butch is an instance of " back-formation " from the 
noun butcher. 

Later, H. B. S. W. writes-: the following occurs in the 
Daily Chronicle of June 7th, 1918 : A correspondent writes, 
" If you are in search of new words, here is one. A member 
of a Food Control Committee in North Devon lately said, 
6 1 butch with Mr. 

" Chirks =ashes. ' I must drow away the chirks.' 

C. E. L." 

The word is really charks, it means charcoal, cinders. 
See Eng. Dial. Diet. 

. At frequently becomes er or ur in the dialect. Cp. ster- 
ling for starling, durk for dark, etc. 

" Chit jack. I can remember when the custom was very 
general in loyal Devonshire to wear a sprig of oak, with an 
oak-apple on it, on May 29th, in commemoration of the 
happy Restoration of the Royal Family on that day in 
1660 ; and the day was always called ' Oak-apple Day/ 
But I find that in this part of Devon (Exbourne and north 
of Dartmoor) those of the older country-folk who can 
remember the old custom always speak of the day as 
* Chitjack Day.' Can any one explain the word ' Chit- 
jack ' ? Exbourne, June, 1918. R. L." 

Eng. Dial. Diet, has Chit-chat, or Chit-jack, sprigs of oak 
worn on King Charles's Day, May 29. Used in Hereford 
and Wilts. While Elworthy's West. Som. Word Book gives 
Shit-sack Day, common name for 29th of May. In the 
north-west of Somerset and North Devon, he says, it is 
common to hear boys call out on that day, Shit-zack! 



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68 THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

Shit-zack ! but I have been unable to discover the origin 
of the term." 

Eng. Dial Diet, also gives Shickshack, with the same 
meaning, in use in most of the southern and south-western 
counties, Devon included. " It is also used as a term of 
contempt for any one appearing without the proper decora- 
tion on Oak-apple Day." 

The word " Shit-zack " is quite familiar to me at Mogce- 
tonhampstead, where it is used merely as a term of oppro- 
brium or contempt for anyone who is thought to be mean, 
dirty, or generally out of favour. " Oh, he's a proper ole 
Shitzack, he is ! " 

" Chronic = bad. Said to indicate the severity of a 
pain. ' Oh, it was chronic ! ' C. E. L." 

Very common indeed among dialect speakers, but rather 
slang than true dialect. 

" Confliction = conflict. 'There was a reg'lar con- 
fliction.' Same speaker as for ' Hinderment ' (q.v.). 

G. M. D." 

" Crake =to complain, grumble. ' Her's a crakin 9 little 
twoad.' Said by a Torrington woman, 1917. G. M. D." 

The dialectal form of literary " croak," itself a word of 
onomatopoeic origin. 

" Crease =the withers of a horse. Used by a North 
Devon policeman. G. M. D." 

See 20th Report, Vol. XXXVII, p. 128, where crease is 
used for the ridge-tile of a roof, for which it is still the 
common term in Devon. 

The primary idea of a ridge is the same in the above use 
of the word, for the junction of the shoulder-bones of a 
horse forms a ridge at the bottom of the neck. Probably 
allied to literary " crest." 

" CRUCKY=to stoop. Of a tall man : ' He can't get in 
droo the doorway 'thout cruckinV Maid, Torquay. 

C. E. L." 

See Crucked up, 27th Report, Vol. XLVI, p. 82. 

It means to crouch rather than to stoop. Cp. M. E. 
croken, to bendc Also crook. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 69 

' ' Davered = withered. From Yonge's Diary (Camden 
Soe.),p. 63. H.T. S." 

Still used by old people, but obsolescent. See Index. 

*" GEESES=girths. This word was used by an old man, 
originally from North Devon, who works for us. He and 
my daughter were attending to one of our ponies, which 
had a nasty wound in the side, just where the saddle girth 
would press. The old man spoke of the wound as being 
' jist wur the geeses would come.' Thornworthy, Nov., 
1918. H. B. V." 

Still heard occasionally from old men. The younger 
generation always say girt for girth. 

Geese or gease is really girse, a plural form, the same as 
girths. In the case of words ending in th in the singular, 
it is usual in Devon to drop the th in the plural, e.g. months 
is always pronounced mun's. The dropping of the r in 
girse, which becomes gi'ss, and is finally lengthened into 
gee's, is also a common feature of our dialect ; cp. ai'th for 
earth, ye'th for hearth. 

" Glubby. The following remark was made to me by 
a gardener, speaking of agricultural work and Devonshire 
farmers in particular : ' They farmers be glubby close 
rascals, they be.' 

Close-fisted was meant. H. R. W." 

" Growthy. In a Plympton auctioneer's advertisement 
in the Western Morning News for 1st March, 1919, some 
cattle are described as ' a very growthy, promising lot.' 

H. B. S. W." 

This means well-grown. Analogous to healthy, wealthy, 
etc. 

" HiNDERMENT=hindrance, drawback. 

' Drii he laivin' my employ, there was a hinderment to 
my crops.' Used by a North Devon farmer, of a labourer. 

G. M. D." 

Common. 

The Devonian seems fond of this termination -ment. 
Cp. betterment, cumberment (incumbrance), botherment, able" 
ment (ability), all of which are heard in the dialect, but not 
in the literary language. 



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70 THIBTY-SBCOND REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE 

" IoTUM=atom. ' How much did he get ? ' * Not one 
iotum!' C.E.R.C." 

Probably the result of a confusion between " iota " and 
"atom." Common, and very general among dialect 
speakers. 

" Keamy. Used of milk, the cream of which breaks as 
the milk that has stood is poured out into a cup. This is 
a sign that it is turning sour. The word is neither ' creamy ' 
or ' reamy/ as might be supposed. Again and again I gob 
the girl who used it to repeat it, and always it was, ' The 
milk is " keamy." ' Torquay, 1918. C. E. L." 

The girl was quite correct, the word is " keamy," and 
it has nothing to do with " creamy." Keam or keem is 
the scum or froth which rises upon a liquid ; it is especially 
applied to cider when covered with a thin white mould, 
which is then described as keamy. I never heard it before 
applied to milk, but knew directly what was meant. 

"LAKE=a stream. This is in North Devon quite the 
usual word. But I never heard it used in South Devon 
until this year (1918) at Kingskerswell by a Barnstaple 
woman, who, however, assured me that it was in Kings- 
kerswell also the common word for the stream to which 
she was alluding. C. E. L." 

See 1st Report, Vol. IX, p. 126. 

Though no doubt in more frequent general use in North 
Devon, this term for a stream or brook is used in many 
parts of South Devon also, particularly in the southern 
and south-western quarters of Dartmoor, e.g. there is 
Cock Lake, which flows into the West Dart ; Fish Lake 
and Heng Lake, which flow into the Avon ; Grims Lake, 
which flows into the West Webburn ; Dark Lake, Dry 
Lake, Red Lake, Hook Lake, and Left Lake, all flowing 
into the Erme ; Broadall Lake into the Yealm ; Calves 
Lake, Spanish Lake, and Leggis Lake into the Plym ; 
Outer Red Lake and Homer Red Lake into the Tavy. In 
the northern and eastern quarters of Dartmoor, brook is 
more commonly heard, e.g. WaM&brook, Becky Brook, etc. 
As a rule the term lake denotes a smaller stream than that 
implied by the term brook. 

As used in this sense, the word is probably derived from 
Old Norse Icekr, a brook, rivulet, while lake, in the ordinary 
literary sense, is from Anglo-Saxon lac, a pool. If this is 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 71 

ao, it is no corruption of meaning, but a true survival of 
the ancient language of our forefathers. 

" Laughing-sport =laughing-stock. ' He made a proper 
l&ffin'-sport o' me, he did.' G. M. D." 
Very common. 

" Limpenskrimps =the stalks of cow-parsnips. The 
aged, sexton at Molland says that before matches were 
introduced bundles of these were usually hung up near 
the fire, and any one wanting a light to go into another 
room or to feed the pigs lighted a ' limpenskrimp.' Lew 
Trenchard, June, 1918. S. B. G." 

In many parts of the country this is the most usual name 
among the peasantry for this very common plant, Hera- 
cleum sphondylium. Also pronounced " Limpet scrimp." 

The late Mr. F. T. Elworthy, in his West Som. Word 
Book, says that it is also the commonest name for the 
plant in West Somerset. Pigs are very fond of it, as its 
second book-name, " Hog-weed," suggests, and cottagers 
go about gathering it in the hedges to give to their pigs. 

R. P. C. suggests that limp in " limperscrimp " is con- 
nected with the lime in " brooklime," formerly brooklempe 
or limp-wort, from A.-S. hleomoc. Scrimp would be crinkled, 
so limp-scrimp would mean the crinkled limp in contra- 
distinction to the brook-limp, which is smooth. 

" LiMMER=an unruly, mischievous child.. 'He's a 
proper limmer. , See ' Mapling.' G. M. D." 

Probably a variant of " Limb," used in the same sense. 
The addition of this suffix -er, especially to words of one 
syllable, is a common feature in our dialect. Cp. leggers, 
toers, armers, for legs, toes, arms. I well remember asking 
the name of a certain boy, and being told by his brother : 
" He's proper name be Jeames, but us au'wez calls en 
Jimmer vor short." This is of course Jim, with suffix -er 
added. 

m 

" Mapling =a troublesome, mischievous child. 
Same as * Trimmer ' (q.v.). ' He's a reg'lar little maplin." 
Used by a gardener at Torrington. G. M. D." 

- " Maund. A Barnstaple tradesman told me that in 
that district this term is applied to the large rectangular 



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72 THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

hampers used to bring fruit, vegetables, etc., to market. 
1917. C.H.L." 

It is most commonly used to denote a large circular 
basket, rather deep, and without cover, with two handles, 
one on each side, attached to the upper rim. It is often 
used as a measure for apples, potatoes, fish, etc. 

See Mavm, 11th Report, Vol. XXI, p. 96. 

Mawnd, skype — Sportula. Prompt. Parv., p. 330. 

O. Fr. Mande, panier d'osier k deux anses. La Curne de 
Sainte-Palaye. Dictionnaire de Vancien langage frangois. 

"MoMMET=a scarecrow. The following interesting 
letter in reference to this well-known Devon provincialism 
appeared in the Tiverton Gazette for January 28th, 1919 : 

' MOMMET.' 

Dear Sir, — ' Mommet,' as a Devon folk- word for ' scare- 
crow,' is a strange survival of a word which was current 
iu English literature from the 14th to the 17th century 
under the spellings mammet, mawmet, mommet. The 
original is Mahomed, whose images, falsely associated with 
idolatry, were called mammets, and then the word passed 
to any idol or image. (Selden Table Talk, 1689. . 'Hereto- 
fore they called images mammets and the adoration of 
images mammetry, that is Mahomet and Mahometry ')» 
From image it degenerated into the meaning of puppet, 
figure dressed-up (even an actor (Shak. Henry IV : 
* This is no time to play with mammets '). It also became 
a word of reproof for a peevish child (generally a girl, I 
believe). The Devon mother who calls her daughter ' a 
maze mommet ' is using the very term which Capulet 
applied to Juliet when ha called her ' a whining mammet ' 
(Romeo and Juliet iii., 5). 

The above is largely drawn from Smythe-Palmer's " A 
Word-collector's Cabinet " under the heading "mommet." 

Yours truly, 

F. HERRING. 

• 

P.S. — A Reference Library in Tiverton would have been 
useful here.' 

M. T. F." 
See 23rd Report, Vol. XLII, p. 78. 

" NosEY-PARKER=an inquisitive person. 

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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 73 

' Missis Snell do dearly love anything like love-makin* 
'twix young vokes. Wat they calls in the biikes roomantio. 
Not that her's a nosey-parker or ort like o' that ; but her 'a 
a tender- 'earted sort o' woman, an' turr'ble likes to zee 
other vokes liikin' happy like. But her didn' hardly like 
to poke her nauze into other people's affairs.' (Jan Stewer 
in Western Weekly News, 21 July, 1917.) R. P. C." 

Probably really " nosey-pauker," i.e. poker, one who is 
always poking his or her nose into other people's houses 
and prying into their affairs. Quite common, but verging 
on slang. 

" Ought. Use of auxiliary verb with ' ought.' Mother 
to child : ' Didn't you ought to be in bed ? You know 
you did.' Torquay, 1918. C. E. L." 

This use is invariable in the dialect in negative con- 
struction, e.g. " Yii didn't ought tii 'a went there " ; for 
you ought not to have gone there. 

Cp. the similar use in Latin of oportuit non with present 
infinitive. 

" PERNiCKETTY=fastidious, nice, hard to please. 

' Mr. -8 a very pernickety man.' Aged labourer at 

Manaton, August, 1918. C. E. L." 

Eng. Dial. Diet, gives this as a North-country word only. 

" Prong =a fork. The following is a true story of a 
recent occurrence : At a Plymouth restaurant one day 
recently (April, 1918), a farmer was served with a sweet 
with which only a spoon was provided. The following 
colloquy ensued : 

Farmer (calling waitress) : ' Bring me a prong, plaize ! * 

Waitress : ' What did you say, sir ? ' 

Farmer : ( Bring me a prong ! ' 

Waitress (looking puzzled) : ' What do you mean, sir ? 
I don't think we have any.' 

Farmer : ' Why, yu've brought a spimte, but there's no 
prong. I wants a prong.' 

At last it was understood that a fork was meant, and a 
fork was supplied. H. B. S. W." 

Prong, usually pronounced prang, is the usual term for 
a pitch-fork or dung-fork in Devon. Its application to a 
table-fork is unusual, but not unknown. See Eng. Dial. 
Diet. 

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74 THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

" Quealed =curled up. From Yonge's Diary (Camden 
Soc.),p. 63. H.T.S." 

See Quail, 19th Report, Vol. XXXIV, p. 98. Also 
Quilling, 25th Report, Vol. XLIV, p. 77. 

Possibly a dial, form of " coil." 

It is used of plants and vegetation when in a dying or 
withered condition. 

" Rendy-vu (first syllable rhymes with hen)=3b group 
or gang of people. * There was a proper rendy-vu (rendez- 
vous) o'm out there.' Heard near Moretonhampstead. 
Not used in the ordinary sense of a meeting-place. 

C. H. L." 

Possibly a legacy from the French prisoners at Prince- 
town in the early part of last century. 

" Slouch = to wet, drench. In Notes and Queries for 
12th June, 191-8, a Mr. J. J. Freeman (p. 156) reports that 
* to slouch ' is Devonshire dialect for to wet or drench. 

H. R. W." 

Eng. Dial. Diet, has Sloueh, to wet, drench. Devon. 
" I'll go out to plump-traw (pump) an' 'ave a glide slouch." 
Mrs. Hewet, Peasant Speech of Devon. 

" Stagnation. ' I gi'ed 'er a stagnation smile.' Mean- 
ing a smile of bewildered astonishment. The adjectival 
form of stagnate, used in the provincial sense of dumb with 
astonishment, e.g. ' I was fair stagnated.' C. E. L." 

See 27th Report, Vol. XLVI, p. 90. 

" STEP-AND-FETCH-iT=lame, ' dot and carry one.' 
' Wan taime they was 'feard he'd 'ave ta 'ave he's leg 
tiik'd off. But he'll auvez be a bit step-an'-fetch-it I 
b'lieve.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 21 July, 
1917. R.P. C." 

" Stroles. The following advertisement appeared in 
the Western Morning News for 18th May, 1918 : 

' The Bridge Farm, Cornwood, South Devon. — To be 
let by tender, from Lady-day, 1919, the above highly 
desirable farm, together with the right of grazing the 
Stroles in or adjacent to Storridge Wood.* 

What is the meaning of the word Stroles ? H. B. S". W 



»1 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 75 

Dial. Diet, has Stroll, a narrow slip of land. Obs. 
Devon. 

See also Moore, Hist, of Devon (1829), I, 355 ; and 
Marshall, Rural Econ. of West of Eng. (1796). 

" Teen. On p. 222 of Baring-Gould's Book of Dartmoor 
the words of one of the old songs are given, entitled, 
' The Silly Doe.' And one verse runs : 

' For many a mile they did me run, 
Before the sun went down ; 
Then I was brought to give a teen, 
And fall upon the ground.' 

H. B. S. W." 
This may mean that the doe was dead-beat, and forced 
to lie down and close its eyes. See Tine. 

" Tine. Do you know the expression, * The moon tines 
when it changes ? ' H. B. S. W." 

This means that the moon is " shut out " or obscured 
from view from the earth at this period. 

The verb to tine, or as it is more usually pronounced,' 
teen (long i frequently becoming long e in the dialect, cp. 
ched for child), means to shut or close. It is still heard in 
Devon, especially by older dialect speakers, in such ex- 
pressions as " I 'an't a,-teen'd my eyes all night " ; " Teen 
the door, will 'e ? " A.-S. tynan, to fence, enclose, shut. 

This word must not be confused with the verb to tind 
or tend, which means to light or kindle, and which is also 
pronounced teen in the dialect, e.g. " Teen the vire," 
" Candle-tee/m&' time," i.e. lighting-up time. 

A.-S. tyndan, tendan, to set on fire. 

" Thereafter, used as an adjective in the sense of 
* choice.' Said of the effort to find some good ware for a 
present : ' I wanted it to be a little bit thereafter.' That is, 
not poor or common, but of good china as compared with 
ooarse ' cloam.' Torquay, 1918. C. E. L." 

Very common. " I likes ta 'ave things a little bit there- 
after when I got comp'ny comin' " is the usual expression 
of a good housewife. It implies the wish to have one's 
house tidy and everything in order. 

" Tiflings (1st syllable long). * Her gown was covered 
wi' tiflin's.' Said of a lady who had mixed with the needle- 
women in a bout of domestic dressmaking. Meaning that 



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76 THIRTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

there were many ends and fibres of silk, etc., adhering to 
her dress. H. B. S. W;" 

See Tifflings, 31st Report, Vol. L, p. 184. 

" Truck =rubbish. ' I don't want that there truck putt 
yur.' Maid, Torquay. C. E. L." 

Common. " Don't tull up zich truck " is the usual phrase 
for don't talk nonsense. 

Cp. also the use of the word " trade " in Devon, with 
same meaning. 

'" VAEN=fen. Respecting the rare occasions when the 
Jack-o'-lantern is seen on the moor, the Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould in his Book of Dartmoor (p. 244), gives the following 
note : ' I have been informed that it is only seen after a 
hot summer, when, as the moor men say, the vaen rises, 
i.e. when there is fermentation going on in the fen. 

H. B. S. W." 
Ven (pronounced vain) is the invariable pronunciation 
of fen on Dartmoor. 

" Vair or VARE=a weasel. Is this word known to you 
in Devon? H. B. S. W." 

Vair or vairy for a weasel is still heard frequently, especi- 
ally in North Devon. It is not used for a stoat, which is 
usually called a- " black-tail " or a " stoat" though 
" fitchy," which is properly the polecat or martin, is often 
applied indiscriminately to both. 

See Vary in West Som. Word Book, where Mr. Elworthy 
states that most probably from similarity of sound this, 
word has been corrupted by some people who " know 
better " than to say vairy, into fairy. And there is an 
amusing anecdote, which I have heard or read somewhere* 
of a servant who astonished her mistress one day by saying, 
" Plaize 'm, there's a ' fairy ' got into the kitchen ! '* 
From O. F. Vair, fur. 

" There beeth veyres litel of body and ful hardy and 
strong." John Trevisa (Translation of Higden's Poly- 
chronicon), Vol. I, p. 335. 

Mr. Elworthy suggests that, not improbably, Cinderella's 
so-called " glass " slipper was really made of ermine fur, 
the translators having mistaken vair for verre. 

" Were or Ware = whether. ' I doan't know ware 'tis 
gwain to be fine or no to-day.' 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 77 

A very common expression here. Torrington, 1917. 

G. M. D." 

Always so pronounced. 

It would perhaps be more correct to write it whe'er, 
but of course the h is never sounded. The Devonshire 
dialect is primarily a dialect of vowel sounds, connected 
by more or less indistinct consonants. As a general rule 
we get rid of consonants so far as possible, though of course 
there are some notable exceptions, e.g. the addition of a 
final d or t in words like liard, suddent. 

Sayings : — 

" (1) * They wants to know the ins an' outs o' the cat's 
tail.' Said of people who desire full particulars of anything. 

" (2) ' That's the whole rigmarole an' pedigree o't.' 
Meaning that is the whole gist of the story. 

" (3) ' That's the middle an' both ends o't.' Meaning 
that's all that is to be said about it. 

" (4) ' If you mend things on your back, you'm sure to 
lack,' i.e. to want. 

" (5) Of a heavy rain : ' 'T was like 'alf -crowns shine.' 

' What do you mean ? ' 

' It was like half-crowns on the floor.' 

" (6) Woman, provoked at a fire not burning : ' 'Tis 
'nuff to mek 'e zay your prayers backwards ! ' 

" (7) Girl, to fire that won't burn : * Come on, come on. 
Wat's the matter wi' 'e ? 'E've a-got th' old Nick in 'e 's 
marnin' vor sartin ! ' 

Sam$ girl : ' That man 've a-got the chick (cheek) o' 
th' old Nick.' 

" (8) * Oh ! you'm harried in mind, like Pom'roy's cat.' 

" (9) ' Oh ! you'm like Pom'roy's cat, overjoyed wi' 
fullishness.' 

" (10) ' You must go where th' ole dumman went to 
zell her hen, where you ban't know'd.' 

" (11) ' Oh, my dear live ! 'e must do same's they doo's 
in France, the best 'e can.' C. E. L." 

" (12) ' Time and patience wears out most stone paustes.' 
Said by an old boatman in rebuke for impatience over a 
tangled fishing-line. The late A. R. Hunt, per C. E. L." 

" (13) ' There's nothin' wasted where there's a pig.' 
The following anecdote illustrative of this saying, though 
here used figuratively, was given me by Mrs. Ramsay, 
4, Wentworth Villas, Plymouth, March, 1918 : 



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78 DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 

" The first time I heard it was about 1879 at a farm- 
house near Tavistock. My hostess pressed on me the last 
piece of an apple-tart, laughingly adding, ' Du 'ee 'ave it, 
now, us can't ait it an' the pigs waan't. On my still de- 
clining, she popped it on her own plate, remarking, ' Well, 
there's nothin' wasted where there's a pig ! is there, 
Mr. Ramsay ? ' turning to my husband, who laughed and 
said, * Our West -country compliments are very funny 
sometimes, but always quaint.' 

H. B. S. W." 



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THIRTY-EIGHTH REPORT OF THE BARROW 
COMMITTEE. 

Thirty-eighth Report of the Committee — consisting of the 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. Burnard, Rev. J. F. 
Chanter, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth (Secretary) — 
appointed to collect and record facts relating to Barrows 
in Devonshire, and to take steps, where possible, for their 
investigation. 

Edited by R. Hansford Worth, Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Tiverton, 28rd JuTy, 1919.) 



KISTVAENS IN THE BRME VALLEY. 

On Brown Heath, near Erme Pound, there was formerly a 
kistvaen which stood within a circle at the head of a stone 
row. 

Of late years the kistvaen has been so thoroughly ruined 
that it is now lost in the stones of the cairn. Unfortunately 
no measurements were taken before the destruction was 
complete. 

A plan of the circle and cairn is now given. 

The whole monument is of great interest. The row is 
double and the circle lies at its northern end; the row does 
not point to the centre of the circle, the cairn does not 
occupy the true centre of the circle, and the kistvaen was 
not central in the cairn. 

About ninety feet south of the cairn the row touches 
another circle which lies on its eastern side. Excavation 
would be necessary to determine the nature of this second 
circle, which may possibly be a hut. About four hundred 
and fifty feet further south, the row touches and is partly 
lost in the wall of a pound which lies on the western side. 

A complete plan is desirable, and the writer hopes to 
be able to make a detailed survey. The pound encloses 
hut circles, and it is curious that it should have been so 
constructed as to interfere with a stone row, and thus 
indirectly with an interment, since the row terminates 
in a cairn formerly covering a kistvaen. 

R. Hansford Worth. 



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TENTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
CHURCH PLATE. 

Tenth Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. Max- 
well Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, 
Miss Cresswdl, Mr. A. J. Radford, Mr. A. L. Radford, 
Mr. Harbottle Reed, Major G. E. Windeatt and the Rev. 
J. F. Chanter, Hon. Sec. 

Edited by the Bm. J. F. Chanter, m.a.; f.s.a. 
(Read at Tiverton, 23rd July, 1919.) 



During the past year the Rev. J. F. Chanter has visited 
and inspected the plate in all the parishes of the Rural 
Deaneries of Collumpton and Tiverton, excepting the 
parishes in CoDumpton, which he inspected in 1916, and 
an account of the plate of these two Deaneries which com- 
prises the district lying on all sides of Tiverton, where our 
meeting is held this year, is presented as our report for 
this year as being one which will be especially of local 
interest, and it also links up the districts of North and 
East Devon, which have been already described in previous 
Teports. 

Rural Deanery of Collumpton. 

The Deanery of Collumpton contains nineteen parishes, 
the ancient chapelry of Culm Davey and a few modern' 
chapels. With the exception of the three small towns of 
Collumpton, Uffculm and Bradninch it is entirely rural, 
though the population of some of the villages such as 
Silverton and Halberton is considerable. 

The general survey of such Church Plate as is now 
existing leaves the impression that it is the least interest- 
ing of any of the Deaneries that have as yet been reported 
on. 

With the exception of two chalices, both of foreign work- 
manship and both recent gifts, there is absolutely nothing 
of outstanding interest, and no Deanery has suffered so 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 81 

much from alienation of ancient plate and its replacement 
by tasteless eighteenth- and nineteenth-century vessels. 
For instance at Culmstock the old chalice was sold in 1841 
for £3 17s. 6d. Four parishes only retain their Elizabethan 
chalices and ancient domestic plate which in so many 
parts of the county fills up the gaps is conspicuous by 
its almost total absence. The two striking pieces are a 
small chalice presented to Sampford Peverell by the late 
Rector, the Rev. 6. W. R. Ireland, which is quite unlike 
anything I have ever seen before. It is of French or 
Italian workmanship of the Renaissance period ; it stands 
6£ in. high, with a hexagonal bowl 2£ in. diameter, 2J in. 
deep. Each of the six faces has a trefoil head with a pear- 
shaped boss, arid below three pairs of hemispherical bosses, 
each pair diminishing in size, terminating in a smaller 
single boss. Between the bowl and the baluster stem are 
circles of leaves, some standing out horizontally, others 
vertically, the alternate ones turning their points in dif- 
ferent directions. I am glad to be able to give an illustra- 
tion of this piece from a photograph by Miss K. M. Clarke. 
The other is the ancient chalice from Ober-Ammergau, 
presented to Bradninch by Dr. Crossley ; it is a small 
example of the German style in the early seventeenth 
century. 

Elizabethan cups are found at Burlescombe, Clayhanger, 
Sampford Peverell, Willand and Culm Davey chapel. They 
are all of the Exeter type. Four are by John Jones of 
Exeter, and that at Culm Davey has no marks ; and all, with 
the exception of Willand, have their covers. At Halberton 
there is a cover by Jones, but the chalice has unfortunately 
disappeared. Silverton and Holcombe Rogus have chalices 
that are probably composite, Puritan shaped bowls on 
Elizabethan stems and feet ; Butterleigh, Clayhydon and 
Hemyock have seventeenth-century cups with baluster 
stems. At Burlescombe, Collumpton and Halberton there 
are seventeenth-century cups in the Puritan style ; the 
others, with the exception of the two modern gifts already 
referred to, present no points of interest, though I might 
mention that at Bradninch we have a good example of 
modern work in the mediaeval style. With regard to patens, 
excepting the chalice covers the oldest are Burlescombe, 
1638, which is a plain domestic plate dedicated to sacred 
purposes ; and Collumpton, 1658, also made for domestic 
purposes ; and at Sampford Peverell there is a curious 

VOL. LI. F 



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82 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

small rosewater dish of French make. Flagons are found 
in fourteen of the parishes ; the only ones of any interest 
are at Burlescombe, where theie are three flat-lid tankards, 
a pair being 1638. Alms-dishes are scarce, and the only 
one of interest is a curious pewter piece at Hemyock. I 
would notice also that at Clayhydon there is a complete 
set of pewter sacramental vessels. Armorials are found in 
five cases. Exeter goldsmiths' work of the eighteenth 
century is only found in six parishes, and unrecorded marks 
only at Willand, which are probably Exeter or local. 

BLACKBOROUGH. 

Chalices. — A. Victorian style. 8 in. high ; bowl, 3f in- 
diameter, 4 in. deep ; stem with smaU knop ; foot, cir- 
cular, 3£ in. diameter. 

Marks : E E W J B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1837. 

Arms : Wyndham impaling Roberts* with supporters 
and motto. Weight, 11 oz. 3 dwt. 

B. Replica of A. 

Patens. — A. Plain plate. 8 in. diameter. 
Marks : as on chalices. 

Crest : a coronet with lion's head erased within a fetter- 
lock (Wyndham). 
B. Replica of A. 

Flagon. — Victorian tankard, with domed lid. 11 in- 
high, 5| in. diameter at base. Weight, 33 oz. 
Marks and Arms : as on chalice. 
All presented by the Earl of Egremont in 1838. 

BRADNINCH. 

Chalices. — A. Modern mediaeval style, gilt, 7J in. high ; 
bowl, conical, 4f in. diameter, 2| in. deep ; stem hexagonal 
with open knot of six lozenges, each with lion's face ; foot* 
hexagonal ; base, six mullets ixx one compartment, of which 
there is an engraved crucifix. It is 5 in. in diameter across 
points of mullet foot. 

Marks : J E L & S (J. E. Lake & Son) and London hall- 
marks for 1914. 

Inscription : "To the glory of God and in memory of 
Jane Barbara, Francis Edith, 1911, and of Edith Adeline* 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 83 

1913. DD Vicarius et conjux MCMXIV. ,, Weight, 
13 oz. 18 dwt. 

B. Victorian style. 8f in. high ; bowl tulip shape with 
six flirtings, 3$ in. diameter, 4$ in. deep ; stem with small 
knop foot quatrefoil with four smaller foils alternating. 

Marks : W S and London hall-marks for 1860. 
Inscription : " Presented by Henry Matthews to Brad- 
ninch Church, Anno Domini 1866." Weight, 12 oz. 5 dwt. 

C. Replica. Marks and inscription same. Weight, 
11 oz. 19 dwt. 

D. Plain modern mediaeval style. 5f in. high ; bowl 
conical, 2} in. diameter ; 2 in. deep round stem and foot. 

Marks : C B and London hall-marks for 1902. Weight, 
4oz. 13 dwt. 

Patens. — A. To match chalice A, plain silver-gilt with 
cross on rim. 6£ in. diameter. Weight, 5 oz. 9 dwt. 
Marks : J. W. & Co. and London hall-marks for 1908. 

B. To match chalices B and C, on stand. 8 in. diameter, 
3 in. high. 

Marks : as on chalice B. 

Inscription : " Presented by Dulcibella Linnington to 
Bradninch Church, 1866." 

C. Plain mediaeval style. 4§ in. diameter. 

Marks : J. W. & Co. and London hall-marks for 1918. 
Weight, 2 oz. 15 dwt. 

Inscription : "To the glory of God and in memory of 
our dear parents Charles and Elizabeth Drew, 1918." 

Flagon. — Victorian type with spout and finial to match 
chalice B. 14 in. high, 10$ in. to lid, diameter at lid 3f in., 
at foot 12$ in. 

Marks : W. S. and London hall-marks for 1863. Weight,. 
43 oz. 6 dwt. 

Inscription : " Presented to Bradninch Church by Rev* 
H. P. Leakey, Incumbent ; Wm. Hy. Besly, Churchwarden; 
Henry S. Bowden, Chs. Matthews Anno Domini 1866." 

HELB CHAPEL. 

Chalice. — The inscription shows it was brought from 
Ober-Ammergau. It is a small cup 5$ in. high, the upper 
part of bowl bell-shaped, and has a bold convex lobed part 
with repouss6 work at base. 3J in. diameter, 2| in. deep ; 
stem with small knop ; foot, 2i in diameter. 



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84 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Marks : (i.) B ; (ii.) S^\ (iii.) Three small figures. All 
marks in circles. Weight, 5 oz. 2 dwt. 

Inscription : %t This old chalice from Ober-Ammergau, 
1900, together with paten, was presented to the Vicar of 
Bradninch by Charles Crossleigh, D D." 

Paten. — Plain with cross on rim. 4§ in. diameter. 
Marks : J K, H C and London hall-marks for 1900. 

Alms Dish. — Plain. 5f in. Plated. 

Cruets. — A pair. Silver and glass. 

BUKLESCOMBE. 

Chalices. — A. Elizabethan, Exeter type, with cover 
complete ; parcel-gilt. 7£ in. high ; bowl conical with • 
usual concave lip and band of arabesque foliation and 
str^pwork in centre ; stem with knop and fillets ; foot 
with tongue ornamentation, 3| in. diameter. 

Marks: (i.) I ; (ii.) IO V\S. 

Cover to fit. 4£ in. diameter, 1 £ in. high, with inscription, 
" The Parysh of Burlescombe," on button. 
Mark : I O V\ S. 
B. Puritan type. 8f in. high ; bowl, 4f in. diameter. 

Marks : JJj (W. Maunday) and London hall-marks for 

1638. 

Inscription : " Donum Phillippi Culme." Weight, 
16 oz. 3 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A, see above. 

B. A plain plate. 7£ in. diameter. Marks and inscrip- 
tion as on chalice B. Weight, 8 oz: 4 dwt. 

C. A replica of paten B. Weight, 8 oz. 2 dwt. 

Flagons. — A. Tankard shape with flat lid. 12 in. high, 
4f in. diameter at lid, 7f in. at foot. 

Marks : A tree between C C and London hall-marks for 
1638. 

Inscription : " Donum Phillippi Culme." Weight, 
58 oz. 14 dwt. 

B. Replica of A, but 12| in. high. Weight, 59 oz. 1 1 dwt. 
Marks and inscription same. 

C. Tankard with flat lid. 11 in. high, 4f in. diameter 
at lid. Weight, 48 oz. 17 dwt. 

Marks : S C and London hall-marks for 1672. 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 85 

Arms : Arg. a chevron sable between three ash flowers 
(Ayshford). 

BUTTERLEIGH. * 

Chalice, — A baluster stem cup. 6f in. high ; bowl, 3} in. 
diameter, 3| in. deep, with sacred monogram added in 
1864 ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Deo et Ecclesiae 1864." 

Marks : H N bird with olive branch below and London 
hall-marks for 1661. 

Paten. — Modern mediaeval style. 7 in. diameter round 
rim. 

Engraved " Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi da 
nobis pacem." Hexagonal depression with sacred mono- 
gram. 

Inscription : " Deo et Ecclesiae 1864." 
Marks : E B J B (E. and J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1860. 

Flagon. — Silver and glass, with London hall-marks for 
1853. 

CLAYHANGER. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan, Exeter type, with cover complete. 
An elegant-shaped little cup. 6 in. high ; bowl conical, 
3| in. diameter, 3£ in. deep with usual concave lip and 
band of interlacing strapwork and arabesque foliation 
round centre \ in. wide ; stem with small knop, fillets with 
hatching and tongue-work ornamentation top and bottom ; 
foot domical, with tongue ornamentation. 3 \ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) X ; (ii) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 
Weight, 6 oz. 2 dwt. 

Cover to fit. 3£ in. diameter, \ in. high, with band of 
interlacing strapwork and arabesque, tongue ornamenta- 
tion at junction with stand, button with arabesques and 
date 1574. 

Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 1 oz. 10 dwt. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover, see above. 

B. Pewter on stand. 9£ in. diameter, 3 in. high, with 
the marks of Richard Going. 

Flagon. — Pewter. A flat-lid tankard. 8| in. high, 
7f in. to lid,. 3| in. diameter at lid, 5£ in. at foot. 

The chalice of this parish is kept in an old leather co- 
temporary case. 



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86 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

CLAYHYDON. 

Chalice. — A baluster stem cup. 6f in. high ; the bowl 
3} in. in diameter, 3£ in. high, ornamented at a later period 
with sacred monogram and emblems of passion in a 
circle of rays ; foot, 3$ in. diameter. 

Marks : I M with a bear below and London hall-marks 
for 1638-9. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 7£ in. diameter, 2 in. high. 
Marks : B A (? Joseph Barbitt) and London hall-marks 
for 1701-2. 

Flagon. — A tankard in the Early Victorian style, with 
domed lid, spout and finial. 13 in. high, 3| in. diameter 
at lid. 

Marks : E E J W B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1701-2. 

Alms Dish. — A bowl. 7} in. diameter, If in. high. 
Marks : E E J W B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1701-2. 

Here the old set of pewter vessels is still complete. 

PEWTER VESSELS. 

Chalice. — A bowl. 3$ in. high, 4f in. diameter. 
Inscription : "IMRB 1733." 

Paten. — On stand. 7| in. diameter, 2| in. high. Marked 
W B London, crowned X, flower and cinquefoil. 

Tankard. — 13 in. high, with double handle and domed 
lid. Marked Richard Going, and lamb and flag. 

Alms Bason. — 9 in. diameter, 2| in. high. 

Inscription : "ITTUCW 1772." 

COLLUMPTON. 

Chalices. — A. Late Seventeenth Century, with cover, 
gilt. 7f in. high ; bowl bell-shaped, 4 in. diameter, 4 J in. 
deep ; flange under and trumpet stem ; foot, 3^ in. 
diameter. 

Marks : I R rosettes above and below and London hall- 
marks for 1680. 

Inscription : "RL,AH 1680." Weight, 13 oz. 13 dwt. 
■ B. A replica. 7| in. high. 

Marks : same. 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 87 

Inscription: "RLAH CW 1680." Weight, 14 oz. 
7 dwt. 

In churchwardens' accounts for 1680 is note : " Payed 
for two silver cups with covers gilted £16 2 0." 

Patens. — A and B. Covers to above. 5 in. diameter, 
1 in. high ; foot, 2f in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalices. Weights, 5 oz. 12 dwt. and 6 oz. 

C. Plain on stand with foot which is a later addition. 
7J in. diameter, 1 J in. high. Weight, 15 oz. 4 dwt. 

Marks : R N mullets above and below (Richard Neale) 
and London hall-marks for 1658. 

Inscription : " Mrs. Richard Speed, daughter of Mr. 
Hugh Speed, deceased, gave this plate to the service of the 
church at Columpton as her dying legacye for a perpetuall 
testimonie of her then well wishes to the prosperity of that 
society. Columpton, 24 July, 1658. Glory to God in the 
highest. Vox populi Dei. Live Jesus live and let it be, 
Our life to live and feed on thee." 

Flagon. — A tankard with domed lid. 12 in. high, 9| in. 
to lid, 4} in. diameter at lid ; 7 in. at foot. 

Marks : P E (Philip Elston) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1737. 

Inscription : " John Wilcocks, Vicar ; Henry Fry, Esq., 
Francis Webb, Churchwardens, 1737." Weight, 54 oz. 
18 dwt. 

CULMSTOCK. 

Chalice. — Victorian style. 8£ in. high ; bowl tulip shape, 
divided hexagonally by fluting, 4 in. diameter, 4J in. deep ; 
baluster stem ; and sexfoil foot 4J in. diameter. 

Marks : J A J A in quatref oil (Joseph and John Angel) 
and London hall-marks for 1838. 

Paten. — On stand to match chalice. 8| in. diameter, 
3| in. high. 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard and London hall-marks for 
1838. 

Flagon. — Similar style, domed lid, spout and cross for 
finial. 13J in. high, 10J in. to lid, 3| in. diameter at lid, 
5| in. foot. 

Marks: J A J A and London hall-marks for 1832. 
Weight, 42 oz. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plate to match. 8 in. diameter. 
Marks : J A J A and London hall-marks for 1814. 



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88 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

(All the above were presented in 1840.) 

B. A plate of similar design. 7J in. diameter. 

Marks : J A J A and London hall-marks for 1838. 

Procured in exchange for the old chalice in 1841, eleven, 
shillings being given to make up the amount £4 8s. 6d.„ 
which shows that the old chalice only fetched £3 17s. 6d. 

Breads Box. — 5£ in. by 2J in. No marks. 

HALBERTON. 

Chalices. — A. Puritan style. 8| in. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, 4| in. diameter, 5 T Vin. deep; stem with good 
knop ; foot, 4f in. diameter. 

Marks : F I star under and London hall-marks for 1634. 

Inscription : " The gift of Thomas Were of Corham, 
Gent, An° 1634/' 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 8 in. high ; bowl conical, 
4£ in. diameter, 2| in. deep, with band round centre en- 
graved : " Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood." 
Stem hexagonal, fair knop of openwork with sacred mono- 
gram on points ; foot of six mullets, 4| in. diameter. 

Marks : I K and London hall-marks for 1852. 

Patens. — A. An Elizabethan chalice cover. 3| in, 
diameter, 1 in. high, with band of late arabesque and strap- 
work button with fleur-de-lis on stippled ground. 

Marks : (i.) x ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 

B. To match chalice A. Plain on foot. 6 J in. diameter, 
If in. high. 

Marks : P B and London hall-marks for 1634. 
Inscription : " T £H 1634." 

C. To match chalice B. 6f in. diameter round rim, 
engraved : " Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive Glory 
and Honor and Power." Centre has " Agnus Dei " in an 
hexagonal depression. 

Marks : I K and London hall-marks for 1852. 
Inscription : " The gift of Louise Maria Viscountess 
Dowager Downe, 1853." 

Alms Dish. — 15 in. diameter. Engraved round rim : 
" All things come of thee and of thine own have we given 
thee." Centre has quatrefoil depression with sacred mono- 
gram and oak leaves. 

Marks and inscription as on paten C. 

Flagon. — Pair of cruets. Silver and glass. 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 89 

Box for Altar Breads. — 2J in. diameter, J in. high. 
Marks : J.W. & Co. and Birmingham hall-marks for 

' "In usu informirum." 

Chalice. — 3f in. high, wine-glass pattern ; bowl hemis- 
pherical, 1$ in. diameter, 1 in. deep ; stem and foot 
hexagonal. 

Marks : I and London hall-marks for 1860. 

Inscription : " This service was presented to the Rev. 
J. S. Jones by his friends and well-wishers on his leaving 
the curacy of Ruabon, 1865." 

PcUen. — Hexagonal. 2| in. diameter, with sacred mono- 
gram and wreath. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

ASH THOMAS. 

Two chalices, two patens and a flagon, all plated. 
Inscription : " The gift of Elizabeth Cadbury, 1878." 

HEMYOCK. 

Chalice. — A plain baluster stem cup. 6f in. high ; bowl 
conical, 3| in. diameter, 3 J in. deep ; foot, 3f in. diameter. 

Marks : a bird on a shield and London hall-marks for 
1650. 

Inscription, pricked : "IW 1651." 

Patens. — A. On stand with gadroon border. 9 t Vin. 
diameter, 4J in. high. 

Marks : 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 6£ in. diameter, with 
sacred monogram and " Blessed be the name of his majesty 
for ever." 

Marks : T P and London hall-marks for 1896. 

Inscription : " S. Mary's, Hemyock, D D. H. L. 
Popham, 1896." 

Flagcm. — Plain domed-lid tankard. 11 in. high, 9 J in. 
to lid, 3| in. diameter at lid, 6£ in. at base. 

Marks : T W C W (Whipham and Wright) and London 
hall-marks for 1763. 

Inscription : " Hemyock, Devon, 1763." Weight, 38 oz. 
15 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — A pewter piece on three feet, octagonal in 
shape. 8 J in. diameter, If in. high. 



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90 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Inscription : " Mr. James Halwey and Mr. Barnett 
Hoydes, Churchwardens, 1698." 

CULM DAVEY. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan Exeter type, with cover complete, 
very short stem. 5| in. high ; bowl conical, with usual 
.concave lip, 3£ in. diameter, 3f in. deep, with narrow band 
of arabesque ornament f in. -wide round the upper part ; 
stem plain with knop and two fillets with dot-and-miss 
ornamentation ; foot, 2f in. diameter, with ring of zigzag 
ornamentation and circles with lines in triangles. 

No marks. 

Cover. — 3| in. diameter, 1J in. high ; small band of 
arabesque and strap work and Tudor rose on button. No 
marks. 

Paten. — On stand. 5| in. diameter, If in. high, with 
chasing. No marks. 

HOCKWORTHY. 

Chalices. — A. A goblet. 5 J in. high ; bowl ovate, 3 J in. 
diameter, 3| in. deep ; foot, 3f in., with slight engraved 
ornamentation. 

Marks : S D E D (S. & E. Devonport ?) and London 
hall-marks for 1796. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 7f in. high ; bowl hemis- 
pherical, with band* round centre, engraved "Calicem 
salutaris accipiam et nomen domini invocabo " ; stem 
hexagonal, with openwork boss ; foot sexfoil, 4$ in. 
diameter. 

Marks : E B & J B (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1853. 

Paten. — On stand. 9| in., with gadroon borders top 
and foot 2f in. high. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Eliza and Mrs. Prances 
Bluett to the church at Hockworthy." 

Arms : With mantling. A chevron vaire between three 
spread eagles of the second, and crest a squirrel with 
nut. 

Marks : L E (Timothy Ley) and London hall-marks for 
1700. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 12 in. high, 1| in. 
diameter at lid, 5J in. at foot, which is sexfoil. 



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CHUBCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 91 

Marks : E B & J B (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1853. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Brass. 
B. Pewter. 9f in. diameter. 

HOLCOMBE ROGUS. 

Chalices. — A. Probably composite. A large Puritan 
style bowl, on an older Elizabethan stem. 8f in. high, 
with slight lip, 4f in. diameter, 4f in. deep, with arms 
impaled, dexter, on a pile gules between six fleur-de-lys 
three lions passant guardant (Seymour). ; Sinister, Or a 
fleur-de-lys (Portman), and added later a band with in- 
scription, " Drink ye all of this, for this is my blood of the 
new testament," and a cross ; stem with fair knop and 
fillets at top and bottom ; foot circular, 4f in. diameter. 
Weight, 16 oz. 8 dwt. 

Marks : R W and London hall-marks for 1633-4. 

B. Modern mediaeval style, silver gilt. 8J in. high ; 
bowl conical, 4f in. diameter, 3$ inches deep, has fixed to 
it a heart with diamonds surrounded by long and short 
rays set with diamonds ; stem hexagonal with double 
domical boss with six facets ; foot sexfoil, 5£ in. diameter, 
the six compartments being ornamented, five with bunches 
of grapes below trefoils and front one with a cross. 

Inscription : " The gift of Charlotte Rayer to All SS. 
Church, Holcombe Rogus, Whitsunday, 1900." Weight, 
18 oz. 17 dwt. 

Marks : JW,FCW and London hall-marks for 1899- 
1900. 

Patens. — A. Forms cover to chalice A. 5 in. diameter, 
If in. high. 

Inscription : " Holcombe Rogus Church." 

Marks and arms : as on chalice. Weight, 7 oz. 17 dwt. 

B. To match chalice B, silver-gilt on foot. 7 \ in. 
diameter, 2£ in. high, with sacred monogram in centre. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice, but date letter is 
1900-1. Weight, 14 oz. 5 dwt. 

C. On foot, with gadroon edges. 9 J in. diameter, 2| in. 
high. Engraved, " Take eat, this is my body which is 
given for you," and sacred monogram on a lozenge-shaped 
plate soldered on. 

Inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Mary Baynard to the 
Parish Church of Holcombe Regis (sic) 1714." 



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92 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Marks : R U crown over (John Ruslen). The other 
hall-marks are peculiar, for while London new standard 
the date letter is g, probably meant for 1700-1. 

Flagon. — A domed-lid tankard with cross on top and 
spout added later. 11| in. high to top of cross, 8 J in. to 
lid, 3J in. diameter at lid, 4| in. at base. 

Inscription : " Gulielmus Vicariiis Deo consecravit 1848, 
Holfcombe Rogus. The blood of Christ cleanseth us from 
all sin. ,, 

Marks : JS and Exeter hall-marks for 1771-2. 

HUNTSHAM. 

Chalices. — A. Georgian style. 7£ in. high ; bowl plain, 
3| in. diameter, 4 \ in. deep ; stem with small knop ; foot, 
3J in. diameter. 

Marks : T C (Thomas Coffin) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1731-2. 

B. French Renaissance type. 8f in. high ; bowl hemis- 
pherical, lower half repouss6 work, 3f in. diameter, 3 in. 
deep ; baluster stem ; foot quatrefoil, alternating with 
four angular points. 6 in. diameter. 

No marks. (?) if silver. 

Patens. — A. Plain on foot. 5£ in. diameter, If in. high. 

Inscription : " Huntsham Parish 173J." 

Marks : P E (Philip Elston) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1727-8. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 6| in. diameter, with 
" Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi da nobis pacem " en- 
graved on rim, sexfoil depression with sacred monogram* 
" And we being many are one blood." 

Inscription : "To my Lord Jesus Christ for the service 
of my brethren in Huntsham in memory of my blessed 
wife, Fanny, and in grateful and loving remembrance of 
twenty-one years fellowship in prayer and praise, in the 
word and in Holy Communion, in work and labour of love, 
she gained her rest Aug. 4, 1856. Arthur H. D. Troyte." 

" To me to live is Christ to die is gain. All Saints' Day, 
1856." 

Marks : E B J B (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1853. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 11 J in. high, en- 
graved with " Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus " ; 
If in. diameter at lid, 4f in. at base. 



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CHTJBCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 93 

Marks : E B, J B (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1853. 

KENTISBEAEE. 

Chalices. — A. Victorian type. 6$ in. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, with sacred monogram in circle, 3| in. diameter, 
3| in. deep ; stem with small knop ; foot, 3^0 in. diameter. 

Marks : E B J B (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1837. 

Inscription : " Ex Dono Boberti Tripp, Rectoris, 1807. " 
(R. Tripp was Rector 1791-1825.) 

Weight, 6 oz. 17 dwt. 

B. A replica of chalice A. Inscription same, but date 
letter 1840, and weight is 8 oz. 

Patens. — Plain on stand. 8 in. diameter, 3£ in. high. 
Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 6 oz. 10 dwt. 

Flagon. — A tankard with domed lid. 11 in. high, 4 in. 
diameter at lid, 5| in. at base. 

London hall-marks for 1806. Weight, 39 oz. 

(Paid for flagon, £22 16s. 6d. Churchwardens' accounts 
1806-7.) 

A terrier of the seventeenth century mentions a com- 
munion cup of silver and two plates, all of which have dis- 
appeared. 

SAMPFORD PEVEEELL. 

Chalices.-*- A. Elizabethan Exeter type with cover com- 
plete. 5J in. high ; bowl conical, with usual concave lip, 
3 in. diameter, 3 in. deep, with band of arabesque ornamen- 
tation between parallel lines J in. wide, and tongue orna- 
mentation at junction with stem, which has small knop 
and fillets, with pellet ornamentation top and bottom ; 
foot, 3£ in. diameter. 

Inscription (added in nineteenth century) : " Calicem 
salutaris accipiam et nomen Domini invocabo." 

Marks : (i.) )] ; (ii.) IONS, on foot also XI, XI, which 
seems to be ancient marks on silver before it was worked 
up to the present chalice. 

Cover to fit. 3f in. diameter, 1 in. high, with a good 
band of arabesque ornamentation round rim and on 
button, with cinquefoil and dotted ornamentation, " IN 
THE YEAR OF OURE LORD, 1573." 



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94 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 

B. A very curious small chalice of foreign make, gilt. 
6 J in. high ; the bowl is hexagonal in shape, 2£ in. diameter, 
2§ in. deep ; each of the six faces has a trefoil head with 
a pear-shaped boss, and below three pairs of hemispherical 
bosses, each pair diminishing in. size, terminating in a 
smaller single one all on a chased ground. Round the lip 
is an ornamentation of dotted work, and at the base a 
circle of leaves standing out from the bowl horizontally, 
and beneath these smaller leaves leaning vertically with 
alternate ones turning their points up ; it has a baluster 
stem with domical base, with pear-shaped bosses on a 
chased ground, and foot with concave moulding 2f in. 
diameter ; a bolt with nut runs through stem to the bowl. 

Marks : (i.) A girl's head with leaves round face in a 
circle ; (ii.) C in a circle ; (iii.) a trefoil with S C C. 

Inscription (added in nineteenth century) : " Ecclesia 
de Sampford Peverell. Hie est enim calix sanguinis mei 
novi testamenti." (See illustration.) 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 9 in. high ; bowl hemis- 
pherical, 5 T V in. diameter, 3J in. deep ; stem hexagonal, 
with fair knop ; sexfoil foot 5| in. diameter. 

Marks : Maker G. R., E. B. and London hall-marks for 
1862. 

Inscription : " Presented by the Rev. George William 
Rossiter Ireland, m.a., pu.d., Rector, Christmas, 1862. 
This is Hh my blood." 

Patens. — A. Cover to chalice A, see above: 

B. A small rose water dish of French make with em- 
bossed rim. 5| in. diameter, 3} in. high. It is embossed 
round rim with fruit and flowers, and has a circular de- 
pression 3£ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) (n) ; (ii.) on a shield two stars with swan 
under ; (iii.) indistinct. 

Inscription : " Ecclesia de Sampford Peverell. Hie est 
corpus meum." 

C. Plain on stand. 10 in. diameter, 3 in. high. 
Marks: JE, rosette under (John Elston) and Exeter 

hall-marks for 1723. 

Inscription : " Haec quoties cumque feceritis in mei 
memoriam facietis Sampford Peverell. Robert Sanders, 
John Cowler, Churchwardens, 1723 ; Rev. George Drake, 
Rector." 



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CHALICE. SAMPFORD PEVERELL. 



Church Plate Report.— To face p. 94. 

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CHTJBCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 95 

D. Modern mediaeval style. 7 i in. diameter. 
Marks : as on chalice C. 

Inscription : " Presented by the Rev. George W. R. 
Ireland, m.a., ph.d. Rector. Christmas Day, 1862." 

Flagon. — A large domed-lid tankard. 11 in. high, 9 J in, 
to lid, 3| in. diameter at lid, 6f in. at base. 

Marks : Maker W P (W. Pierce) and Exeter hall-marks 
for 1752. 

Inscription : " John Cowler, Thomas Roe, Church- 
wardens, 1752 ; Revd. Bertie Henley, Rector. Qui pro 
vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum." 

Alms Dish. — Brass and old Dutch piece. 13 in. diameter. 

Ring. — A large seal ring set with chalcedony, on which 
is figure of S. John Baptist the patronal saint of the church. 

SILVERTON. 

Chalices. — A. Late Elizabethan style with cover, silver- 
gilt. 9£ in. high, it has, however, all appearances of a 
later bowl fitted to an earlier foot and stem. Bowl is plain, 
4 T V in. diameter, without usual band, but instead lozenges 
at base ; usual Elizabethan stem knop, and foot with egg- 
and-tongue ornamentation. 

Marks : Maker F over W in monogram and London hall- 
marks for 1617. 

Inscription: " SILVERTON." Weight, with cover, 
22 oz. 15 dwt. 

Cover. — 4f in. diameter ; foot, 2\ in. diameter, with 
marks as on chalice. 

Inscription : " SILVERTON 1618 " and arms Arg. a 
bend sable between three pellets. (Bishop Cotton.) 

B. Georgian style. 

Marks : Maker I P (I. Pearse) and Exeter hall-marks 
for 1789. Weight, 16 oz. 16 dwt. 

Pctiens. — A. Cover to chalice A, see above. 

B. Plain on stand with cable border. 9 in. diameter, 
2f in. high ; foot, 3| in. diameter. Weight, 12 oz. 3 dwt. 

Marks : I C, crown over (James Chad wick) and London 
hall-marks for 1694. 

Flagon. — Plain flat-lid tankard, 3f in. diameter at 
lid, 5f in. at base. Weight, 33 oz. 16 dwt. 

Marks : Co, crown over (John Cory) and London hall- 
marks for 1700. 



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96 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Inscription : "John Land, Henry Richards, Wardens, 
1700." 

Alms Dish. — The decent bason of rubric. 6| in. diameter, 
3 in. high. Weight, 10 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : Maker indistinct and Exeter hall-marks for 1738. 



UFFCULME. 

Chalices. — A. Late Georgian style. 6f in. high ; bowl 
ovate, 3 in. diameter, 3 J in. deep ; stem with small-beaded 
knop ; foot circular, with beading, 3£ in. diameter. 

Marks : J S and London hall-marks for 1816. 

Inscription : " Richard John Marker and Anna his wife 
to the parish of Uffculme, 1830." Weight, 8 oz. 10 dwt. 

B. Late Georgian style. 6f in. high ; bowl, with sacred 
monogram in centre, 3 in. diameter, 3f in. deep ; stem 
with small beaded knop and beaded foot. 

Marks : Maker indistinct and London hall-marks for 
1842. 

Inscription : " Richard John Marker, to the parish of 
Uffculme, 1842." Weight, 8 oz. 15 dwt. 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 7J in. high, plated. 

Paten*. — A. * Plain on foot. 6f in. diameter, If in. high ; 
foot, 2f in. diameter. 

Marks : F V, crown over, and Exeter hall-marks for 
1718. Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. 

Inscription : " Richard Clarke, Francis Webb, Wardens, 
1719." 

B. Plain on stand, which is a later addition. 8 J in. 
diameter, 2| in. high ; foot, 2| in. diameter. Weight, 
15 oz. 18 dwt. 

Marks : Maker indistinct and London hall-marks for 
1797. 
Arms : In a lozenge impaled dexter. 

C. On stand with beaded rim. 7f in. diameter, 2f in. 
high. 

Marks : I P (Isaac Parkin) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1830. 

Inscription : " Richard John Marker and Anna his wife 
to the parish of Uffculme, 1830." 

Arms in mantling, party per pale. Baron, paly of four 
argent and gules. Femme, sable two swords saltier points 
towards base, and crest a greyhound courant. (? Marker 
and Holway.) 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 97 

Flagon. — A nondescript piece with spout, domed lid and 
finial. 13| in. high, 1 1 in. to lid, beaded rim 4J in. diameter 
at lid, 6J in. at foot. Weight, 39 oz. 

Marks : G F (George Ferris) and Exeter hall-marks for 

1823. 

* 

Inscription : " Richard John Marker and Anna his wife 
to the parish of Uffculme, 1824." 

Alms Dish. — Brass. 

Spoon. — With cross at top. 6 in. long, plated. 

Funnel. — 4£ in. long, 2| in. diameter. 

Marks : G and S and Sheffield hall-marks for 1868. 

ALL SAINTS, BRADFIELD. 

Chalice. — Modern mediaeval style. 7£ in. high ; hemis- 
pherical bowl, plated. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 6| in. diameter, 2£ in. high ; 
foot, 2| in. diameter. 

Marks : J S and London hall-marks for 1721. Weight, 
8oz. 

Arms with mantling, party per pale. Baron, Or three 
bulls' heads caboshed sable, f emme, sable on a f esse argent, 
three mullets between three elephants heads erased. 

Flagons. — A pair, silver and glass. 8£ in. high. 
Marks : J B and London hall-marks for 1868. 

st. Stephen's, ashill. 
Chalice. — Modern mediaeval style. 7$ in. high, plated. 
Paten. — To match. 6 in. diameter, plated. 
Flagon. — Glass and plated. 

UPLOMAN. 

Chalice. — Plain Georgian type. 9 in. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, 4£ in. diameter, 4f in. deep ; baluster stem ; foot, 
4$ in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Uploman." 

Marks : 3 S (James Strang) and Exeter hall marks 
ior 1737-8. * 

PcUen. — Plain on stand. 7f in. diameter, 2 in. high. 
Marks : (£1, crown over (John Elston) and Exeter 
lall-marks for 1719. 

vol. u. G 



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98 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

- Inscription : "The gilt* of Mrs. Marg* Ham to the 
Church of Uploman, 1738." 

Flagon. — Domed-lid tankard. 10 j in. high, 9§*tn. to lid, 
4 in. diameter at lid, 5J in. at base. 

Marks : I W, crown over (John Webber) and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1737. 

Inscription : " The gift of Margrett Ham to the Church 
of Uploman, 1737." 

Alms Dish. — Plate with gadroon edge. 9| in. diameter. 
Sheffield plate. 

WILLAND. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan Exeter type. 6 in. high ; bowl 
conical, with usual concave lip, 3£ in. diameter, 3fV in. deep, 
with narrow band of late Elizabethan arabesques and strap- 
work j% in. wide round centre ; stem with usual knot and 
fillets top and bottom with pellet ornamentation ; foot, 
3 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) IONS; (ii.) Exeter town mark. Weight, 
6 oz. 1 dwt. Cover is missing. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 6f in. diameter, 2 in. high ' r 
foot is trumpet shape. 

Mark : J D in monogram and same in smaller punch on 
foot. Weight, 5 oz. 8 dwt. 

Flagon.— Modern mediaeval style. 11 J in. high, plated. 

J. F. Chanter. 
Plate inspected 1916-19. Collumpton in 1912. 

Rural Deanery of Tiverton. 

The Deanery of Tiverton contains twenty-one benefices, 
all of which, with the exception of those in Tiverton itself, 
being entirely rural. The character of the plate is very 
similar to that of Collumpton, the proportion oi Elizabethan 
work still remaining being very similar, and here is the v 
same tale of theft and alienation. At Templeton the whole* 
plate of the parish was given away in 1867, it is stated, to 
a colonial Bishop : we can scarcely conceive of a Christian 
- prelate as a receiver of stolen goods. Theft is responsible 
for the loss of the plate of Tiverton ancient parish church 
in 1840 ; but it is a matter of congratulation that the 
churchwardens of that year replaced it largely with eigh- 
teenth-century work instead of tasteless Early Victorian: 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 99 

pieces. Fire is responsible for the loss of all but an Eliza- 
bethan chalice, which was fortunately saved at Ouwys 
Morchard ; but at Loxbeare there is nothing older than 
1855, and at Bampton 1822. What became of the old is 
not known, but Bampton folk had from long past a ten- 
dency for modern fashions. As far back as 1740 there is 
an entry in the churchwardens' accounts : " Paid Mr. 
Hodge for exchange of the tankard for the Communion, 
9 shillings." " Paid W m Yeo for bringing the new Tan* 
kard and carrying the old, 3 pence." The pieces of most 
interest in this Deanery are the Chalices at Cadeleigh and 
Cruwys Morchard ; both are Elizabethan. That at 
Cadeleigh is the only example yet known of a chalice by 
an Exeter goldsmith named Richard Osborne, who was 
working at Exeter from 1562 to his death in 1607, and 
may be dated as circ. 1572. It is of the usual Exeter type, 
but somewhat plainer than those made by Jones. The 
only mark is R O in a circle on the corner. The story of 
the recovery of the cover is also of interest, it having been 
found by the present rector on a rubbish heap in the 
grounds of the old rectory. 

The Cruwys Morchard chalice is a handsome piece, 
parcel-gilt, of a type quite unlike any other found in the 
Archdeaconry of Exeter. It approaches far more to the 
Barnstaple type of chalice, especially to those by Thomas 
Mathew, and may with some probability be assigned to 
him, especially as Cruwys Morchard with Okeford, Pud- 
dington, Rackenford and Stoodleigh were till recently all 
in the Rural Deanery of South Molton and Archdeaconry 
of Barnstaple. 

Other Elizabethan chalices in the present Tiverton 
Deanery are at Stoodleigh and Washford Pyne by John 
Jones of Exeter Morebath, a late example of the Exeter 
type dated 1593 with no marks ; and Okeford, which has 
one of London make dated 1579. 

There are baluster-stem cups at Bickleigh, Petton and 
Puddington, and a chalice in the Puritan style dated 1686 
at Washfield. With regard to patens, apart from chalice 
covers there is nothing of interest. 

Flagons are found in seventeen parishes, but many are 
pewter or plated. There is only one as early as the eigh- 
teenth century, a good flat -lid tankard with bold massive 
handle, probably Tiverton work. It has an inscription of 
1686. - - 



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100 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Alms dishes are very scarce, and, with exception of 
nineteenth-century work, only pewter. 

Armorials are only found in two parishes. I had hoped 
to have found in this deanery, especially at Tiverton, the 
work of Tiverton goldsmiths, but the only certain piece is 
a paten at Puddington dated 1722 by John Murch, though 
one or two of the unascribed marks found such as J A at 
Bickleigh, J D at Willand, T at Washfield may belong to 
Tiverton. 

BAMPTON. 

Chalices. — A. Georgian type, a large and ugly example. 
8| in. high ; bowl ovate, with sacred monogram in rayed 
circle 4£ in., diameter 5 in. deep ; stem with gadroon collar 
beneath bowl ; small knop ; foot with gadroon rim 3| in. 
diameter. 

Marks : I L, H L, G L (J. H. & G. Lias) and London 
hall-marks for 1829. Weight, 15 oz. 10 dwt. 

B. Replica of A. Weight, 16 oz. 1 dwt. 

Marks : W E (William Eley ?) and London hall-marks 
for 1822. 

Patens. — A. On stand with gadroon rim and sacred 
monogram in rayed circle. 6£ in. diameter, 2 in. high. 
Marks : as on chalice A. Weight, 11 oz. 4 dwt. 
B. Replica of A. 
Marks : as on chalice B. Weight, 11 oz. 3 dwt. 

Flagon. — Georgian type tankard with spout, etc. 12 in. 
high, 10 J in. to lid, 4£ in. diameter at lid, 7 in. at base. 
Marks : as on chalice B. Weight, 46 oz. 17 dwt. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plate with gadroon rim and sacred 
monogram. 10 in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice A. Weight, 19 oz. 15 dwt. 

B. Replica. 

Marks : as on chalice B. Weight, 20 oz. 13 dwt. 

BICKLEIGH. 

Chalice. — A baluster-stem cup. 7 J in. high ; large bowl 4 
A\ in, diameter, 3| in. deep ; foot, 4£ in. diameter. 

Marks : D N, mullet under, and London hall-marks for 
1661. 

Cover to fit a later addition to cup. If in. high. 
Inscription : " Bickley, 1688. Theo Carew, Rector ; 
John GUI, Warden." 



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ELIZABETHAN CHALICE AND COVER. CADELEIGH. 
By Richard Osborne of Exeter 



Church Plate Report.— To j< ce p. If 1. 

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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 101 

Marks : ^ SI in monogram stamped three times. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover, see above. 

B. On foot. 8£ in. diameter, 2\ in. high ; foot with 
gadroon border, 3$ in. diameter. 

Marks : T C, cross under, and London hall-marks for 
1693. 

Flagon. — A pewter pot with cover. 
Inscription : " W. Carew, Rector of Bickleigh ; I. 
Baker, W. Moxey, Wardens, 1794." 

CADELEIGH. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan Exeter type with cover complete* 
6f in. high ; bowl conical, 3£ in. diameter, 3f in. deep, 
with usual concave lip and band of interlacing strapwork 
and arabesques f in. wide ; stem with small knop and fillets 
with hatching above and below ;* foot domical with egg- 
and-tongue work, 3J in. diameter. 

Cover to fit, plain with slight ornamentation of three 
rings of short vertical lines, J in. high, 3f in. diameter. 

Marks : R O in circle (Richard Osborne, Exeter, 1562- 
1607). Weight, with cover, 10 oz. 5 dwt. 

The only chalice of this maker as yet noted in the diocese. 
(See illustration.) 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 6£ in. diameter, lf\ in. high. 

Inscription : " Dr. Northleigh, Warden, Anno Dom. 
1703." 

Marks : fltl, crown over (John Elston), and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1703. 

Flagon. — A. A pewter tankard with domed lid and 
finial. 13| in. high, 10J in. to lid, 4 in. diameter at lid, 
6 in. at base. 

Inscription: "R W 1756 C W." 

B. Modern mediaeval style. Brass and glass. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Brass. 12 in. diameter, with " God 
loveth a cheerful giver " engraved round rim. 
B. A pewter bowl. 9f in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

CALVERLEIGH. 

Chalices. — A. Late Puritan style. 7J in. high ; bowl, 
3£ in. diameter, 4£ in. deep, stem with small ring for knop ; 
foot, 3£ in. diameter. 



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102 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Inscription : " Calverleigh Church, H. B." 

Marks : S W and London hall-marks for 1669. 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 8 in. high ; bowl hemis- 
pherical, 4 in. diameter, 2 J in. deep with inscription en- 
, graved round centre as a band " -|— This is my blood which 
is shed for you " ; stem hexagonal, fair knop ; foot, sex- 
foil with sacred monogram on central compartment ; base, 
5 in. diameter. 

Inscription : " >J< Calverleigh Church." 

Marks : I K (John Keith) and London hall-marks for 
1864-5. 

Patens. — A. Modern mediaeval style, parcel-gilt. 7£ in. 
diameter, rim has engraved, " O Lamb of God that taketh 
away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us ; " " hexa- 
gonal depression wiih Agnus Dei 1 ." 

Inscription : " >J< Calverleigh Church." 

Marks : I K (John Keith) and London hall-marks for 
1861-2. 

B. Pewter on three feet. 9f in. diameter, 2 in. high, 
with marks of Richard Going. 

Flagons. — A. Modern mediaeval style. 11 \ in. high, 
10 \ in. to lid, 2 in. diameter at lid, 4 in. at foot, round 
centre engraved " Glory be to God on high." * 

Inscription and marks : as on paten A. 

B. Pewter flat-lid tankard. 8£ in. high, 7} in. to lid, 
4 in. diameter at lid, 5£ in. at foot. 

Inscription : " 1668." 

CRUWYS MORCHARD. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan parcel-gilt, of a type approaching 
some of T. Mathews' work. 7 in. high ; bowl conical, 
4£ in. diameter, 3 in. deep, with band of interlacing strap- 
work and arabesques £ in., and ornamentation of egg-work 
in a dancette at base ; circular stem ; fair knop and fillets 
with line or hatching ornamentation ; foot domical with 
tongue ornamentation in dancette. 

No marks. Weight, 9 oz. 3 dwt. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 7£ in. diameter, 2 in. high, 
ornamented with sacred monogram. 

Marks : (£1, crown over (John Elston) and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1714. Weight, 9 oz. 2 dwt. 

Inscription : " Cruwys Morchard Parish Church." 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 103 

B. Modern mediaeval style. 6£ in. diameter, hexagonal 
depression with sacred monogram. 

Inscription.: " Cruwys Morchard, The gift of Mrs. 
Riddell, 1860." 

Marks : Messrs. Barnard and London hall-marks for 
1860-1. Weight, 3 oz. 12 dwt. 

Flagon. — Domed-lid tankard with spout. 11 in. high, 
9f in. to- lid. 

Inscription : " Presented to the parish of Cruwys Mor 
chard by the Rev. G. S. Cruwys, a.d. 1837." Sheffield 
plate. 

LOXBEARE. 

Chalice. — Modern mediaeval style. 6|,in. high; bowl 
hemispherical, 3 J. in. diameter, 2£ in. deep ; hexagonal 
stem, openwork boss ; foot sexfoil, 4 \ in. diameter. 
. Inscription : " Loxbeare Parish, from W K, 1856." 

Marks : E. B. J. B. (E. & J. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1855. 

Paten. — Modern mediaeval style. 5f in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Offered to the service of God in the parish 
-church of Loxbeare at Easter, 1856, by William Kerslake 
who was for 52 years Rector of the said parish." 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 7£ in. high, 7 J in. to 
lid ; foot, 3J in. diameter. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice. 

MOREBATH. 

Chalices. — A, Elizabethan Exeter type in somewhat 
debased style, the concave rim having become straight 
and marked by a slight convex ring 7 J in. high; bowl, 
,3J in. diameter, 3f in. deep, with band of late arabesque 
foliation £ in. wide ; stem with knop and shallow fillets 
and cable moulding ; domical foot with poor tongue work 
3| in. diameter. 

No marks. Weight, 9 oz. 7 dwt. 

Cover to fit, with a border of hit-andrmiss work, 3J in. 
diameter, If in. high ; button has date 1593 in arabesque 
foliation. 
, Inscription : slightly pricked " R.S." 

No marks. Weight, 2 oz. 5 dwt. 



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104 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

B. A replica of A. in electro-plate. 

Paten. — On stand. 6f in. diameter, 2| in. high. 
Inscription : " John Oland, Moorbath, Warden, 1698." 
Marks : Gr ^T stamped three times. Weight, 7 oz, 
10 dwt. 

J^togrcm.-^Electro-plate. 12 in. high, 10J in. to lid. 

Breads Box. — Circular. If in. diameter. 

Marks : G D W S and London hall-marks for 1915. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plain plated plate. 8 in. diameter. 
B. Brass. 10^ in. diameter. 

OKEFORD. 

Chalices. — A. Elizabethan, without its cover. 6£ in* 
high ; bowl, 3J in. diameter, 3| in. deep, with band of 
interlacing strapwork with arabesque ornament and pen* 
dants on the .upper part of bowl J in. wide ; stem wibh 
knop ; fillets ornamented with horizontal lines ; foot, 3 in» 
diameter with band of interlacing strapwork and tongue 
ornamentation. Weight, 7 oz. 1 dwt. 

Marks : A bird in a shaped shield and London hall- 
marks for 1579. 

B. Georgian style. 9 in. high ; bowl, 4£ in. diameter, 
5 in. deep with sacred monogram ; stem with small knop ; 
foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Given to the parish church of Oakford 
in compliance with the wish of the Revd. James Parkin, 
Rector, ob. Augt. 26th, 1812, by his widow." Weight, 
16 oz. 8 dwt. 

Marks : W E (W. Eaton) and London hall-marks for 
1824. 

Patens. — A. A small waiter on three legs. 7 in. diameter. 
, J in. high, with irregular shape rim. Weight, 5 oz. 18 dwt. 

Inscription : " Oakford Church. Jas. Manners." 

Marks : I M (Jas. Manners) and London hall-marks for 
1734. - 

B. On foot, with gadroon border. 6 in. diameter, 2£ in. 
high, ornamented with sacred monogram. 

Inscription : " Offered for the use of the parish church 
of Oakford as a tribute of affection and respect to the 
memory of the late Rev. J s - Parkin, ob. August, 26th, 1812, 
by his daughter." 



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CHUBCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 105 

Marks : W E and London hall-marks for 1825. Weight,. 
10 oz. 9 dwt. 

Flagon, — Late Georgian style, with domed lid and spout. 
1 1J in. high, 9£ in. to lid, 4 in. diameter at lid, 6 J in. at foot. 

Inscription : " The gift of John Foxford and Mary his 
wife of Oakford Bridge, Devon, 1882. In usum Ecclesiae 
Oakfordiensis." 

Marks : EEEB (Rebecca Ernes and E. Barnard) and 
London hall-marks for 1822. Weight, 37 oz. 7 dwt. 

Alms Dish. — A plate with gadroon rim. 10 in. diameter,, 
ornamented with sacred monogram, etc. 
Inscription and marks : as on paten B. 



PETTON. 

Chalice. — A small baluster-stem cup. 4J in. high ; bowl, 
2f in. diameter, 2f in. deep ; foot has been broken and 
rim cut off, it is now 2 J in. diameter. 

Marks : I M in oblong and London hall-marks for cycle 
1638-57. Exact date illegible. Weight, 3 oz. 8 dwt. 

Paten. — A very roughly made piece, probably originally 
cover of a cup. 4£ in. diameter, 1 in. high. 

Inscription : " William Hatswill, Head Warden ; 
Nicholas Tucker, Under Warden, 1664." Weight, 3 oz, 
16 dwt. 

Only mark is London date letter for 1664 on foot. 



PTJDDINGT0N. 

Chalice. — A plain baluster-stem cup. 6 in. high ; bowl, 
3J in. diameter, 3£ in. deep ; foot, 3£ in. diameter. 

Marks : A cock on a reversed C and London hall-marks 
for 1653. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 6J in. diameter, 2£ in. high. 

Marks : I M in oblong (John Murch of Tiverton) and 

Exeter hall-marks for 1722. 

• 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 9£ in. high, plated. 

Inscription : " Presented to the parish church of Pud- 
dington by Charles Llewellyn Howard Tripp and Mary 
Ethel Howard Tripp after the Holy Rite of Confirmation 
1872." 



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106 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

RACKENFORD. 

Cfudice. — Plain Georgian style. 7 J in. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, 4 in. diameter, 3f in. deep ; stem with small knop ; 
ioot, 4 in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Rackenford Parish, 1739." 
Marks : P E in oval (probably a later mark of Philip 
JSlston) and Exeter hall-marks for 1739. 

Paten. — Plain on stand. 6 in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

Inscription : and marks as on chalice. 

iPlagon. — A domed-lid tankard. 10 in. high, 8J in. to 
lid, 4| in. diameter at lid, 5| in. at base. 

Inscription : " This flagon was given by Mrs. Katherine 
Ayre, relict of Mr. Arthur Ayre of Rackenford, for ye use 
of ye communion." 

Marks : P E (Philip Elston) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1725. 

STOODLEIGH. 

Chalices. — A. Elizabethan Exeter type. 6f in. high, 
with cov§r complete ; bowl with usual concave lip, 3f in. 
diameter, 3 J in. deep, with band of interlacing strapwork 
and arabesques £ in. wide and tongue work at junction 
with stem, which has small knop and fillets top and bottom 
with hatching and tongue work at base ; foot with egg-and- 
tongue ornamentation. 

Marks : (i.) X ; (ii.) IONS; (iii.) Exeter town mark. 

Weight, 10 oz. 4 dwt. 

Cover to fit 1 in. high, with band of interlacing sfcrap- 
work and arabesque ornamentation. Weight, 1 oz. 17 dwt. 

Marks : (i.) IONS; (ii.) Exeter town mark. 

B. Georgian style. 7J in. high ; bowl with lip, 3$ in. 
diameter, 3| in. deep ; stem with small knop. Weight, 
9 oz. 16 dwt. 

Marks : REEB (Ernes & Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1828. 

Patens. — A. Elizabethan chalice cover, see above. 

B. Plain on trumpet stand. 6£ in. diameter, 3| in. 
high ; of very rude workmanship. 

Inscription : " W T 86 (probably meant for 1686." 
No marks. 

C. Modern mediaeval style. 7 in. diameter, with 
hexagonal depression. 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 107 

Marks : E E J W B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1846. Weight, 7 oz. 16 dwt. 

Flagon. — ^Victorian style tankard with spout and finial. 

13 in. high to top of finial, 10£ in. to lid, 3J in. diameter at 

lid, 5f in. at base. 

Inscription : " In usum S. Margaritae de Stoodley." 
Marks : Messrs. Barnards and London hall-marks for 

1841. Weight, 28 oz. 5 dwt. 

TEMPLETON. 

The old plate given away in 1867. See introduction. 

Chalice. — Modern mediaeval style, parcel-gilt. 8 in. 
high ; bowl conical with slight calyx, 3£ in. diameter, 
2\ in. deep, ornamented with band on which is engraved, 
" Calicem salutaris accipiam et nomen domini invocabo " ; 
hexagonal stem, boss with circular facets ; sexfoil foot ; 
-compartments have roses and cross patee in front one. 
Inscription : " St. Margaret's, Templeton, 1867." 
Marks : J H & Co. and Birmingham hall-marks for 1866. 

Paten. — Parcel-gilt. 8 J in. diameter, engraved with 
*" Lord, evermore give us this bread " ; hexagonal depres- 
sion with sacred monogram. 

Marks : I K (John Keith) and London hall-marks for 
1865. 

Flagon. — Modern mediaeval style. 12 in. high, 11 in. to 
lid, band round centre of belly with " Glory be to thee, 
. O God " engraved. 
Marks : as on paten. 

Cruets. — Pair. Silver and glass. 

TIVERTON, CHEVITHORNE. 

Chalices. — A. Cup with tall baluster stem. 8| in. high ; 
bowl bell-shaped, 3f in. diameter, 3£ in. deep, with sacred 
monogram in rayed circle ; foot, 4 in. diamster. 

Inscription : " Chevithorne Chapel, Parish of Tiverton, 
• 1842. Presented by Rev. Wm. Rayer, Rector of Tid- 
■combe." 

Marks : E E J W B (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks fpr 183&. Weight, 12 oz. c 5 dwt. 

B. Replica. 

Marks and inscription : same, but date is 1840* 



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108 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Paten, — Plain on stand. 1\ in. diameter with sacred 
monogram. 

Inscription and m&rks : as on chalice, but date 1842. 
Weight, 11 oz. 4 dwt. 

Flagon. — Victorian tankard with domed lid, spout and 
cross as finial. 15| in. high, 10£ in. to lid, 3| in. diameter- 
at lid, 5| in. at base. Weight, 34 oz. 15 dwt. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice, but date 1838. 

Alms Dish. — Plain plate. 8| in. diameter. Weighty 
13 oz. 3 dwt. ^ 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice, but date 1842. 

TIVERTON, COVE. 

Chalice.— Georgian style.. 1\ in. high ; bowl bell-shaped,. 
3| in. diameter, 3 J in. deep ; stem with small knop ; foot, 
3f in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Poculum Eucharisticum Capellae Coven- 
sis in Parochia de Tiverton plus duplo auxit Johannis 
Newte ejusdem Rector, a.d. 1700." 

Arms : Gules on a chevron Arg. three hearts pierced^ 
with a sword. No marks. 

Paten. — On stand. 6£ in. diameter, 2 in. high. 

Inscription: " Ex Dono Johannis Newte de Tiverton 
Rectoris Patina Eucharistica Covensis, 1700." 

Marks : (CI, crown over (John Elston), and Exeter- 
hall-marks for 1708. 

TIVERTON, ST. GEORGE. 

Chalices. — A. Plain Puritan style, but with baluster 
stem, 9f in. high ; bowl, 4£ in. diameter, 5 in. deep \. 
foot, 4£ in. diameter. Silver-gilt. 

Inscription : " Deo Christo Gapellae Tivertoniensi Devon 
M.U., 1717." 

Marks : 3 & (J. Strang) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1730. 

B. Replica of A, but bowl is 4|£ in. deep and 4£ in., 
diameter. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice A. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 7£ in. diameter, If in. high. 
Inscriptions : " This is my body which is given for you : 
do this» in remembrance of me" (Lii. 22. 19). "I am 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 109 

crucified with Christ " (Gall. 2. 20). "A cross with Jesus 
X and him crucified " (1 Cor. 2. 2). " We preach X and 
Jiim crucified " (1 Cor. 1, 23). " Xoi Kvpie, a.d. 1717." 

Marks : (El, crown over, and Exeter hall-marks for 
1717. Silver-gilt. 

B. Replica of A., but date is 1730. 

Flagons. — A. Tankard with domed lid and finial, S- 
shaped handle. 12£ in. high, 9J in. to lid, 4| in. diameter 
At lid, 6J in. at base. 

Inscription and marks : as on chalice A, and also silver- 
gilt. 

B. Replica. Inscription and marks same. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plate. 7 J in. diameter with gadroon 
rim. 

Inscription : " Presented to S. George's Chapel by a few 
charitable inhabitants of Tiverton, 1840." 

Marks : J O (John Osment) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1840. 

B. Replica of A. 

All the plate in this parish with exception of Paten A 
-and Alms plates was the gift of John Upcott, a Tiverton 
merchant* 

• TIVERTON, ST. PAUL. 

Chalices. — A. Victorian type. 8J in. high ; bowl bell- 
shaped, 4J in. diameter, 4$ in. deep. Plated. 

B. Replica of chalice A. 

C. Replica of chalice A. 

D. Rsplica of chalice A. 

All are inscribed " St. Paul's Church." 

Paten. — On stand. 9 in. diameter, 4| in. high. Plated. 
Inscribed : " St. Paul's Church." 

Flagon. — Victorian domed-lid tankard, llf in. high. 
Plated. 

Inscription : as before. 

Alms Dishes. — A. and B. 9f in. diameter. 
Inscription : as before. Plated. 

TIVERTON, ST. PETER. 

On the 28th of March, 1841, riie Communion plate con- 
sisting of eight pieces, viz. two chalices each holding a 
pint, two patens marked Peter Sharland, C. Warden, two 



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110 TENTH REPORT OP THE 

flagons each holding two quarts, marked Thome, 1694- 
Two alms dishes, aU silver-gilt, were stolen, and though 
there was evidence that it was by people well acquainted 
with the locality, nothing was ever recovered. Francis 
Hole, Esq., of Colliprest, and W. Talley of Prestcote gave 
the new. 

Chalices. — A. Late Georgian type. 8£ in. high ; bowl 
bell-shaped with sacred monogram, 3$ in. diameter, 4£ in- 
deep ; stem with small knop near foot, which is 3£ in. 
diameter. 

Marks : W E (William Eley) and London hall-marks: 
for 1798. 

Inscription: "Purchased 1841. F. Hole, W. TaUey, 
Churchwardens." Weight, 10 oz. 

B. Replica of A. 

Inscription : same. Weight, 11 oz. 2 dwt. 
Marks : A B G B (Alice and George Burrows) and 
London hall-marks for 1812. 

C. Modern mediaeval style, gilt. 8 \ in. high ; bowl 
conical ; circular stem and good boss, with carbuncles, 
cable work and foliage ; foot with fleur-de-lys, and base 
with openwork of quatrefoils, 5£ in. diameter. 

Inscription : "EMJ, 1900 " (Miss E. M. Jones). # 
Marks : W G and London hall-marks for 1899. Weight,. 
17 oz. 6 dwt. 

D. Replica of C. 

Marks and inscription : same. Weight, 18 oz. 4 dwt. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 11 J in. diameter, 2 J in. high,, 
with sacred monogram ; foot, 3f in. diameter. 

Inscription : as on chalice A. Weight, 12 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks : P a (Humphrey Payne) and London hall-mark& 
for 1712. 

B. On stand. 12 in. diameter, 2J in. high ; foot, 3J in* 
diameter. 

Inscription and ornamentation as on chalice A. Weight, 

11 oz. 8 dwt. 

Marks : B A (Richard Bayley) and London hall-marka 
for 1717. 

C. On stand. 7 J in. diameter, 2tV in. high ; foot, 3f in. 
diameter, ornamented with sacred monogram. Weight, 

12 oz. 15 dwt. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice C. 

D. Replica of C. Marks, inscription, and weight same. 



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CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. Ill 

Flagon. — Conical-shape tankard to which a finial haa 
been added later. 14£ in. high, 1 If in. to rim, ornamented 
with sacred monogram, 4£ in. diameter at lid, 7f in. at base. 

Inscription : as on chalice A. 

Marks : L A (John Langwith) and Newcastle hall-marks 
for 1708. The letter is <£. On rim, added in 1841, are 
London marks for that year. Weight, 51 oz. 10 dwt. 

Alms Dishes. — A. Plate. 10£ in. diameter. Engraved 
on rim, " Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon the 
earth." Weight, 13 oz. 13 dwt. 

Marks : I K (John Keith) and London hall-marks for 
1851. 

B. Replica of A, but engraving is " Lay up for your- 
selves treasure in heaven." Marks and weight same. 

C. Large embossed dish. 16 in. diameter, 1£ in. high- 
Gilt, and with sacred monogram. 

Inscription : " Presented to St. Peter's Church, Tiver- 
ton, in memory of Mary Rice Salter by her two children 
Louisa Agnes Theakston and Ernest John Richard Salter. 
December, 1912/' 

Marks : T W & Co., Lt ., and Sheffield hall-marks for 1905. 

Weight, 52 oz. 17 dwt. 

D. Brass. 15 in. diameter. 
Inscription : "EM J, 1894." 

Spoon. — 6 in. long, with angel at top. Weight, 1 oz.. 
16 dwt. 
Marks : S B, F W and London hall-marks for 1895. 

TIVERTON, WITHLEIGH. 

Chalice. — Victorian cup with baluster stem. 9 £ in. high ; 
bowl, 3f in. diameter, 3f in. deep ; foot, 4J in. diameter. 

Marks : E E J.W.B. (Messrs. Barnard) and London hall- 
marks for 1844. Weight, 13 oz. 5 dwt. 

Patens. — A. On stand. 8f in. diameter, 2f in. high, 
ornamented with sacred monogram. Weight, 13 oz. 5 dwt. 

Marks : Maker indistinct and London hall-marks for 
1736. 

B. Plain. 5£ in. diameter. 

Inscription: " To the glory of God. Presented to S. 
Catherine's Church, Withleigh, by J; A. Goundry, Feb. r 
1916." 

Marks : J. W. & Co. and London hall-marks for 1915, 



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112 TENTH REPORT OF THE 

Flagon. — Victorian style. 11 in. high. Plated. 

Alms Bowl. — Plain. 7£ in. diameter, 2 in. high. 
Marks : as on chalice. Weight, 9 oz. 

\ WASHFIELD. 

v • 

Chalice. — Puritan style. 7 in. high ; bowl, 4| in. 
diameter, 4f in. deep, with arms impaled Baron, Erm an 
eagle displayed with two-neck Sa., Femme, Arg. a chevron 
Or between three pears and Crest an arm erect, rested and 
gloved, holding an eagle's leg, and the inscription : "Ex 
•dono Johannis Worth Armig Anno Salut, 1606" ; stem 
with large boss, and short trumpet foot, 4| in. diameter. 

No marks. 

Patens. — A. Chalice cover, but it does not fit the 
ohalice. 5£ in. diameter. It is fixed on a small curious 
stand If in. high ; foot, 2 J in. diameter, and has Worth 
arms but not in a shield. 

Marks : four or five, but all very faint and indecipher- 
able. 

B. On foot. 7| in. diameter, 2J in. high ; foot, later 
addition. 

Arms of Worth in mantling and crest. 

Inscription : "Ex dono Johannis Worth Arm. Anno 
Domini, 1717." 

Marks : F V, crown over (name not traced) and Exeter 
hall-marks for 1714. 

Flagon. — Tankard with flat lid and good massive handle. 
8f in. high, 7£ in. to lid, 3| in. diameter at lid, 5£ in. at 
foot. 

Inscription and arms : as on chalice. 

Marks : (i.) In shield a drop under two roundlets ; (ii.) 
T in eight-pointed star ; (iii.) and (iv.) same repeated. 

Cruets. — Silver and glass. 8£ in. high. 

Marks : S B, F W and London hall-marks for 1899. 

WASKFORD PYNE. 

Chalices. — A. Elizabethan Exeter type. 6J in. high ; 
bowl conical, with usual concave lip, 3| in. diameter, 3 in. 
deep, with band of interlacing and strapwork arabesques 
round centre \ in. wide ; stem is slight departure from usual 
type. It has our fillets, two of which with a round piece 



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VOL. U. H 






CHTTBCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 113 ' ' '// 

of metal, shape and size of shilling, form knop ; tongue 
ornament round foot. 

Marks : (i.) IONS; (ii.) Exeter town mark ; (iii.) A 
for 1575. Weight, 4 oz. 17 dwt. 

B. A Georgian type cup. 6J in. high ; bowl cylindrical 
with lip, 4 in. diameter, 4 in. deep ; stem with a ring near 
foot. 

Inscription : " Washford Pyne. The gift of the Rector, 
1841." 

Marks : REEB (Rebecca Ernes and Edward Barnard) 
and London hall-marks for 1825. Weight, 8 oz. 13 dwt. 

Paten. — A plain plate. 5| in. diameter. 

Inscription : " Washford Pyne Parish." 

Marks : J H (Joseph Hicks) and Exeter hall-marks for 
1829. Weight, 4 oz. 2 dwt. 

All the plate in Tiverton Deanery inspected May, 1919, 
by me. 

J. F. Chanter. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY 
COMMITTEE. 

Eleventh Report of the Committee — consisting of Missr- 
Rose E. Carr-Smith, Miss Chichester, Mr. G. T. Harris, 
Mr. W. P. Hiern (Secretary), Miss C. E. Larter, 
Mr. C. H. Laycock, Mr. H. G. Peacock, Miss C. Peck, 
and Col. A. B. Prowse, with power to add to their 
number — for the purpose of investigating matters con- 
nected with the Flora and Botany of Devonshire. 

Edited by W. P. Hiern. 
(Read at Tiverton, 28rd July, 1919.) 



The following published sources of information have been 
used for several of the records : — 

1. The Thirty-fourth Annual Report of the Watson 
Botanical Exchange Club, 1917-1918, Vol. Ill, No. 2 
(1918). 

Sixteen Devonshire plants are included and more or less 
discussed in the Club Report, out of which five (four 
belonging to the Barnstaple botanical district, and one to 
the Torrington botanical district), are quoted in the 
Committee's Report. 

2. The Botanical Society and Exchange Club (B.E.C.) of 
the British Isles /Report for 1917, Vol. V, Part I, by the 
Secretary, G. Claridge Druce (Sept., 1918) ; also Part II,. 
by the Editor and Distributor, C. E. Britton (Oct., 1918). 

In these two parts there are numerous references to 
Devonshire specimens ; about a third of which are taken 
up in the Committee's Report. Many have been recorded 
in our previous Reports ; some are clearly not native in 
our area. 

3. Mr. Cecil P. Hurst, in the Journal of Botany, 1919, pp. 
94-97 (April), and pp. 119-124 (May), contributed a paper 
on " Hfracombe Mosses and Hepatics." In this paper he 
gave a list, with localities and various notes, of these 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 116 

cryptograms collected during the year 1917 in and around 
Dfracombe and on Braunton burrows. He claimed eighteen 
of them as new records for North Devon, nearly all of which 
were included on his authority in the last (tenth) Report 
of this committee ; one of them so appeared in the ninth 
Report. Besides those marked as new records for the vice- 
county there should have been so marked the two mosses, 
Campylopus brevipilus B. & S. (instead of C. fragilis B. & 
S.) and Tortula atrovirens Iindb., var. edenttda (B. & S.). 

The luminous moss, Schistostega osmundacea Mohr, was 
recorded in the first Report of the committee (1909) as 
occurring in the parish of Mortehoe. Brachythecium 
glareosum B. & S. and jB. illecebrum De Not. were recorded 
in the sixth Report (1914) as occurring in the parishes of 
Milton Damerell and AbbotstAckington respectively, both 
of which parishes are in North Devon. Mr. Hurst included 
in his paper 80 species and varieties of mosses and 24 
hepatics, including the hepatic Diplophyllum albicans 
Dum. (mentioned on p. 121). The mosses belong to 38 
genera and the hepatics to 20. The localities belong to 
14 North Devon parishes ; about half of the localities 
belong to the parish of Ilfracombe, 19 to Mortehoe, 17 
to Braunton, and 12 to Berry Narbor. 

4. Dr. W. Watson : " Ckyptogamic Vegetation of the 
Sand-dunes of the West Coast of England.' ' (Reprinted 
from the Journal of Echology, Vol. VI, No. 2, June, 1918, 
pp. 126-143). This paper was part of a thesis accepted 
for the degree of D.Sc. at the University of London. 

The purpose of the paper was to give an account of the 
non-vascular plants characteristic of sand-dunes. Since 
the dunes of the west coast have many features in common, 
those only at Braunton in Devon and at Burnham in Somer- 
set were dealt with in detail. The dunes at Braunton 
are superior to those at Burnham both in extent and in 
the altitude of the sand-hills, and accordingly the details 
relating to the former form the greater part of the paper* 
On p. 127 is a sketch map of Braunton burrows and neigh- 
bourhood, on the scale of an inch to a mile ; also on 
p. 128 is figured a section transversely taken across the 
burrows, the horizontal scale of which is about 2.1 inches 
to the mile and the vertical scale about 21 inches to the 
mile ; the section indicates, from west to east, eight 
topographical regions, namely : (1) Flat sand covered at 
high tides. (2) Fore-dunes (scattered and small very mobile 



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116 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

sand-hills). (3) Very mobile dunes rising to 50 feet. (4) 
Brackish " slacks " (zone of Riccia crystaMina). (5) Mobile 
sand-hills rising to 100 feet. (6) The second line of slacks, 
usually with Harpidia. (7) More or less stable sand-hills. 
(8) Flats with scattered stable sand-hills. The vegetation 
of each of these eight regions is fully discussed. The 
phanerogamic constituents of various associations are 
introduced, in order to gain a comprehensive and correlated 
view. For these burrows there are mentioned 213 species 
belonging to 130 genera, made up of 101 species of 
Phanerogams belonging to 70 genera, 25 Species of Mosses 
(8 genera), 8 Hepatics (7 genera), 25 Algae, etc. (22 genera), 
50 Lichens (20 genera), and 4 Fungi (3 genera). A very 
few, perhaps two or three of the flowering plants men- 
tioned by Dr. Watsoft, are op&i to doubt as to their correct 
identification. On p. 132 there is a figure showing, under 
magnification, a peculiar form of the moss, Barbvla 
tophacea Mitt, with distinctly decurrent leaves ; a form 
which is frequent on the burrows ; the extension of the 
leaf -base is thought to be related to the intermittent supply 
of water. 

5. G. Lister, f.l.s., "Mycetozoa recorded as British 
since 1909," in the Journal of Botany, 1919, pp. 105-111 
(May). 

Forty-eight species are recorded, including three for 
Devon without specific locality (two of them recorded 
in our 8th Report from Lynton, and Hemitrichia leiotricha 
Lister), one (Physarum vernum Somm., var. iridescens, 
nov. var.) for North Devon, one for Lynton (recorded in 
our 8th Report), and three for Uplyme (quoted under 5. 
Honiton Botanical district in the present Report). 



1. Barnstaple Botanical District. 

HeUeboru8 viridis L. Atherington (Mr. R. Taylor). 

Palaver Rhoeas L., var., probably var. chelidonotdesKuntze, as 

the sap turns brown. Braunton (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Sisymbrium orientale L., var. subhastatum Thell. Lynmouth 

(Miss A. B. Cobbe). 
Sinapis arvensis L., var. orientcdis (L.). Braunton. 
CocJdearia anglica L. Monkleigh. 

Viola hirta X odorata ( = V. mtUticaulis Jord.). Braunton. 
V. canina L., var. sabulosa Reichb. Braunton. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 117 

V. lactea Sm., var. pumiliformis Rouy & Fouc, is given for 

North Devon without special locality by Mrs. E. S. Gregory 

in B.E.C. Rep., V., p. USg. 
Sagina Reuteri Boiss. Ilfracombe (Mr. C. P. Hurst). 
Alsine rupicola Hiern. Hartlanfl (Mrs. Lightbody). 
Scleranthus annuus L. Sherwill. 
IAnum catharticum L., forma dunense Druce. Braunton (Mr. 

C. P. Hurst). Strongly infected with the rust Melampsora- 

lini (Mr. G. C. Druce). 
Rhamnus Frangula L. Sherwill. 
Ulex Gallii Planch., var. humilis Planch. Brendon (Mr. W. C, 

Bartorf). 
Rubus carpinifolius Weihe . Ilfracombe (Rev .H.J. Riddelsdell ) . 

New to North Devon 
R. mercicus Bagn. Ilfracombe (Rev. H. J. Riddelsdell). 
R. cinerosus Rogers (most likely a form). Ilfracombe ; the 

species is new to North Devon. 
(Enothera Lamarckiana Ser. Ilfracombe (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 
Girccea lutetiana L., var. cordifolia Lasch. Martinhoe (Mr. 

W. C. Barton.) 
Peplis Portula L. Brendon (Mr. W. C. Barton), and Landkey. 
Matricaria suaveolens Buchen. Stoke Rivers and Heanton 

Punchardon. 
Senecio Cineraria DC. Mortehoe (Mr. H. Butler). 
Carduus palustris L., var. spinosissimus. Countisbury (Mr. 

W. C. Barton). 
Hieracium umbellatum L., var. monticola Arv. — Touv. Lynton 

(Rev. E. S. Marshall). 
Melampyrum pratense L., subsp. M . vulgatum Beauverd, var. 

Mans Druce, forma platyphyllum Beauverd. Watersmeet 

(Mr. Druce). 
Mimulus moschatus Dougl. Banks of river near Lynmouth 

(Mr. Redgrave). 
Alectorolophus Crista-galli Bieb., var. fallax (Druce). Athering- 

ton. 
Euphrasia fehnica Kihlm. Lynton, at 800 ft. alt. (Mr. W. C. 

Barton). Doubts have been expressed as to this deter- 
mination, and, indeed, whether the species E. fennica is 

sufficiently understood in England; I have not seen a 

specimen. 
E. campestris, Jord., var. neglecta Buckn. Brendon (Mr. W. C. 

Barton). The same remarks apply to this as to the last. 
E. Kerneri Wettst. Brendon (Mr. W. C. Barton). I have 

some doubt about this determination. 
E. Rostlcoviana Hayne. Countisbury (Mr. W. C. Barton). 



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118 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

E. minima Jacq. Challacombe (Miss E. Young). 

Mentha hirsuta L., galled with Eriophyes mentharius Can. 

Braunton (Mr. F. A. Brokenshire). Determined by Mr. 

E. W. Swanton. 
Marrubium vulgare L. Lynton. 

Polygonum tomentosum Schrank. Braunton (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Empetrum nigrum L. Challacombe. 
Orchis praetermissa Druce. Braunton and Hartland (Mr. 

Druce). • 
O. incarnata L. Braunton. 

Carex Pairaei F. Schultz. Lynmouth (Mr. Redgrave). 
C. pendula Huds. Lynton (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Poa nemoralis L., var. subum flora Reichb. Lynton (Rev. 

E. S. Marshall). 
Polystichum aculeatumxsetiferum^ Lynton (See B.E.C. Rep., 

V, p. 63, 1918). 
Ceterach offlcinarum DC. Bratton Fleming. 

Moss. 

Hypnum aduncum Hedw., var. pseudo-sendtneri B. & S. Braun- 
ton (Dr. W. Watson). 

Liverwort. 

Scapania dentata Dum., var. ambigua De Not. Brendon (Dr. 
W. Watson). 

Lichen. 

JSphaephororus coralloides Pers, f. congestus. Valley of rocks, 
Lynton (Dr. W. Watson). 

Fungi. 

Hirneola Auricula — Judae Berk. Barnstaple. 
Humaria Chateri Sacc. Berry Narbcr and Barnstaple. 

Freshwater Alg^. 

The following list has been contributed by Mr. F. A. 
Brokenshire : — 

Olosotrichia Pisum (Ag.) Thur. Instow. 
OscillcUoria tenuis Ag. Ilfracombe. 
Tetrdedron minimum (A. Br.) Hansg. Ilfracombe. 
Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp.) Kiitz. Ilfracombe. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 119 

8. quadricauda (Turp.) Breb- Ilfracombe. 
«#. „ var. horridus Kirchn. Ilfracombe. 

Characium Pringsheimii A. Br. Ilfracombe. 
Pediastrum Boryanum (Turp.) Menegh. Ilfracombe. 
Mougeotia gracillima (Haas.) Wittr. Braunton. 
Zygnema cruciatum (Vauch.) Ag. Braunton. 
Z. pectinatum (Vauch.) Ag. Braunton. 
JSpirogyra inflate (Vauch.) Rabenh. Braunton. 
Characiopsis minuta (A. Br.) Borzi. Braunton. 

None of these five records for the parish of Braunton 
were mentioned by Dr. W. Watson in his paper on the 
oryptogamic vegetation of the sand-dunes. 

2. TORRINGTON BOTANICAL DISTRICT. 

Cardamine pratensis L., with double flowers. Tetcott (Rev. 

H. H. Harvey). 
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Roborough and Okehampton 

(Mr. Trethewy). 
Lepidium campestre R. Br. Tetcott (Rev H. H. Haxvey). 
Acer campestre L. Ashwater ; rare locally (Rev. H. H. Harvey). 
Impatiens glandalifera Royle. High Bickington. 
Comarum palustre L. Pancrasweek (Mr. Trethewy). 
Rubus Orifflthianus Rogers, a form. Okehampton Hamlets. 
R. thyrsoideus Wimm., var. viridescens Rogers. Bridgerule 

(Rev. W. Moyle Rogers). 
Pyrus latifolia Syme. High Bickington. 
Linosyris vulgaris Cass. Okehampton Hamlets (Mr. Stanley 

Chipperfield). 
WaMenbergia hederacea Reichb. Ashwater ; rare locally 

(Rev. H. H. Harvey). 
Alectorolophus Crista-gaUi Bieb., var. fallax (Druce). High 

Bickington. 
Luzula pilosa Willd. Tetcott ; rare locally (Rev. H. H. 

Harvey). 
Carex pendula Huds. Frithelstock. 
Bromus sterilis L. Tetcott ; rare locally (Rev. H. H. Harvey). 

Bridgerule, West. 
B. madritensis L. Roborough (Mr. A. Trethewy). 

AhQM. 

Nitella translucens Ag. In canal, Bridgerule, West. See Bot 

Record Club, 1887, p. 114. 
Trentepohiia aurea Mart. Sampf ord Courtenay. 



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120 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

Fungus. 

Cortinarius castaneus Fr. Weare Giffard. 
i 

3. South Molton Botanical District. 

Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Filleigh (Countess Fortescue), and 
Bishop's Nympton. Casual(?). 

Viola canina L. Bishop's Nympton. 

Alsine rubra Cr. West Buckland. 

Geum rivale L. Bishop's Nympton. 

Peplis Portula L. Chittlehampton and Burrington. 

Galium uliginosum L. Ashreigney. 

Antirrhinum orontium L. Burrington. 

Alectorolophus Crista-galli Bieb., var. fallax (Druce). Ash- 
reigney. 

Polygonum Bistorta L. Bishop's Nympton. 

Orchis prcetermissa Druce. Filleigh and Molland (Mr. Druce). 

Habenaria bi folia R. Br. Ashreigney. 

OrnifhogcUum umbettatum L. Bishop's Nympton and Molland. 
Not native. 

ALGiE. 

The following list is contributed by Mr. F. A. Broken- 
shire: — 

Binuclearia tatrana Wittr. Molland. 

Draparnaldia glomerata (Vauch.) Ag. Molland. 

TrerUepoMia aurea Mart. Molland (Bishop's Nympton : W. F. 

Hiern). 
Mougeotia graciUima (Hass.) Wittr. Molland. 
Spirogyra majuscula Kiitz. Molland. 
Tribonema bombycinum (Ag.) Derb. & Sol. Molland. 

4. Exeter Botanical District. 

Nigella damascena L. Waste ground, Exeter (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Radicula palustris Moench. Kenton (Miss M. Cobbe). 

TeesdcUia nudicaulis R. Br. Exminster. 

Lepidium virginicum L. Exeter (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

Aly88um maritimum L. Exminster. 

Geranium divaricatum Ehrh. Near the Canal, Exeter (Miss M. 

Cobbe). 
Oxalis corniculata L. Hockworthy and Exminster. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 121 

Medicago falcata L., var. lenuifoliolata Vuyck. Wall-top by 

the Canal, Exeter (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Matricaria suaveolens Buchen. Exminster. 
Centaurea melitensis L. Waste ground, Exeter (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Orobanche major L. Exminster. 

Linaria purpurea Mill. Waste ground, Exeter (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Chenopodium rubrum L. Stoke Canon (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Polygonum tomentosum Schrank. Exeter (Miss 1^. Cobbe). 
P. cuspidatum S. & Z. Exeter (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Urtica dioica L., var. rotundata Druce ms. Ide (Miss Todd). 
Agropyrum caninum Beau v. Stoke Canon (Miss M. Cobbe). 



Barbula cylindrica Schp. Ashton (Dr. W. Watson). 
Webera proligera Bryhn. Ashton (Dr. W. Watson). Vice- 
county new record. 
Bryum pollens Sw. Ashton (Dr. W. Watson). 
B. roseum Screb. Canonleigh Hill (Dr. W. Watson). 

Liverwort. 
Haplozia riparia Dum. Ashton (Dr. W. Watson). 

Freshwater Alga. . 
Nostoc commune Vauch. Cullompton (Mr. Murray T. Foster). 

Lichen. 
Leptogium microscopicum Nyl. Ashton (Dr. W. Watson). 

5. Honiton Botanical District. 

Mathiola incana R. Br. Budleigh Salterton (Miss M. Cobbe.) 

Radicula sylvestris Druce. Otterton (Messrs. Gardner and 
Green). 

Sisymbrium officinale L., var. leiocarpum DC. Exmouth (Miss 
M. Cobbe). 

8. orientale L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 

8. altissimum L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Brassica elongata Ehrh., var. persica (Boiss. & Hohen.). Ex- 
mouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Camelina saliva Cr. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Drosera longifolia L. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 

Silene pendula L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 



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122 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

Melilotus alba Desr. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
M . indica All. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Trifolium fUiforme L. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 
Senecio Cineraria DC. Budleigh Salterton (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Centaurea melitensis L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Taraxacum palustre Sm., var. udum (Jord.). Chardstock 

(Dr. W. Watson). 
Xanthium spinosum L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Anagalli8 femina Mill. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Scutellaria minor Huds., flore albo. Chardstock (Dr. W. 

Watson). 
Pinguicula lusitanica L. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 
Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. Exmouth, waste ground (Miss 

M. Cobbe). 
Chenopodium rubrum L. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Polygonum tomentosum Schrank. Exmouth (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Salix repens L., var. S. ascendens Sm. Chardstock (Dr. W. 

Watson). 
Luzula multiflora DC, var. pallescens (Hoppe). Chardstock 

(Dr. W. Watson). 
Ehocharis multicaulis Sm. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 
Scirpus paucifloru8 Lightf. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 
Oarex (Ederi Retz., var. cedocarpa And. Chardstock (Dr. W. 

Watson). 
Oastridium ventricosum Sch. & Th. Between Honiton and 

Kilmington (Mrs. Sandwith). 
Koeleria gracilis Pers., var. britannica Druce. Budleigh Salter- 
ton (Messrs. Green and Gardner). 
Molinia ccerulea Moench, var. robusta (Prahl). Chardstock 

(Dr. W. Watson) ; var. viridiflora Lej. Chardstock (Dr. 
W. Watson). 

See Journ. Bot. 1919, p. 180. (Rev. E. S. Marshall). 

Mosses. 

The Moss Flora of Sidmouth and neighbourhood was 
fully dealt with by Mr. G. T. Harris in last year's volume 
of our Transactions. The following species have been 
collected by Dr. W. Watson, of Taunton, on Bewley 
Down, near the Somerset border, in the parish of Chard- 
stock : — 

Sphagnum papillosum Lindb., var. normale Warnstorf, forma 

squarrosulum. 
Polytrichum commune L. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OP THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 123 

Aulacomnium palustre Schwseg. 
Philonotis fontana Brid. 
Amblystegium fUicinum De Not. 
Hypnum stellatum Schreb. 
H. revolvens Swartz. 
H. intermedium Lindb. 
H. falcatum Brid. 

Hepatic. 

Aneura pinguis Dum. Chardstock (Dr. W Wateon). 

Freshwater Alga. 

JStigonema ocellatum (Dillw.) Thur. ; G. S. West, Algse I, p. 23, 
fig. 15 ; A. & B., p. 45, fig. 34, o-e, p. 425 (a blue-green 
alga) ; G. T. Harris in Trans. Devonsh. Ass., L., p. 562, 
1918). Woodbury (Mr. Harris). 

Lichens. 

Verrucaria aethiobola Wahl., var. aeroteUa A.L.Sm. Chardstock 

(Dr W. Watson). 
V. svbmersa Schser. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 
Arthopyrenia fallax Arn. Chardstock (Dr. W. Watson). 

Mycetozoa. 

Badhamia nitens Berk., var. reticulata G. Lister. Uplyme 

(Mr. A. and Miss Lister). 
Physarum luteo-album Lister. Uplyme (Miss G. Lister). 
Hemitrichia abietina Lister. Uplyme (Miss G. Lister). 

6. Torquay Botanical District. 

Aquilegia vulgaris L. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 

Palaver Rhceas L., var. Pryorii Druce. Brixham (Miss A. B. 

Cobbe). 
P. Rhceas, var. strigosum Boenn. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
P. Rhceas, var. caudatifolium. Brixham (Mr. Druce). 
P. RhcBash., var. Hoffmannianum Kuntze. Brixham (Mr. Druce). 
P. Rhceas X dubium. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe) 
P. dubium L. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
P. Argemone L. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 
Corydalis claviculata DC. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 
Reseda alba L. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Viola odorata L., var. praecox Greg. Moretonhampstead 

(Miss H. E. Pratt). 



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124 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

V. hirta L., var. hirsute Lange, forma luteo-canescens Greg. 

St. Mary Church (Miss Larter). 
V. hirta L., var. hirsute forma imberbis Greg. St. Mary Church 

(Miss Larter). 
V. Riviniana Rchb., var. diversa Greg. Dunsford and Milber 

(Miss Peck). 
V. Riviniana forma minor Murbeck. Ilsington (Miss H. E. 

Pratt). 
V. caninax Riviniana, Dunsford and Milber (Miss Peck). 
V. rupestris Schmidt, var. glabrescens Murbeck, " very near to if 

not quite*" (E. S. Gregory). Dunsford (Miss Peck). 

Moretonhampstead (Miss H. E. Pratt). 
V. caninax lactea form, not the var. intermedia of Watson. 

Dunsford (Miss Peck). 
V. canina L., var. ericetorum Rchb. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 
V. canina L., var. pusilla Bab. Dawlish Warren (Messrs. 

Green and Gardner) ; and Dunsford (Miss Peck). 
V. lactea Sm., var. pumiliformis Rouy & Fouc. Moretonhamp- 
stead (Miss H. E. Pratt). 
V. lactea x sylvestris. Bovey Tracey (Miss Peck). 
V. lacteax Riviniana. Bovey Tracey and Dunsford (Miss 

Peck). 
Stdlaria Dilleniana Moench. Paignton (Miss Larter). . 
8. graminea L., with streaked petals owing to a smut fallen 

into them from the anthers. Lustleigh (Miss Larter). 
Sagina subulate Presl. Lustleigh (Miss Larter), and Dunsford 

(Miss Peck). 
Moenchia erecte Sm. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 
Malva rotundifolia L. Paignton (Miss Larter). 
Trifolium suffocatum L. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
TrigoneUa ornithopodioides DC. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
Potentilla argentea L. Haccombe-with-Combe (Miss Larter). 
Rosa mollissima Willd., var sylvestris (Lindl.). St. Mary 

Church (Miss Larter). 
Cotoneaster microphallus Wall. St. Mary Church (Mr. Stratton).. 
(Enothera odorate Jacq. Dawlish West (Miss M. Cobbe) ^ 

Compare (E. ammophila Focke in the 8th Report (from the 

same locality). 
Sedum Telephium L. Widecombe-in-the-Moor (Miss H. E. 

Pratt). 
Petroselinum segetum Koch. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 
(Enanthe Lachenalii Gmel., var. approximate Koch. Dawlish 

(Mr. Druce). 
Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Tormoham (Mr. Stratton). 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 125 . 

Cornus sanguinea L., with long drooping racemes formed by 
the gall, Oligotrophies Corni Giraud. They had the ap- 
pearance of ivory flowers depending from the stems. St. 
Mary Church (Miss Larter). 

Senecio vulgaris L., var. radiatus Koch. Teignmouth (Miss 
A. B. Cobbe). 

Silybum marianum G«rtn. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 

Sonchus oleraceus L., var. lacerus Wallr. Brixham (Lady Davy 
and Mr. Druce). 

Legousia hybrida Delabr. Haccombe-with-Combe (Miss Larter). 

Verbascum Thapso-nigrum Scheide ; grown in a garden from 
seed taken from a wild station at St. Mary Church by Mr. 
R. Stenton (Miss Larter). 

V. Blattaria L. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

Linaria purpurea Mill. Brixham (Mr. Druce). 

Saturcia Acinos Scheele. Dunsford (Miss Peck), and South 
Tawton (Mr. Trethewy), and Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Nepeia hederacea Trevis., galled with Aulax glechomae L. ; galls 
the size of a large pea. St. Mary Church (Miss Larter). 

Scutellaria galericulata L. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

Stachys ambigua Sm. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Ballota nigra L., var. borealis Schweig. or var. mewibranacea 
Druce. St. Mary Church (Miss Larter). 

Marrubium vulgar -e L. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Plantago lanceolata L., var. altissima (L.) Paignton (Miss 
Larter). 

Carex Pairaei F. Schultz. Dartmouth (Mr. Druce). 

C. helodes Link. Dunsford (Miss Peck). 

Avena pmbescens Huds. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Kceleria cristata Pers. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Poa bulhosa L. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

SderocMoa procunibens Beau v. Teignmouth (Miss A. B. 
Cobbe). 

Bachypodium pinnatum Beauv. Brixham (Miss M. Cobbe). 

Demazeria loliacea Nyman. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

Ceterach offlcinarum DC. Brixham (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 

The following records of Mosses, Hepatics, and Lichens 
have all (unless otherwise stated) been contributed by 
Dr. W. Watson of Taunton : — 

Mosses. 

Dicranella heieromalla Schp., var. interr&pta B. & S. North 

Bovey. 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Fiirnr. Lustleigh. 



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126 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. Lustleigh. 

Uhtar Bruchii Hornsch. Lustleigh. 

U. crispa Brid., var. intermedia Braithw. Lustleigh. 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw., var. crispa B. & S. Lustleigh. 

Neckera pumila Hedw. Lustleigh. 

Pterygophyllum lucens Brid. Lustleigh. 

Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S. Lustleigh. 

H. heteropterum, var. fallax Milde. Manaton. 

BrcLchythecium plumosum B. & S. Lustleigh. 

Hypfoum exannulatum Giimb. Widecombe-in-the-Moor. 

H. revolvens Swartz. Widecombe-in-the-Moor. 

H. falcatum Brid. Widecombe-in-the-Moor, 

H. falcatum, var. delicatulum Dixon in the Journal of Botany, 
1918, p. 360. North Bovey (Mr. G. T. Harris). 

H. cupressiforme L., var. tectorum Brid. Manaton. 

H. molluscum Hedw. Manaton. 

H. ochraceum Turn. North Bovey. 

Hylocomium loreum B. & S. Lustleigh and Widecombe-in-the- 
Moor. 

Hepatics. 

Metzgeria furcata Dum., var. fruticulosa Lindl. Manaton. 

Haplozia crenulata Dum. Widecombe-in-the-Moor. 

H. sphcerocarpa Dum. Manaton. 

Plagiochila asplenioides Dum., vars. minor Lindenb. and major 

Nees. Lustleigh. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthus Corda. Manaton. 
CephcUozia bicuspidata Dum., var. conferta Hiiben. Bovey 

Valley. 
Scapania dentata Dum., var. ambigua De Not. Lustleigh. 
S. gracilis Kadi. Manaton. 
S. curta Dum. Lustleigh. 
Lejeunea cavifolia Lindb. Lustleigh. 

Lichens. 

Polychidium muscicolum S. F. Gray. Manaton (with fruit) 

and Ashburton. 
Nephromium lusitanicum Nyl., var. hibernicum Nyl. Manaton. 
PeUigera scutata Koerb. Lustleigh and Manaton. 
Pannaria rubiginosa Del., var. conoplea Koerb. Lustleigh,. 

Chagford, and Manaton. 
Cetraria aculeata Fr., f . hispida Cromb. Lustleigh. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 12T 

C. glauca Ach., var. fallax Ach. Manaton. 

Xanthoria lychnea Fr., var. tdophyUa (Nyl.). Ilsington. 

Cladonia fimbriate Fr., vara, tubaeformis, subulata f. chordalis r 
subcornuta f . furcellata, and radiata. Lustleigh, etc. 

C. ochrochlora Floerk. Lustleigh. . 

C. cervicorn%8 Schser. Ashburton. 

C. squamosa Hoffm., subsp. denticollis Hoffm., f . 8quamo8%8*ima. 
Manaton. 

C sub8quarrosa Nyl., forms aspera and tumida Cromb. Man- 
aton. 

Racodium rupestre Pers. Manaton. 

Lecidea lithophiliza Nyl. Manaton. 

L. sorediza Nyl. Manaton. 

L. riwlo8a Ach. Manaton, etc. 

L. contigua Fr., var. flavicunda Nyl. Manaton. 

L. lithophila Ach. and f . ochracea Nyl. Manaton. 

Biatorina atropurpurea Massal. Lustleigh. 

Dermatocarpon aquaticum A. Zahlbr. Manaton. 

Fungi. 

Trichohma imbricatum Quel. Torquay (Mr. H. 6. Peacock). 
Psathyrella crenata Gill. Torquay (Mr. H. G. Peacock). 
Humaria Chaieri Sacc. Torquay (Miss Larter). 

The following phenological note has been contributed, 
by Miss Larter : — 

On the 14th Nov., 1918, the following seven plants were 
found by me in flower, some of them unusual in flower at 
that time of year. Ranunculus repens L. (in great quan- 
tity) ; Medicago lupulina L. ; Anthyllis Vulneraria L. ; 
Daucus Carota L. ; Seneeio Jacobcea L. ; Picris echioides 
L. ; Scabiosa Columbaria L. On Christmas t>ay, Oeum 
urbanum L. was flowering anew (with also one bud un- 
opened), and Ruscus aculeatus L. On 3rd Dec, Cardamine 
hirsuta L. was fully in flower, and on 18th Jan., 1919, 
Ranunculus Ficaria L., the earliest dates at which I have 
seen these two out. Conium maculatum L. showed young 
flower-umbels on 31st Dec, 1918. On 22nd Feb., 1919, 
Mercurialis perennis L. was in full flower, and on 9th 
March Sazifraga tridactylites ' L., the latter in a sunny 
sheltered nook of a limestone wall. The flowers of the 
hybrid Galium ochroleucum Kit., which on the 9th July 
in this year were so abundant as to be quite a conspicuous. 



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128 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

feature on a limestone hillside, had by the 29th of the 
month entirely disappeared, although those of one of the 
parents, O. verum L., were stiH out on thte same rocky 
grass-covered slopes near the sea. (See the Fifth Report 
Bot. Comm. Devonshire Association, 1913). 

7. Plymouth Botanical District. 

Viola sp., " very near V. arenicola Chab." (Mrs. E. S. Gregory). 

Totnes (Miss Larter). 
Geranium versicolor L. Dittisham (Miss Larter). 
Heracleum villosum Fisch., natd. near Slapton (Mr. Druce). 
Hyoscyamus niger L. Slapton (Miss A. B. Cobbe). 
Chenopodium rvbrum L., var. blitoides Wallr. Slapton Ley 

(Miss A. B. Cobbe). 
0. Bonu8-Henricu8 L. Berry Pomeroy (Miss Larter). 
Orchis praetermissa. Druce. Ivybridge (Hon. Mrs. Mildmay, 

teste Druce). 

Lichen. 

PeUigera scutaia Leight. Dittisham (Dr. W. Watson). 

8. Tavistock Botanical District. 

Carduu8 nutans L. Virginstowe, rare locally (Rev. H. H. 

Harvey). 
Melampyrum pratense L., subsp. M . vulgatum Beauverd, var. 

vulgatum Beck, sub var. digitatum, f . ovatum Beauv. Bere 

Ferrers (Mr. Druce). 
M . pratense L., subsp. M . vulgatum Beauv., var. Mans Druce, 

f. platyphyllum Beauv. Bere Ferrers (Mr. Druce). 
Rynchospora alba Vahl. Whitchurch (Mr. A. W. Trethewy). 

The following records of cryptogams have been con- 
tributed by Dr. W. Watson of Taunton : — 

Mosses. 

Andrecea Eothii Web. & Mohr, and var. falccUa Idndb. Lydf ord. 

Cynodontium Bruntoni B. & S. Lydf ord. 

Rhacomitrium heterostichum Brid., var. cUopecurum Hiibn. 

Lydford. 
R. canescens Brid., var. ericetorum B. & S. Lydford. 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Fiirnr. Lydford. 
Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. Lydford. 
Barbula fallax Hedw., var brevifolia Schultz. Lydford. 



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ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 129 

Enccdypta streptocarpa Hedw. Lydford. 

Avlacomnium androgynum Schwaeg. ,Lydford. 

Bryum alpirmm Huds. Lydford. 

Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S. Lydford. 

Thuidium delicatulum Mitt., var. tamarisci forme. Lydford. 

Hyocomium flagellare B. & S. Lydford. 

Hypnum cupressiforme L., var. tectorum Brid. Lydford. 

Hepatics. 

Pettia Fdbbroniana Baddi. Lydford. 

Alicularia compressa Nees, var. rigida Lindb. Lydford. 

A. scalaris Corda, var. procerior Schiffn. Lydford. 

Cephaloziella byssaeea Warnst. Lydford. 

JScapania umbrosa Dum. Lydford. 

Lichens. 

Cetraria aculeata Fr., form acanthella Nyl. Lydford. 

Parmdia saxatilis Ach., v. panniformis Cromb., f. alhido- 
cinerea Harm. Lydford. 

P. omphalodes Ach. and f . ccesio-pruinosa. Lydford. 

JStereocaulon evolutum Graswe. Lydford. 

Cladonia gracilis Willd., f. spinulifera Crombie and var. aspera 
Floerk. Lydford. 

C. squamosa Hoffm., var. multibracteata and var. muricella 
( = C. asperella Cromb. ) . Lydford. 

C. coccifera Willd., subsp. pleurota Crombie, f. squamulosa. 
Lydford. 

€<. Floerkeana Fr., var. carcata Wainio and f. trachypodes. 
Lydford. 

G. Floerkeana Fr., var. intermedia. Lydford. 

C. uncialis Web., forms adunca, spinosa, and biuncialis. Lyd- 
ford. 



VOL. LI. I 

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FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Fourth Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. Max- 
well Adams, Rev. J. F. Chanter, Miss B. F. Cresswdl, 
Mr. R. Burnet Morris, Mr. Northmore, Mr. H. Tapley- 
Soper, Mr. Hugh R. Watkin, and Mr. H. B. S. Wood- 
house — for the compilation of a Bibliography of the 
County of Devon. 

By R. Burnet Morris, m.a., ll.b.' (Camb.), Hon. Sec. of the Committee. 
(Read at Tiverton, 28rd July, 1919.) , 



The Report last year brought the work of the Committee 
down to 22nd June, 1918, when the total number of slips, 
which had been written, was estimated to be approxi- 
mately 79,000. 

During the year now under review the progress has been 
greater than in any previous year. Much, however, 
remains to be done before the Committee will be in a posi- 
tion to claim that it has finished its task of providing a 
reasonably complete Index to all that has been written 
about every part of Devon, by or about Devonians,, and to 
the literature produced in the County. 

The accessions during the year may be divided into 
three classes : (1) Notes on MSS. in the Public Record 
Office, (2) Notes on Parish Registers, and (3) Miscel- 
laneous Notes. 

(1) The Notes on MSS. in the Public Record Office have 
been made from the Calendars of State Papers (Domestic),, 
a familiar series. The period covered has been from 1*509 
to 1671, contained in upwards of ninety books. The only 
satisfactory way to accomplish this work was to have 
these books at home and go through them in the quiet of 
the study. This was made possible by the lending facilities 
of the Dtevon and Exeter Institution, by the arrangements 
made by Mr. Woodhouse with the Plymouth Proprietary 



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FOXJBTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 131 

library, and by Mr. Tapley-Soper with the Exeter City 
Library. Such assistance is most gratefully acknow- 
ledged. These State Papers provide more interesting 
reading than is sometimes supposed. In them we read 
that, according to the Commission of July 28th, # 1616, one 
of the objects of Ralegh's last Voyage was the conversion of 
the heathen. He was thus sent out as a Missionary more 
than thirty years before the establishment of the first 
Missionary Society in London (Townsend's Manual of 
Dates), We read of an incident in 1618 when John Prowse 
rode on horseback into . Brixham churph during service 
and offered to have his horse christened. We read of the 
adventures of John Nutt, the Lympstone pirate in 1623, 
and we find a letter written by Bishop Joseph Hall to 
Archbishop Laud in 1638, which, in addition to the two 
well-known tracts, gives yet another contemporary ac- 
count of the accident in Widecombe church. Again, we 
read of a complaint made by the good people of Tiverton 
in 1654 against their member of Parliament because 
(among other offences) he was present at a bowling match 
until midnight, having three lanterns, and was then sitting 
drinking and card-playing until four in the morning. 

(2) Passing now to the second heading of accessions 
during the year, " Notes on Parish Registers," it may 
be recorded that notes have been made with reference to 
the Register Books of all those churches in the Deaneries 
of Aylesbeare, Christianity, Kenn, and Ottery, which were 
keeping registers before civil registration began, on 1st 
July, 1837. In addition to these the Registers of a few 
churches in other Deaneries have been noted. Including 
the churches referred to last year, the Register Books of 
105 churches have now been reported upon. Of these 
the Register Books of 94 churches have been inspected 
and 1261 of these books have been seen, in addition to 
many books of churchwarden's. accounts and other MSS. 
In six cases information has been supplied by the clergy, 
and the books have not been inspected ; in four cases use 
has been made of the publications of the Devon and Cornwall 
Record Society, and in one case the Parish Register Society 
has been relied upon. 

An interesting feature in connection with Registers 
has been the discovery of several Indexes of Names. In 
particular, attention should be called to those at Ashcombe, 
Dawlish (in part), Kenton, Mamhead'and Powderham 

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132 FOUBTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY 

made by the late Rev. W. C. Plenderleath, in MS. and to 
that at Lympstone made by Dr. Gordon Browne, in type- 
script. All of these are. lexicographically arranged, with a 
separate alphabet for Baptisms and for Burials, and some- 
times two for Marriages. r 

It only remains to express very warm thanks to the 
clergy for the trouble which they have taken in order that 
the members of the Devonshire Association might have an 
account, as accurate as possible, of the Parish Registers 
of the County as they are to-day. 

(3) The third Heading of the accessions for the year is 
" Miscellaneous Notes." These include Devon items from 
the additional MSS. and the additional charters added to 
the British Museum Collection from 1882-1910, Miscel- 
laneous Tracts at the Devon and Exeter Institution, 
(Vols. XC-CXLIX), Musical compositions, kindly supplied 
(on request) by Dr. H. J. Edwards, Mr. Caleb Simper, Dr. 
Ferris Tozer, Dr. D. J. Wood, and Rev. H. St. J. E. Wren- 
ford ; Works of M. Coverdale (Bishop of Exeter), more 
than 150 slips, including the rare folio Bible of 1537 and 
the rare New Testaments, Antwerp 1538, 1639, most 
obligingly produced by the authorities at the Baptist 
College at Bristol and inspected and reported upon by 
Mr. Northmore ; Execution Broadsides from the Brush- 
field collections kindly lent by the present owner, Mr. H. 
Stone of Topsham, who has supplied useful information 
on other matters ; Devon items from the Calendar of the 
Proceedings of the Committee for advance of Money, 1642- 
1656 and from the Calendar of Documents of Prance 
(a.d. 918-1206 ;) List of Devon books (upwards of 100) 
containing Subscribers' lists, especially valuable owing 
to the fact that there was no complete directory of the 
County before 1850. 

In addition to the slips which he is writing with reference 
to Acts of Parliament, Mr. Woodhouse is undertaking the 
collation of Devon books at the Plymouth Proprietary 
Library. Volunteers for similar work at the North Devon 
Athenaeum, Exeter City Library, and British Museum are 
very much wanted. 

It is desired to thank the following for their help : — 
Mr. L. St. G. Byne (conchology) ; Rev. W. H. Carter 
(Coverdale note) ; Rev. J. F. Chanter (Titles of works of 
Edmund Bishop, the liturgiologist ; some other scarce 
books) ; Lord Coleridge (production of the cartulary of 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY. 133 

Otterton Priory) ; Rev. the Hon. H. H. Courtenay (Star- 
cross Club) ; Mr. Haslehurst Greaves (loan of the Cata- 
logue of the North Devon Athenaeum) ; Mr. J. T. Marshall 
of Jersey, (conqhology) ; Rev. C. F. Metcalfe of Berrow 
(Ottery publications) ; Rev. J. W. Metcalfe (entomology) ; 
Mr. A. Rippon of Topsham (Science Notes) ; Mr. H. G. 
Sumner of Barnstaple (MS. Epitaphs of Devon) ; Mr. Hugh 
R. Watkin (American books) ; Mr. R. Webber of New 
Rochelle, U.S.A. (Publications of the Prince Society of 
Boston, Mass.). 

The total number of written slips in the collection on 
22nd June, 1919, was estimated to be approximately 
105,000 divided among Author Catalogue, Index of 
Places, and Index of Subjects. 

The Hon. Sec. of the Committee will be pleased to show 
the Collection (by appointment) to members of the Devon- 
shire Association or to make searches in it on their behalf, 
thus throwing open the information contained, at once. 
A post card should be sent to him at Belair, Exmouth, and 
to prevent misapprehension he wishes to state clearly that 
no fee whatever will be payable. It is hoped that the 
Collection is now large enough to be of use to all who are 
interested in the Science, Literature, or Art of the County 
of Devon. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF 
THE COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 

Thirty-seventh Report of the Committee — consisting of 
Mr. J. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, and Mr. R. 
Hansford Worth (Secretary) — appointed to collect and 
tabulate trustworthy and comparable Observations on 
the climate of Devon. 

Edited by R. Hansford Worth, Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Tiverton, 23rd July, 1919.) 



The following errata occur in the thirty-sixth report on 
page 240 : in the second line for " 1 in J " read " 1 in 5|," 
and in the fourteenth line the last word, instead of being 
" inches," should be'" feet." 

We regret to record the death of Maj.-Gen. E. H. Holley, 
r.a., j.p., of Oaklands, Okehampton, who for many years 
had contributed to our reports. 

On the whole the weather of year 1918 was a little wetter, 
a little warmer and a little sunnier than the average, the 
excess in each case being but slight. But this approach 
to the normal is only arrived at by averaging some marked 
extremes. Thus the rainfall of September was 166% in 
excess of the normal, while that of October was 43% below 
the normal. The sunshine of June was 27% in excess, 
that of February was 27% deficient. The mean tempera- 
ture of February was 3.8° in excess, that of September 
was 3.3° deficient. In a yet shorter period the early part 
of January presented hard winter conditions, the later 
part was a mild spring season, yet the balance was so 
exact that both temperature and sunshine for the month 
as a whole were strictly normal. So much for the danger 
attending arithmetic means when the extremes are not 
stated. 

January was on the whole wet, with snow and low 
temperature in the early part of the month. The wettest 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 135 

day at most stations was the 15th, at some the 16th, and at 
others the 18th or 19th. This wet succession of days 
corresponded with the sudden rise in temperature, a rise 
so absolutely maintained that at Sheepstor no frost was 
recorded after.the 17th of the month. 

Comparatively high temperature continued to prevail 
throughout February, the mean being 3.8° above the 
normal at Ashburton. This is an unusual excess. 

The rainfall was below the average, and the sunshine was 
deficient by a greater percentage. Again indicating that 
dry weather in winter and spring is frequently dull. 

March was dry and warm with a slight excess of sunshine. 
April was cold; the rainfall and sunshine were both 
slightly below the normal. Rousden reports a thunder- 
storm over the Channel on the 11th, and a sharp thunder- 
storm with vivid lightning and heavy rain on the 25th. 
From April the 9th to May 3rd the wind at Rousdon was 
continuously between north, east, and south, an unusual 
prevalence of easterly wind, the accompanying low tempera- 
ture lasting until the early days of May. Following this 
the rest of the month of May was warm, dry, and sunny. 

June was dry, a little colder than usual, the nights 
especially being cold. The sunshine was 27% in excess of 
the normal. At Rousdon on June 30th the air was re- 
markably dry, there being 12° difference between the wet 
and dry bulb thermometer readings. ' Fine weather con- 
tinued through the first week in July. At Rousdon July , 
1st was the hottest day since August 10th, 1916, the 
maximum thermometer reading 76.1°. After the first 
week there was a complete change, so that the month's 
record stands, distinctly wet and cold, but with more 
than normal sunshine. August was dry, slightly warmer 
than the normal, slightly deficient in sunshine. September 
was very wet, very cold, very windy, distinctly dull. 
There was rain on 29 days at several stations, and at a few 
stations it rained on every day of the month — a very un- 
usual record. At Rousdon the September rainfall has only 
once in 35 years been equalled. At most stations the 29th 
was the wettest day. At Thornworthy 1 . 84 inches fell, and 
by a nice coincidence the same small party that observed 
the thunderstorm of 14th August, 1917, chose the 29th 
October, 1918, to walk across from Berrydown to Thorn- 
worthy, an unintentional devotion to duty on the part 
of two members of your Committee. With October there 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



136 THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRI> SERIES) OF THE 

came a welcome change, the month although cold and very 
dull was distinctly dry, but a few days in the first week 
were very stormy. The warmest day at Rousdon was the 
6th, but the shade maximum was only 59°. November 
rainfall was practically normal r temperature low, but sun- 
shine in excess. A brilliant aurora was observed at Rous- 
don on the 29th November, fine pink and white streamers. 

December was wet , very mild and very dull . At Rousdon 
the maximum thermometer registered over 50° in the shade 
on the first fifteen days. Many stations recorded rain on 
30 days. 

The highest recorded temperature was 82.3°, at Benton, 
Teignmouth, in July ; and the lowest was 11.0° at Cople- 
stone House in January. Torrington recorded 14.0° in 
the same month. 

The following table gives a comparison of the weather of 
1918 with the average. The rainfall is based on the Druid 
record, and compared with the forty years ending 31sfe 
December, 1905. Temperature is also based on the Druid 
record, the period for average being twenty-four years to 
end of 1918. Sunshine comparisons are founded on the 
Rousdon record, the period for average being the first 
. thirty -five years. 

The weather of 1918 compared with average, conditions. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Whole year 

The best thanks of the Association are due to the ob- 
servers, whose continued kindness your Committee grate- 
fully acknowledges. 

* Arlington Court. — It should be noted that the tempera- 
ture at 9 a.m. is read in the open at this station and not 
in the screen. 

Badworthy. — This is a new station for which we are 
indebted to Mr. T. W. Latham. 





Temperature 




Rain%. 


Degrees. 


Sunshine %. 


120 


±0'0 


100 


74 


+ 3'8 


73 


51 


+ 1*5 


107 


91 


-1-6 


9$ 


47 


+ 20 


120 


60 


-0*5 


127 


172 


-1-4 


111 


71 


+ 0*3 


93 


266 


-3-3 


89 


57 


-1*7 


79 


98 


-1*2 


116 


130 


+ 36 


77 


105 


+ 0'2 


102 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



137 



The stations are as follows :— 



STATION. ELEVATION (feet) 

Arlington Court (N. Devon) . 613 
Ashburton (Druid) . . 584 
Ashwater (Rectory) . . — 
Barnstaple (Athenaeum) . 25 
Bere Alston (Rumleigh). * 124 
Coplestone House . . .315 
Cowsic Valley (weekly) 1352 

Cullompton . . . 202 

Devil's Tor (near Beardown 

# Man) (monthly) . 1785 
Exeter (Devon and Exeter 

Institution) . . .155 
Exmouth Observatory . . 12 

Holne 620 

Huccaby . . . .900 
Ilfracombe . . . .20 
Leusdon (Vicarage) . . 900 
Lynmouth (Rock House) . 22 
Plymouth Observatory . .116 

Plymouth Watershed : — 

Head Weir (Plymouth 
Reservoir) , . 720 

Siward's Cross (monthly) 1200 
Princetown (H.M. Prison) 1359 
Roborough Reservoir . . 548 
Rousdon .... 516 
Salcombe . . . .39 
Sidmouth (Sidmount) . . 186 
South Brent (Great Aish) . 500 
South Brent (Badworthy) . 550 
South Molton . . .450 
Tavistock (Reservoir) . . 457 
Teignmouth Observatory . 20 
Teignmouth (Benton) . . 320 
Thornworthy . . 1150 
Torquay Observatory . .12 



O.D. OBSERVER OR AUTHORITY. 

... Miss Chichester. 

... J. S. Amery, j.p. 

... Rev. G. D. Melhuish, m.a. 

... Haslehurst Greaves. 

...Sir Alfred W. Croft, m.a., k.c.i.e. 

... Miss M. Pope. 

... Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.b. 

... Murray T. Foster, p.r.Mbt.Soc. 

... Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.b. 

. . . John E. Coombes, Librarian. 

.. Samuel Hutton. 

... L. Frost. 

... Major H. H. Joll, r.f.a. 

... 0. PrOUSe, A.M.INST.C.B. 

... Rev. A. A. Woolcombe. 

... T. H. Mead-Briggs. 

... H. Victor Prigg, a.m.inst.C.b., 

F.R.Mbt.Soc. 



Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.b. 



} 

... H. W. Shrimpton. 

... Frank Howarth, m.inst.c.e. 

... C. Grover, observer for Lady Peeks 

... The Meteorological Office. 

... Miss Constance M. Radford 

... Miss C. M. Kingwell. 

... T. W. Latham. 

... Fred. Day, f.r.g.8. 

... W.J. Monk. 

... G. Rossiter. 

... W. C. Lake, m.d. 

... H. B. Varwell, j.p. 

... Frederick March, f.r.met.Soc. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



138 THIBTY-SBVBNTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



STATION. ELEVATION (feet) O.D. OBSERVER OR AUTHORITY. 

Torquay Watershed :— 

Kennick . . .836 

Laployd 1041 \ S. C. Chapman, mjnst.c.b. 

Mardon .836 

Torrington, Great (Enfield) . 336 ... George M. Doe. 

Totnes (Berry Pomeroy) . 185 ... Charles Barran, j.p. 

Woolacombe (N. Devon) . 60 ... R. V. Hansford, for Miss 

Chichester. 



h 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



139 



JANUARY, 1918. 



Arlington Court 
ABhburt'n(Draid) 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bore Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Cowsie Vallt y . 
Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 

Ezmouth Obs. . 
Holne 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 
Leusdon 
Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 
PlymouthWtshd. 

Head Weir . 

Siward's Cross . 
Princetown 
Roborough 

(S. Devon) 
Bousdon 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

Badworthy 
South Molton . 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Eennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington 
Totnes 

(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacombe 



ins. 
6.19 
6.86 
6.04 

4.79 
5.12 
5.12 
8.40 

5-44 
6.65 

389 

3-4° 
I.02 

5.83 
4.71 
739 
5.78 
3.86 

5.91 

6.55 

10.17 

4.94 
3-92 
3-7o 
4.10 
6.67 

740 
5-75 
5.88 
3.88 

335 
10.22 
3.16 

4.76 
5-55 
4.47 
5.45 

4.46 
4.51 


ins. 

1:1? 

1.50 
1.22 
1.20 
i.74 

1.60 

1.02 
1.06 
2.22 
i-35 
.83 
2.02 

i.55 
•93 

1-39 

2.10 

1.26 

1.57 
1.02 
1.30 
1.56 

1.86 
1.42 
1.00 

.83 

2.31 

.71 

1.15 
1.32 
1.03 
1.26 

1. 11 
1.04 


18 
18 
IS 

\l 

15 
15 
'5 

;i 

18 

;g 

15 
16 

15 
is 

18 

15 
16 

:i 

15 
18 
18 

is 
18 

15 

15 
15 
18 

15 

18 
15 


18 
18 

'3 
22 
22 

17 

17 

16 

17 
20 

14 
17 
16 

19 
21 

20 

20 

22 
18 
18 
19 
19 

16 

23 
16 

19 
19 
19 

20 
20 
21 
19 

14 
17 


deg. 
394 
39.9 

42.0 
39-5 
37.3 

395 
41.0 

4278 
37-4 

40.2 

41.6 
41.3 

41.1 

42.4 

43-o 


deg. 
35-2 
36.5 

36.4 
35-4 
32.3 

35.2 

37.0 
37.o 

352 

38.2 
39-o 

25.2 

35-3 
37.7 
36.6 

36.8 
36.7 

36.0 
38.3 

40.0 


deg. 
44.3 
45-9 

46.6 

45-4 
45.1 

45-9 

45-3 
46.1 

42.3 

46.0 
36.9 

41.8 

43-5 
47-4 
45.3 

46.0 
47.4 

46.3 
47.0 

48.0 


deg. 

39.7 
41.2 

41.5 
40.4 

38.7 
40.6 

41. 1 
41.6 

3*8.*8 

42.1 
42.9 

33-5 

39-4 
42.6 
41.0 

41.4 
42.1 

41.1 

42.7 

44.0 


deg. 
20.0 
23.0 

18.0 
19.0 
11. 

17.0 

22.5 
22.0 

28.' 1 

24.0 
23.1 

20.0 

21.0 
26.0 
22.0 

20.0 
22.4 

21.8 

34.6 

14.0 
28*0 


deg. 

53.o 
54.o 

56.0 
53-0 
56.0 

56.0 

57.0 
53.0 

54-'8 

55.o 
54.2 

50.0 

50.0 
55.0 
52.0 

53.0 
57.0 

55-9 
54.5 

49.0 
55.0 


% 
9i 

9i 
9i 

9i 

90 
85 

86 
87 

82 

• 


0-10 
*8 

8.2 

7.8 
8.0 

8.1 

7.0 
6.6 

7.8 

7.0 

To 



hours. 



I""* 



M 



572 

71.0 
"si.6 

75.0 



67.8 14 

-80.0 j... 

59,2 12 



67.4 1 10 



75-3 12 



65.2 12 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



FEBRUARY, 1918. 





RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 




o* 

£ 


♦ 






i 

1 


GREATEST 

FALL IN 




MEANS. 


EXTREMES. 


£ 


STATION. 


34 HOURS. 


00 


1- 


i 

a 


* 




3 
1 


i 

a 


1 

s 
W 


6 

«' 

& 


a 

1 
i 


& 




I 
S 




1 

a 




ins. 


ins. 






deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


hours. 




Arlington Court . 


5* 1 ? 


1.26 


6 


21 


43-2 


40.1 


47-9 


44.0 


32.0 


53-0 








... 


Ashburt'n(Druid ) 


348 


•54 


i 


18 


44-7 


41. 1 


48.8 


44.9 


32.0 


56.0 


8*7 


7.4 




... 


Ashwater . 


3.5o 


•47 


26 


17 


... 




... 




... 






... 




... 


Barnstaple . 


2.43 


.50 


6 


19 


46.8 


41.6 


50.0 


45*8 


29.0 


57.0 


.►. 


... 




... 


Bere Alston 


3-30 


.65 


1 


21 


44-5 


40.9 


49.8 


45-3 


27.0 


56.0 








... 


Coplestone Ho. . 


1.84 


.25 


27 


17 


39-2 


38-4 


50.6 


44.5 


25.0 


57.0 








... 


Cowsic Valley . 


6.15 
















... 


... 




... 




...- 


Cnllompton 
Devil's Tor 


1.82 
6.90 


.19 


1 


19 


44.8 


39-9 


50.4 


45-2 


25.0 


59.0 


87 


7.7 


46.2 


II 


Exeter 


1.49 


•23 


*8 


16 


46.5 


41.2 


50.9 


46.0 


28.0 


57.0 




... 




..» 


Exmouth Obs. . 


0.60 


.12 


* 


II 


... 


42.4 


50.3 


46.4 


31.0 


56.0 




... 


54.9 


.... 


Holne . i. 


4.72 


.72 


3 


20 




... 






... 




... 


... 


... 




Huccaby . 


2.80 


.78 


2 


17 




... 


... 






... 




... 


... 


... 


Ilfracombe . 


2.50 


.51 


12 


12 




40.1 


51.5 


45.8 


35-o 


55-0 






36.4 


... 


Leusdon 


4.36 


.70 


2 


17 


... 


... 


















Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


3.15 
2.32 


•95 
•33 


8 

1 


20 

17 


47.4 


46.1 
43-6 


49.0 
50.2 


47-5 
46.8 


33-0 
32.1 


55.0 
56.7 


89 


& 1 


si.* 


IO~ 


PlymouthWtshd. 






























Head Weir 


5-54 


•75 


2 


20 








... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Siward's Cross . 


5.40 






... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Princetown. 


8.48 


1.25 


2 


21 


41.0 


38.5 


44-7 


41.6 


34.0 


49.0 




8.9 


... 


... 


Roborough 






























(S. Devon) 


3-98 


.61 


1 


22 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


*.. 




... 


... 


... 


Rousdon . 


1.71 


.36 


8 


16 


... 


40.5 


4M 


43-8 


32.0 


55.0 


... 


... 


64.7 


9< 


Salcombe . 


1.90 


.28 


24 


H 


... * 


42.3 


50.0 


46.2 


29.0 


56.8 




... 


54.o 




Sidmouth . 


1.51 


25 


1 


15 


45-9 


42.2 


49.6 


45-9 


22.1 


88 


8.1 


58.4 


9 


South Brent 


5.06 


.81 


6 


21 




... 






... 


... 










South Brent 






























Badworthy 


5-4i 








... 




... 


... 


... 




« 


... 


... 


... 


South Molton . 


3-39 


.71 


6 


18 


... 


... 






... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


Tavistock 


4.13 


•7* 


2 


20 


45-4 


4i.i 


48.3 


44.8 


29.0 


S4.o 


92 


9.0 


... 


... 


Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 


1.30 


.25 


1 


13 


46.6 


42.4 


50.8 


[46.6 


2b. 


57.1 


88 


6.9 


510 


8- 


0.97 


.18 


1 


13 


45-9 


41.5 


49-5 


45-5 


32.2 


56.9 


86 




... 


... 


Thornworthy 


6.31 


.71 


6 


9 


... 








... 




... 


... 




... 


Torquay Obs. 


1.41 


.21 


1 


15 


47-2 


43-4 


50.5 


47.0 


31.8 


58.2 


87 


7.5 


53-o 


6* 


Torquay Wtrshd. 






























Kennick . 


2.18 


•35 


3 


20 


... 






... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


Laployd . 


2.84 


.40 


* 


20 




















... 


Mardon . 


2^48 


.38 


2 


18 


... 


... 










... 


... 


... 


.... 


Torrington 


.67 


6 


18 










25.0 


50.0 


... 


... 




... 


Totnes 






























(Berry Pomeroy) 


2.46 


.60 


6 


14 






... 


... 






... 






... 


Woolacombe 


2.32 


•51 


6 


19 


46.5 


44.0 


50.0 


47.0 


35-0 


55-o 


88 


8.0 


40.6 


16. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE OK THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



141 



MARCH, 1918. 



STATION. 



RAINFALL. 



l 



OBKATK8T 

FALL IN 
84 HOUBfl. 



I 



TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 



MSAN8. 



h 



! 



Arlington Court 
Ashburt^Druid) 
Ash water . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho, 
Cowsic Valley 
Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 

Exmoutk Obs. 
Holne 
Huccaby 
Hfraconibe 
Leusdon 
Lynmouth 
Plymouth Obs 
PlymouthWtshd. 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross 
Princetown 
Boborough 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

Badworthy 
South Molton . 
Tavistock 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

V (Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. . 
Torquay Wtrshd, 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington 
Totnes 

(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacombe 



2-57 
2.05 
1.94 
1.50 
2.31 
1.40 
1.70 
1.82 
2.55 

T.IS 
J. OO 
2.97 
2.08 

2-99 
2.31 
2.44 
2.28 

3.67 

3-40 
3.00 

2.84 
1.86 
2.60 
1.60 
364 

4.10 
2.40 
2.74 
1.30 

1.17 

3.59 
1.49 

1.37 
1.62 
1.22 

1.77 

2. 1 1 
1.73 



ins. 
.72 
•47 
.48 
•39 
•37 
•33 

.42 

.31 

.24 
•54 
.48 
.89 
•43 
•74 
•45 

•59 



.48 
.58 
.63 
•37 
•53 



.64 
.36 
.27 

.30 

1. 19 

.30 

.38 
•35 
.30 
•37 

•45 
.36 



3i 
28 

3i 
30 
29 
30 12 



deg. 
43.8 
44.0 

44-7 
42.3 
41.3 

43-3 

44.4 



45.6 



40.0 



43.9 



44.7 
43.4 

43.7 
45.0 



deg. 

3&i 
38.8 

36.8 
36.§ 
34-8 

363 

38.0 
38.5 



42.1 

38.'5 
39-9 



34.8 



37.2 
39.2 
38.6 



379 
39.1 

37.3 



44.5 



deg. 
49.1 
50.6 

50.6 
50.8 
51.1 

5**3 

51.0 
50-4 



51.6 

47.2 
50.4 



46.4 



48.3 
50.5 
49.8 



50.3 
50.1 

50.6 



40.4 51-2 



40.0 



47.6 
44-7 

43-7 
437 
42.9 

44-3 

44-5 
44-5 



46.9 

42.9 
45.1 



40.6 

42.8 

44.9 
44.2 



44.1 
44.6 

43-9 
45.8 



50.0 



45.0 



deg. 
28.0 
28.0 

28.0 
27.0 
25.0 

28.0 

3i.o 
31.0 



35-0 

30.0 
30.1 



25.0 

28.0 
31.0 
29.4 



28.0 
32.0 

28.5 
33.1 



30.0 



deg. 
68.0 
65.0 

68.0 
63.0 
63.0 

70.0 

62.0 
59.0 



60.0 

55-0 
65.0 



65.0 

61.0 
60.0 
599 



68.0 
61.5 

64.2 

61.9 



59.0 
64.0 



84 



0-10 
6.*7 



7.0 



hours. 



85 



85 



83 



6.7 



7.6 



7.6 



7.0 

7.2 



7.0 



130.5 
132. 1 
1 18. 1 
135-4 



139.4 
144.2 

139.7 



5.0 



9-4 



145.6 



146.4 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



142 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



APRIL, 1918. 







RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN, 


S 

0» 

1 


4 

a 

of 
0» 

I 


s 

i 






i 

Jj 


GREATEST 

FALL IN 
24 HOURS. 


00 

* 


MJ5AN8. 


EXTREMES. 


£ 


STATION. 


b 


ill 

a 1 a 


i 


i 

1 


i 


h 






& 


i 
00 


Arlington C 
Asburt'n(D 
Ashwater , 
Barnstaple , 
Bere Alston 
Copplestone 
Cowsic Vail 
Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 
Exmouth 
Holne 
Huccaby 
Ilfracombe 
Leusdon 
Lvnmouth 
Plymouth ( 
Plymouth^ 
Head We 
Siward's 
Princetown 
Roborough 
(S.E 
Rousdon 
Salcombe 
Sidmouth 
South Bren 
South Bren 
Badwortt 
South Molt 
Tavistock 
Teignmoutl 
Teignmoutl 
(B< 
Thornwortl 
Torquay 01 
Torquay W 
Eennick 
Laployd 
Mardon 
Torrington 
Totnes 
(Berry Pon 
Woolacomb 


ourt. 
raid). 

\ Ho. 
ey . 

bs. ! 

)bs. ; 
rtshd. 
ir 
Cross. 

>evon) 

t 
t 

on . 

lObs. 

i 
mton) 

iy . 

MS. 

trshd. 

aeroy) 
e 


ins. 

3.02 

2.92 

3.01 

2.60 

i.55 
2.07 

2.30 
2.10 
2.40 
1.96 
1.80 
2.98 

3-15 
1.24 
2.09 
2.59 
1.41 

1.88 
2.50 
327 

1.45 
1.82 
1.40 

i.7i 
2.25 

2.49 
2.42 
1.86 
1.81 

2.13 
3-44 
1.60 

3.08 

3-04 
2.64 
2.05 

1.83 
2.26 


ins. 
1.15 
1.05 

• 79 
•74 
.24 

.51 

.6*3 

.40 

.28 

1.02 

1. 00 

.31 

.36 

1. 00 

•30 

.40 

.62 

.28 
•33 
.31 
.27 
-77 

.80 
.32 
.41 

•44 
.70 
.41 

1.05 

.91 
1. 00 

•50 

.42 
.96 


16 
«i 

16 
10 
16 

16 

15 
3 
3 

2 

19 

18 

16 

3 

6 

"(6 

3 
10 

3 

3 
3 

16 

30 
10 

10 

7 
3 

3 
3 

10 
16 


12 
15 
13 
14 
16 

15 

15 

15 
14 
17 
15 

7 

12 
16 
14 

15 

14 

18 

17 
12 
16 
16 

11 
16 
12 

16 

14 
18 

16 
16 
16 
14 

11 
13 


deg. 
48.2 
47.2 

47.0 
46.6 
45.6 

46.6 

47.0 

49-5 
42.8 

46.8 

44.7 
45-5 

45-5 
48.0 

46.1 


de^g. 
372 
40.0 

369 
38.5 
34-9 

38.0 

39-9 
40.3 

40.3 

41.0 
40.9 

3*6.6 

38*1 
39-4 
39-5 

3*8.9 
40.9 

39-2 

42.2 

42.0 


deg. 
51.2 
53-3 

52.2 
54-7 
54-4 

54.2 

54.1 
52.2 

52.0 

49.1 
53-1 

4**3 

51.2 
539 
52.5 

53-1 
53.o 

52.3 

53.4 

53-o 


deg. 
44.2 
46.6 

44.5 
46.6 
44.6 

46.1 

47.0 
46.3 

46.2 

4 1 
46.9 

42.4 

44.7 
46.7 
46.0 

46.0 
47.0 

45.7 
47.8 

48.0 


deg. 
30.0 
31.0 

29.0 
29.0 
28.0 

29.0 

32.0 
33-o 

36.0 

40.0 
32.2 

28.0 

28.0 
32.0 
30.0 

28.0 
330 

30-5 
32.1 

26.0 
36.0 


deg. 
67.0 
67.0 

69.0 
65.0 
67.0 

68.0 

66.0 
63.0 

62.0 

63.0 
61.9 

63.0 

65.0 
64.0 
66.3 

66.0 
62.8 

64.4 
64.5 

64.0 
65.0 


% 
77 

80 
75 

79 

79 
81 

79 
7*8 

77 


0-10 

5.9 
7.2 

6.1 
6.9 

7.1 

6.0 
5.7 

6.0 
5.5 

5.0 


hotirs. 

130.0 
153-9 
123.9 
164.8 

160.0 
192.0 
143.9 

159-4 
I7I.3 

I56.'5 


7 

3 

4 
4 

4 
5 

4 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE OK THB CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



143 



MAY, 1918 



STATION. 



BA1 



I 

3 



Arlington Court. 
Ashburt'n(Druid ) 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. . 
Oowsic Valley . 
Collompton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 

Exmonth Obs. . 
Holne 
Huccaby . 
Ilfracombe . 
Leusdon 
Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 
PlymouthWtshd 

Head Weir . 

Siward's Cross. 
Princetown 
Roborongh 
• (8. Devon) 

Rousdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

Badworthy 
South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington. 
Totnes 
(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolac6mbe 



ins. 

2.12 
1.26 
1. 12 
I.64 

1.38 
1.95 
1-43 
2.IO 
I.I8 
1. 00 

M5 
1.63 
1.72 
1. 21 
1.27 
0.84 

2.00 
1.80 
2.44 

1.46 
1.68 
1.40 
1.61 
1.67 

1.60 
3.16 
1.29 

1.53 

123 
i.53 
1.28 

1.47 
1-35 
1.36 
0.85 

1.37 
1.40 



ins. 
.91 
.41 
.29 

:S 

•45 

.25 

.31 
.28 
.46 
.50 
•43 
.38 
.26 

•34 
•44 
.60 

.46 
•59 

.56 

i-95 
.24 
.60 

.50 
.46 
.50 

•49 
.60 

.52 
•3i 

.48 
•45 


22 

5 
12 
22 
12 
13 

12 

5 
5 
5 
4 
25 
5 

22 
12 

12 
H 

13 
12 
12 
12 
12 

21 
22 

5 

5 
5 
5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

5 
25 


9 

10 

9 
10 

14 
11 

12 

11 

9 
10 

9 
17 
11 
11 
11 

12 

12 

11 
11 

9 
11 

14 

10 
12 
12 

11 
11 
12 

12 
12 
12 
11 

11 

9 


deg. 
61. 1 
57.3 

56.9 
56.4 
58.5 

537 

58.4 

57.6 
53-9 

57-4 

5M 

5M 

56.3 
5*7-4 

54.5 


deg. 
46.4 
47.8 

44.8 
46.3 
47.2 

4*5.2 

48.1 
47.8 

45-1 

48.1 
48.9 

42.0 

47-1 
46.0 

47.1 

46.3 
48.5 

47.7 

49-3 

49.0 


deg. 
62.3 
63.0 

62.7 

65.5 
67.7 

67.1 
61.3 

59-2 

60.0 
61.7 

60.0 

61.0 

63.5 
62.0 

63.7 
62.0 

62.1 

63.0 

61.0 


deg. 

54.4 
55.2 

53.8 
55-9 

57.4 

56.2 

56.8 
54.6 

52.2 

54.0 
55-3 

51.0 

54.i 
54-8 
54-6 

54.0 
55.3 

54-9 
56.2 

55.0 


deg. 
36.0 
41.0 

34.o 
39.o 
37.o 

38.0 

43.o 
42.0 

54.o 

40.0 
438 

37.o 

41.0 
41.0 
41.8 

40.0 
43-4 

42.1 
43-o 

34° 
43.o 


deg. 
77.o 
74.o 

76.0 
77.o 
81.0 

80.0 

74.o 
70.0 

76.*5 

75.0 
76.0 

76.0 

69.0 
71.0 
69.6 

77.0 
7o.3 

70.6 
71.3 

75.0 
76.0 


% 
7i 

71 
77 

74 

77 
77 

74 

72 

80 


0-10 
4.9 

5.6 

6.0 
6.2 

6.3 

6.0 
4.7 

6.3 
5.0 

5.0 


hours. 

234.5 
255.1 
230.0 
248.0 

260.6 
251. 1 
242.7 

248.0 
2579 

223.3 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



144 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



JUNE, 1918. 





ins. 


ins. 






deg. 


Arlington Court . 


1-93 


.60 


18 


l l 


62.3 


Ashburt'n(Druid) 


1.70 


1.02 


18 


60.0 


Ashwater . 


2.05 


.63 


18 


10 




Barnstaple . 


1.04 


.29 


18 


13 


5*8.6 


Bere Alston 


1.76 


•79 


18 


11 


58.3 


Ooplestone Ho. . 


0.90 


.32 


18 


10 


61.3 


Cowsic Valley . 


2.55 










Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 


1. 11 


!68 


i*8 


9 


60.9 


2.00 


. 








Exeter 


0.82 


.46 


18 


7 


61.1 


Exmouth Obs. . 


0.51 


.06 


18 


5 




Holne 


2.12 


1.45 


18 


7 




Huccaby . 


2.23 


1. 15 


18 


5 




Ufracombe . 


1.29 


•5 1 


17 


8 




Leusdon 


2.36 


1. 16 


18 


6 


... 


Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


1.28 


.68 


18 


11 


... 


1.07 


.67 


18 


10 


60.2 


PlymouthWtshd. 
Head Weir . 












2.76 


1.20 


18 


13 




Siward's Cross . 


2.77 


... 


... 






Princetown 


3-97 


.78 


9 


10 


54-3 


Roborough 










1 


(S. Devon) 


1.92 


•94 


18 


11 


... i 


Kousdon . 


1.02 


.64 


18 


.8 




Salcombe . 


1. 00 


.63 


18 


9 




JSidmouth . 


i.c8 


.60 


18 


9 


59.'8 


South Brent 


1.82 


1.08 


18 


7 




.South Brent 












Badworthy 


2.21 










South Molton . 


1.79 


.71 


18 


12 




Tavistock . 


2.35 


•97 


18 


16 


59o 


Teignmouth Obs. 


1.04 


.80 


18 


6 


58.5 


Teignmouth 












(Benton) 


0.75 


.60 


18 


7 


60.3 


Thorn worthy 


2.56 


1. 00 


18 


10 




Torquay Obs. 


0.91 


.58 


18 


9 


60.6 


Torquay Wtrahd. 












Kennick . 


1. 10 


•75 


18 


7 


... 


Laployd . 


1.22 


• 77 


18 


7 




Mardon . 


1. 14 


.80 


18 


7 




Torrington . 


1.40 


.62 


18 


12 




Totnes 












(Berry Pomeroy] 


1.30 


.90 


18 


6 




Woolacombe 


1.22 


•55 


18 


10 


&S 



deg. j deg. 
46.1 I 62.3 
48.7 1 66.3 

45.5 i 62*7 
45-4, 67.4 
44.0 | 70.9 

44.5! 68.7 



50.6 
49-5 

52.3 

49.1 
49-4 



47.1 
47.1 
479 



45-8 
49-9 

48.4 

50.9 



68.2 
64.6 



61.4 

61.0 
64.7 



59.8 



63.0 
66.2 
65.2 



65.0 
66.6 

64.7 

66.1 



54-2 
57.5 

54.' 1 
56.4 
57.4 

56.6 

59-4 

57.1 



56.9 

55.1 
57.0 



52.9 



56.7 
56.6 



5 H 
58.3 

56.5 

5*8.'6 



62.0 



56.5 



SEN. 


B 

(0 

0» 

i 


6 

d 

Oft 

I 


0* 

a 

1 

a 
a 
00 




TOEMES. 


?J 




a 

1 


5 

! 

QQ 


deg. 
40.0 
41.0 

36.0 
38.0 
36.0 

36.0 

45.5 

43-o 

47.0 

41.0 
43-2 

39.0 

40.0 
42.0 
40.5 

38.0 
43.5 

40.5 

45.3 

35-o 
46.0 


deg. 
78.0 
75.0 

79.0 
79.0 
81.0 

82.0 

79.0 
730 

70.0 

72.0 
74-2 

76.0 

73° 
75.0 
72,6 

79.0 
74.0 

75-2 
7 8!2 

77.0 
75.0 


% 

68 
67 

70 

70 

7*8 

72 

66 
65 

82 


0-10 
4.6 

6.i 

6.0 

6.1' 

6.0 
38 

50 
50 


hOUT8. 

253.3 
243.O 
266.3 
275.0 

268.6 
297.9 
262.2 

284.8 
285.3 

249.9 


2 

2 

O 

I 

2 
I 

* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OP DEVON. 



145 



JULY, 1918. 





RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 


E 

ci 


©* 

§, 








3 


GRRATK8T 
FALL IH 




MEANS. 


EXTREMES. 


s 


8TATION. 


24 HOURS. 


| 


V 


i 

a 


§ 
1 


a 


a 



M 

3 


I 

a 

I 


J? 

6 



m 


« 

1 


0) 

a 

c 
00 


£ 




5 




1 

a 
00 




ins. 


ins. deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. J deg. 


% 


0-10 


hours. 




Arlington Court . 


5-94 


117 63.3 


54-7 


65.3:60.0 


44.0 75.0 










Ashburt'n (Druid) 


5-33 


.67 62.2 


53.6 


67.4 


60.5 


46.0 


77.0 


72 


5.8 


... 




Aahwater . 


5.12 


^3 




















Barnstaple . 


4.42 


.99 61.7 


51.0 


65.6 


58-3 


44.0 75.0 










Bere Alston 


4.67 


1. 81 61.91 51.7 


70.4 


61. 1 44.0 81.0 










Coplestone Ho. 


3-72 


.66 67.0 


49.2 


73-7 


61.4 43.0 1 81.0 










Cowsic Valley 


5.05 


... 






... ; ... ! ... 










Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 


4-33 


.83 63.3 


51.1 


71.1 


61. 1 


43.0 81.0 


73 


6.2 


210.4 




5.10 


... 












... 






Exeter 


432 


.90 62.9 


549 


71.4 


63.1 


49-5 78.0 








*... 


Exmouth Obs. . 


4.20 


.59 


54.8 


68.2 


61.5 


49.0 


76.0 




... 


243.0 




Holne 


5.64 


1.25 










... 








Huccaby . 


4-34 


.71 




... 






1 








Ilfracombe . 


3-67 


.59 


59.0 


64.9 


62.0 


51.5 


78.0 






261.3 




Leusdon 


5.14 


1. 31 




















Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


4.63 


.84 


540 


63.1 


58.6 


48.0 


77.0 










3-46 


.90 62.8 


55-2 


66.9 


61.1 


49.6 


76.7 


77 


6\2 


244.1 


4 


PlymouthWtshd. 
Head Weir 
























5-5 1 


1.44 






... | ... 












Si ward's Cross . 


5-75 


















... 


Princetown 


6 -39 


1.95 61.9150.0 


62.0 


56.0 


44.0 


73-o 




... 






Roborough 






















(S. Devon) 


4.88 


1.48 




















Rousdon . 


4.92 


.88 


52.5 


65-3 


58.9 


47.0 


76.1 






235.9 


4 


Sal com be . 


3- 50 


.55 


52.3 


69.4 


60.9 


46.0 


76.0 






278.1 


... 


Sid mouth . 


4.89 


i. 00 61.9 


53-5 


67.0 


60.3 


47.7 


77.4 


76 


6.7 


217.3 


3 


South Brent 


6 -43 


1.32 






... 














South Brent 




















(Badworthy) 


8.51 


... 






1 












South Molton . 


5- 32 


.85 






1 








... 




Tavistock 


4.89 


1.72 61.8 


52.2 


67.1 


59-7 


45.0 


77.0 


84 


7.0 






Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 


4.64 


75 6l -3 


55-1 


69.0 


62.0 


48.$ 


78.6 


79 


5.1 


252.2 


2 


4.17 


.93 61.0 


53-S 


69.3 


61.5 


47.0 


82.3 


80 


6.2 


... 




Thorn worthy 


5-39 


.81 
















... 




Torquay Obs. 


4.44 


.84 62.7 


55-7 


68.5 


62.1 


5o-3 


77*8 


74 


5-0 


265.2 


3 


Torquay Wtrshd. 
























Kennick . 


3-75 


•9f 


... 














... 


... 


Laployd . 


3.8Q 


,8f 




... 
















Mardon . 


3-66 


.75 
















... 




Torrington . 


5.96 


.92 






... 


39.0 


76.0 








... 


Totnes 
























(Berry Pomeroy) 


4.85 


.6« 








... 


... 










Woolacombe 


3-79 


.81 






60,3 


S5-° 


66.0 


61.0 


47.0 


77.0 


8*3 


£0 


231.6 


2 



VOL. LI. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



146 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) Off THE 



AUGUST, 1918. 





RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 


- i 


S* 

** 

£ 








0BBATB81 

FALL IN 




MEANS. 


EXTREMES. 


STATION. 


ajHOUBS. 


'& 


4* 

h 


3 


1 
• 3 


8 


3 


i 
.1 


i 

to 


s 

d 

Ok 

I 


• 




1 


a! 

2 


8 

a> 




ins. 


ins. 






deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


hours. 


Arlington Court . 


5-91 


1.50 


I 


17 


63.0 


52.2 


65.2 


58.7 


45- ° 


77.o 






... 


Ashburt'n(Druid) 


2.99 


1.05 


5 


II 


62.5 


54.4 


68.4 


61.4 


49-o 


79.0 


79 


5.5 


... 


Ashwater . 


3-79 


.80 


5 


16 




















Barnstaple . 


4.78 


1.57 


1 


17 


61.8 


52.9 


6*5-3 


59-1 


42.0 


78.0 


... 




... 


Bete Alston 


3.01 


•57 


5 


16 


61.9 


53-2 


69.2 


61.2 


44.o 


76.0 








Coplestone Ho. . 


3.16 


1.04 


5 


16 


62.3 


51-7 


73-9 


62.8 


41.0 


81.0 




... 


... 


Cowsic Valley . 


4.80 






... 


... 
















... 


Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 


3.37 
4.40 


1.26 


1 


14 


62.3 


526 


70.3 


6*1.5 


42.0 


80.0 


80 


7.5 


164.6 


Exeter 


2.10 


.92 


1 


9 


62.5 


55-2 


7o.5 


62.8 


47.0 


7*5 


... 






Exmouth Obs. . 


2.50 


•79 


1 


9 


... 


55-7 


67.8 


61.8 


49.0 


74.0 


... 




198. 1 


Holne 


3.48 


1.20 


5 


12 








... 


... 








... 


Huccaby . 


3-19 


•97 


5 


11 


... 














... 




Ilfracombe . 


2.63 


1.24 


1 


9 




57-9 


65V1 


61V5 


52.0 


80.0 






I50-4 


Leusdon 


3-23 


1.08 


5 


9 






... 










... 




Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


3-23 


1.32 


1 


15 




55-° 


65.0* 


60.0 


60.0 


78.0 


... 






2.15 


.63 


25 


21" 


63.0 


56.2 


67.3 


63.2 


45.0 


75-o 


77 


7.7 


171.1 


PlymouthWtshd. 




























Head Weir 


3-76 


.67 


24 


17 










... 




... 




... 


Siward's Cross . 


3.58 








... 
















... 


Princetown 


5.78 


i*88 


5 


17 


61.7 


51.0 


63.3 


57-1 


46.0 


73-° 








Roborough 




























(S. Devon) 


2.92 


.71 


5 


16 


... 






... 








... 


... 


Rousdon . 


2.30 


.69 


*V 


11 




53.1 


65.0 


59-1 


47- 


72.6 






184.4 


Salcombe . 


2.00 


.67 


26 


12 


'.'.'. 532 


68.1 


60.7 


45-o 


75.0 






204.0 


Sidmouth . 


2.77 


1.22 


1 


12 


62.0 


54-3 


66.8 


60.6 


45.8 


73-5 


81 


e"? 


181.3 


South Brent 


3.66 


•97 


5 


IS 


... 




... 








... 






South Brent 




























(Badworthy) 


3.36 


*.. 


... 


... 


... 




• •• 








... 


... 




South Molton 


4.75 


1-43 


1 


16 


... 




... 






... 








Tavistock . 


3.22 


1.98 


5 


19 


60.9 


53.3 


66.9 


60.1 


45.0 


76.0 


8S 


8.0 


... 


Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 


1.90 


•75 


1 


8 


61.1 


56.1 


69.5 


62.8 


50.0 


77.0 


83' 


5-5 


205.7 


2.07 


•75 


1 


*3 


60.6 


54.4 


68.7 


61.5 


48.5 


77.1 


81 


6.5 




Thornworthy 


4.06 


1-35 


5 


16 


... 








... 










Torquay Obs. 


2.21 


•71 


25 


15 


62.6 


56.7 


69.4 


6*3.'i 


51.1 


77*8 


77 


6.5 


213-7 


Torquay Wtrshd. 




























Kennick . 


2.58 


.89 


1 


12 


... 




.-. 


... 




... 








Laployd . 


2-53 


•92 


1 


11 






.... 






... 








Mardon . 


2.70 


.80 


1 


13 


... 


... 


... 




... 




... 






Torrington 
Totnes 
(Berry Pomeroy) 


3.15 


•99 


25 


15 




... 


... 




39-0. 


73-o 




... 




2. 1 1 


.70 


26 


9 






... 






... 




... 




Woolacombe 


2.72 


1.30 


1 


15 


60.8 


57-o 


66.0 


62.0 


52.0 


80.0 


84 


7-o 


137.5 



i 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



147 



SEPTEMBER, 1918. 



STATION. 



RA] 



f 
& 

1 



Arlington Court 

Ashburt'n(Druid) 

Ashwater . 

Barnstaple . 

Bere Alston 

Coplestone Ho. . 

Cowsic Valley . 

Cullompton 

Devil's Tor 

Exeter 

Exmouth Obs. . 

Holne 

Huccaby . 

Ilfracombe . 

Leusdon 

Lvnmouth . 

Plymouth Obs. . 

PlymouthWtshd. 
Head Weir . 
Siward's Cross . 

Princetown 

Roborough 

(S. Devon) 

Rousdon 

Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

(Badworthy) 
South Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. .1 
Torquay Wtrshd.] 
Kennick . 
Laployd . 
Mardon . 
Torrington . 
Totnes 

(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacombe 



13.40 
10.92 

8.95 
8.86 
8.26 
6.89 

11.95 
7.46 

10.00 
6.01 
6.00 

12.22 
9.70 
9.86 

10.97 
9.81 
7-44 

10.72 
11.48 
13.91 

8.48 
6.29 
6.70 
6.11 
10.60 

10.62 
8.48 
8.81 
6.07 

5.5i 

13.22 

5.68 

6.47 

7.37 
6.40 
8.78 

7-37 
9.17 



ins. 

1.63 

1.69 
1.67 
1.23 
1.02 
1.29 

.83 

1.32 
1.38 
i-53 
1.30 

i-i3 
1.29 
1.24 
1.05 

1.07 

1.30 

1.21 
1.40 
.98 

1.35 
1.46 



.80 
1.04 
1.50 

1.34 
1.84 

1.31 

1.24 

1-55 
1. 13 
1. 61 

1.32 
1-39 



I 



29 

29 
29 
29 

4 
29 

13 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 

29 
29 

H 

13 

29 
29 

4 
29 

14 

21 
29 
29 

29 

29 
29 

29 

29 
29 

29 

29 
29 


28 
28 
25 
30 
30 
27 

28 

23 
24 
26 

29 
25 
27 
28 
25 

29 

29 

28 
27 
25 
26 

27 

29 
27 
23 

24 
30 
27 

26 
27 
26 
26 

26 
27 


deg. 
55.3 
55-7 

56.9 
53-3 
54.8 

55.8 
56.1 

57.3 
56.9 

57*2 

55.i 
56.1 

54-6 

57-5 

56.7 


deg. 
48.8 
49.0 

49.6 
46.6 
46.1 

48.3 

50.2 
51.2 

53-V 

49.1 
51.5 

46.0 

48.6 
50.2 
50.2 

48.5 
51.4 

49-7 

523 

56.0 


deg. 
58.3 
59-7 

59-3 
59-7 
64.2 

62.2 

63.2 
62.2 

61V1 

60.0 
61.1 

55-2 

59-2 
62.2 
60.6 

59-1 
62.6 

61.7 
62.0 

61.0 


deg. 
535 

54.3 

54-5 
53.1 
55- 1 

553 

56.7 
56.7 

5*7-4 

54.6 
56.4 

50.6 

51-9 
56.2 

55-4 

53.8 
57.o 

55 7 

57-2 

5*8*5 


deg. 
38.0 
40.0 

40.0 
380 
30.0 

36.0 

38.0 
43-o 

42.0 

40.0 
41.0 

36.0 

36.0 
39-0 
38.1 

39.0 
41.0 

39.o 
40.8 

34-0 
42.0 


deg. 
68.0 
68.0 

69.0 
70.0 
74.0 

72.0 

74.0 
67.0 

69.0 

68.0 
67.0 

64.0 

64.0 
66.0 
65.0 

67.0 
72.0 

71.7 
78.' 1 

65.0 
68.0 


% 

75 
86 

83 

81 

86 
84 

84 
79 

78 



0-10 

6.5 



hours. 



7.0 



6.9 



6.8 



8.0 
5.7 

6.2 
6.0 



123.8 
138.0 
120.5 
124.0 



1 36. 1 
155. 1 
'35-5 



149.2 



150.3 



6.0 



105.4 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



148 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



OCTOBER, 1918. 



STATION. 



RAINFALL. 



Arlington Court 
Ashbnrt'n(Druid ) 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho. 
Cowsic Valley 
Gullorapton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 

Exmouth Obs. 
Holne 
Huccaby 
Ilfracombe 
Leusdon 
Lynmoutli 
Plymouth Obs. . 
PlymouthWtshd. 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross . 
Princetown 
Roborough 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon . 
Salcombe '. 
Sidraouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

Badworthy 
South Molton . 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd. 

Eennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington . 
Totnes 
(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacorabe 



GREATEST 

FALL IN 
24 HOCR8. 



TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 



+2 

<w B 

55 o» 



3 



4.12 
3.34 

2.88 
2.23 

3-54 
1.72 

5' 2 S 
1.98 
4.00 

1.49 
1.40 
4.02 
3.00 
2* 37 
3- 6 3 
2.99 

2.74 

4.86 
4.30 
6.64 

3.78 
2.18 
2.90 
1.95 
4-3 6 

6.66 
2.59 
3.90 
1.49 

1.84 
4.92 
1.63 

2.11 
2.21 
2.23 
2.15 

2.57 
2.01 



•59 
•53 
.58 
.28 

• 5 2 
.38 

.35 

.33 
.67 
.70 
.41 
.43 
.50 
.64 
.63 

.84 
•95 

,65 
.46 

.55 

•45 
1. 11 



.48 
.51 
.35 

.64 

.88 
.24 

.24 
.'30 
.26 

.42 

•45 
.20 



deg. 
48.2 
50.8 

52.4 
48.8 
49.0 

49-9 
51.9 



51.1 



58.2 



50-9 



50.3 
51.7 

51.2 
52.3 



52.5 



deg. 
43.2 
44.7 


deg. 
53-1 
55.5 


deg. 
48.1 
50.1 


43.0 
42.0 
40.5 


55.1 
55-2 
57.0 


49.1 
48.6 
48.7 


41.9 


56. 


49.0 


45.6 
46.3 


56.3 
56.6 


50.8, 
51.5 


49-3 


56.3 


52.8 


45.1 
46.0 


54.0 


49.5 
51.0 


41-3 


50.6 


45-9 


43.8 
44.2 
45.0 


54-4 
57-9 
55-5 


49.1 
51.1 
50-3 


43-3 
46.5 


54*3 
57-5 


48.8 
52.0 


44.9 


56.3 


50.6 


47.0 


56.6 


si.s 


59.0 


44.0 


5«-S 



deg. 

35-o 
38.0 

30.0 
32.0 
30.0 

30.0 

38.0 
37.0 



46.0 

390 

37.5 



35-o 



35.o 
35.o 
355 



350 
36.8 

37-1 

39- 1 



30.0 
44.0 





^ 











c 

ft 











o» 


E 




5 


«a 


0) 




o» 


a 










•0 


a 


B 


S3 






O 




a 


O 


■ CQ 



deg. 
58.0 
60.0 

62.0 
59.0 
67.0 

61.0 

64.0 
62.0 



61.0 

60.0 
61.0 



55.o 



590 
62.0 
60.0 



58.0 
62.5 

61.0 
69.5 



55.o 
61.0 



91 



0-10 
7.0 



8.2 



89 



89 



81 



7.7 



7.9 



8.0 
6.7 

6.6 

7.0 



7.0 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



149 



NOVEMBER, 1918. 





RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 


Ok 


s* 
§, 








a. 

a 

3 


greatest 

FALL IN 




MEANS. 


EXTREMES. 


£ 


STATION. 


24 HOURS. 


00 

1 


II 


i 

a 


i 


p 
8 


a 

E 

•3 


I 

a 

9. 


•a 

S 




6 
•0* 


i 
1 


a 




5 

a 




i 

l 


• 


H 


S 


£ 


H 


a 


* 


S 


s 


s 


W 


6 


02 


a 




ins. 


i»s. 






deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


Tiours. 




Arlington Court . 


4.72 


.90 


4 


17 


42.1 


38.8 


48.8 


43-8 


28.0 


56.0 








... 


Ashburt'n(Druid) 


5.51 


2.05 


4 


16 


45-7 


39.6 


50.2 


44.9 


32.o: 57 .o 


68 


74 




... 


Ashwater . 


4.64 


1.23 


1 


13 












. % . 




... 






Barnstaple . 


3-39 


.70 


1 


18 


46.7 


3M 


49.2 


43.8 


26.0 


58.0 








... 


Bere Alston 


433 


1. 10 


1 


20 


42.7 


37.6 


50.5 


44.0 


28.0 


57.0 




... 






Coplestone Ho. . 


3-73 


1.06 


1 


18 


40.3 


33-1 


48.2 


40.6 


25.0 


58.0 








... 


Cowsic Valley . 


6.10 












... 
















Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 


3.01 


.94 


1 


18 


43-4 


36.6 


50.4 


43-5 


25.0 


58.0 


90 


6.9 


64V8 


10 


4.90 




























Exeter 


2.93 


1. 19 


1 


M 


45-4 


40.3 


50.3 


45-3 


3o.5 


56.5 










Exmouth Obs. . 


2.40 


•75 


1 


13 




41.4 


51-7 


46.6 


3i.o 


59.0 




... 


83V1 




Holne 


7.43 


2.83 


4 


18 






















Huccaby . 


5.23 


1. 71 


1 


13 






















Ilfracombe . 


346 


.71 


4 


14 




42.9 


53-1 


48.0 


33-o 


59.0 




.►. 


75.9 


.« 


Leusdon 


6.28 


1.99 


4 


17 
















... 






Lynmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


4.66 


1.22 


4 


17 




39-1 


49.1 


44.1 


32.0 


58.0 










3.26 


.83 


1 


19 


47.8 41.5 


52.1 


46.9 


30.5 


57.2 


95 


7.0 


86.0 


10 


PlymouthWtshd. 














1 












Head Weir 


6.01 


1.70 


1 


17 


... 






... 








... 




Siward's Cross . 


6.00 







... 






... 







... 






Princetown 




























Roborough 






























(S. Devon) 


4-49 


1.08 


4 


is 




... 






... ] ... 










Eousdon . 


2.42 


.61 


4 


13 




40.4 


49-4 


44-9 


30.0156.4 






91.3 


9 


Salcombe . 


1.60 


•35 


1 


12 


... 


42.7 


53-1 


47.9 


31.0 ! 58.0 






95- 1 




Sidmouth . 


2.88 


1.00 


4 


13 


4^4 


41.5 


51.0 


46.3 


30.3 . 56.8 


88 


7-5 


59-6 


10 


South Brent 


5-57 


l -75 


4 


16 






... 


... 












South Brent 






























Badworthy 


6.42 


... 




... 


... 




... 




... 












South Molton . 


4.20 


•52 


27 


>7 




... 






... 












Tavistock . 


5-04 


1.22 


4 


18 


46.1 


39.8 


50.2 


44.9 


27.0 


56.0 


86 


7.0 


... 




Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 


305 


1. 00 


4 


15 


46.7 


42.4 


52.5 


47-5 


31.0 


59-0 


85 


3-7 


63.7 


10 


2.80 


.80 


i 


18 


46.2 


41.5 


51.4 


46.4 


30.1 


57.5 


84 


7.2 


... 


... 


Thornworthy 


6.54 


i-55 


5 


14 






... 




... | ... 










Torquay Obs. 


2.59 


.76 


4 


15 


483 


43.6 


52.7 


48.2 


33° '58.5 


84» 7.p 


77*3 


13 


Torquay Wtrshd. 




















1 






Kennick . 


4.37 


1.82 


1 


19 






... 




... 1 


... ' 






Laployd . 


5.44 


2.20 


1 


17 










... 








... 


Mardon . 


3-96 


1.50 


1 


17 






... 


... 


... 


... 










Torrington . 


3.48 


.63 


4 


18 






... 




22.0 


54.0 








... 


Totnes 






























(Berry Pomeroy) 


4.11 


1.48 


4 


18 














... 


... 


• 


... 


Woolacombe 


3-°9 
1 


.51 


1 


17 


47.2 


43-° 


52.0 


46.5 


32.0 


60.0 


82 


6.0 


... 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



150 



THIRTY-SEVENTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OP THE 



DECEMBER, 1918. 



























S* 








§, 




« 




6 

ctf 


• 


1 




Ok 

I 


a 
00 


J 

c 




ins. 


ins. 






deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


hours. 




Arlington Court . 


974 


.78 


23 


27 


45. S 


4i.3 


49.1 


45-2 


31.0 


54.o 


... 








Aahburtfn(Druid) 


8.34 


•77 


2 


27 


46.5 


42.3 


51.0 


46.6 


32.0 


58.0 


9i 


7.3 






Ashwater . 


7-14 


.60 


4 


25 








... 














Barnstaple . 


6.77 


.61 


15 


30 


48.6 


42.9 


5o-9 


46.9 


29.0 


56.0 








... 


Bere Alston 


7.30 


.90 


4 


29 


46.5 


41.5 


5i-2 


46.3 


29.0 


57.0 










Goplestone Ho. . 


5.11 


•Si 


19 


29 


44.5 


390 


51.4 


45-2 


26.0 


60.0 


... 








Cowsic Valley . 


13.60 






... 
















... 






Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 


4.83 


•45 


10 


28 


46.6 


40.9 


517 


46.3 


28.0 


57.0 


9i 


8.0 


41.8 


12 


9.50 










... 


... 


... 








... 






Exeter 


4.04 


.58 


10 


25 


47-4 


42.5 


5i.7 


4M 


30.0 


59.0 




... 






Exmouth Obs. . 


3.10 


•39 


21 


24 




42.4 


53-5 


48.0 


30.0 


59.0 


... 


... 


60.1 




Holne 


12.11 


1.08 


2 


28 


... 






... 






... 




... 


.. 


Huccaby . 


8.74 


.76 


9 


29 




... 




... 




... 


... 


... 






Ilfracombe . 


5-75 


.67 


4 


25 




45.6 


53.6 


49.6 


39° 


57.0 


... 


.m 


13.8 




Leusdon 


10.02 


T.27 


22 


23 














... 


... 






Lvnmouth . 
Plymouth Obs. . 


7.19 


.68 


10 


26 




43.1 


50.5 


46.8 


33-0 


57*0 


... 






.. 


6.37 


.62 


4 


30 


48.7 


44-5 


5i.4 


47.5 


33-° 


558 


94 


8.1 


53-0 


It 


PlymouthWtshd. 






























Head Weir . 


12.28 


1.50 


4 


30 


... 




... 




... 












Siward's Cross. 


11.85 
















... 












Princetown 






























Roborough 






























(S. Devon) 


9.18 


•95 


4 


30 


... 




... 








... 


... 






Rousdon . 


3.18 


•47 


21 


27 


... 


41.5 


50.0 


4*5-8 


30.0 


56.0 


..♦ 


... 


5i-i 


I 


Salcombe . 


4.80 


.51 


22 


27 




42.6 


52.8 


47-7 


32.0 


57-0 




... 


62.0 


.. 


Sidmouth . 


3.61 


.50 


10 


27 


47.4 


42.9 


51.8 


47-4 


30.0 


58.7 


9i 


8.3 


47.5 


I 


South Brent 


11. 741 1. 25 


2 


27 










... 










.. 


South Brent 






























Badworthy 


14.27 






... 


... 


... 








... 


... 


... 


... 




South Molton 


9-23 


.68 


10 27 




... 


... 




... 












Tavistock . 


9.82 


1-34 


4 


31 


46.9 


42.2 


50.1 


46.1 


30.0 


55.0 


91 


8.0 






Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton 


3.36 


.46 


21 


23 


48.5 


43-6 


50.3 


46.9 


32.7 


59.8 


88 


7.4 


49.8 


I 


3.38 


•45 


21 


28 


47.4 


43-3 


5i-9 


47.6 


31.7 


59.2 


87 


7.8 






Thornworthy 


14.01 


1. 15 


22 


28 
















... 




. 


Torquay Obs. 


3.58 


.41 


21 


27 


49.0 


44.8 


530 


48.9 


32.1 


58* 


89 


7.0 


63.7 


I 


Torquay Wtrshd. 






























Kennick . 


$.26 


.50 


« 


27 




... 




... 




... 










Laployd . 


5.92 


a 


21 


27 


... 








... 




... 


... 






Mardon . 


4.81 


10 


27 




... 


... 






... 


... 


... 






Torrington . 


6.54 


.81 


1 


28 


... 


• M 


••• 




26.0 


52.0 


... 


... 


... 




Totnes 






























(Befry Pomeroy 


6.11 


.82 


2 


28 




... 






... 








... 




Woolacombe 


4.76 


.49 


4 


26 


49-5 


46.0 


52.C 


49.0 


38.0 


57-0 


88 


8.0 

i 


29.5 


1 



13 



15 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



151 



SUMMARY FOR WHOLE YEAR 1918. 



8TATION. 



RAINFALL. 




GREATEST 




5 


FALL IN 




1 


24 HOURS. 


* 






W-+ 


.a 




Q 


1 


§ 


5 


■*» 


Q 


a 


S 



TBMPBRATURB IN 8CRBEN. 



U. 



BXTRKMX8. 



1 



Arlington Court . 
Ashburt'n(Druid) 
Ashwater . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Coplestone Ho, 
Cowsic Valley 
Cullompton 
Devil's Tor 
Exeter 

Exmouth Obs. 
Holne 
Huccaby 
Ufracombe 
Leusdon 
Lyamouth 
Plymouth Obs, 
PlymouthWtshd. 

Head Weir 

Siward's Cross . 
Princetown 
Roborough 

(S. Devon) 
Rousdon .. 
fialcombe . 
Bidmouth . 
South Brent 
South Brent 

Badworthy 
fleuth Molton 
Tavistock . 
Teignmouth Obs. 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Thornworthy 
Torquay Obs. 
Torquay Wtrshd, 

Kennick . 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington 
Totnes 
( Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolacombe 



ins. 
64.78 
54.70 
50.18 

4445 
46.20 

37.04 
69.80 
38.70 
60.50 

31.38 
27.90 
67.16 
51.92 
42.19 
58.99 
49.02 
37.20 

64.90 
65.38 
85.10 

50.32 
33.30 
33.30 
33.82 
63.47 

73-35 
53.48 
53-93 
31-37 

29.37 
75.-79 
29.98 

38.50 
42.89 
36.52 
44.06 

40.65 
39.02 



ins. 






1.63 


29/9 


212 


2.05 


4/11 


205 


1.67 


29/9 


187 


1.57 


1/8 


229 


1.81 


22/9 


240 


1.74 


i5/i 


210 


"1.60 


i5/i 


220 


1.32 


29/9 


185 


1.38 


29/9 


171 


2.83 


4/1 1 


214 


1. 7i 


i/n 


130 


1.24 


1/8 


173 


2.02 


18/1 


184 


1.55 


i5/i 


213 


1.05 


29/9 


219 


1.70 


i/n 


225 


1.48 


22/7 


227 


1-57 


iS/i 


200 


1.02 


16/1 


184 


i.35 


29/9 


203 


i.75 


4/11 


212 


1.95 


21/5 


207 


1.72 


22/7 


237 


1.50 


29/9 


177 


1.34 


29/9 


201 


2.31 


18/ 1 


200 


1.31 


29/9 


212 


1.82 


i/n 


215 


2.20 


i/n 


212 


1.50 


i/n 


215 


1.61 


29/9 


211 


1.48 


4/1 1 


190 


i.39 


29/9 


198 



deg. 
51.3 
51.4 

52.0 
50.2 
50.0 

51.3 
52.0 



52.8 



51.7 



51.2 
51.3 

51.1 
52.8 



52.0 



deg. 
43-3 
44.7 

43-3 
43.o 
40.9 

42.5 

45-2 
45-6 



47.0 

45.5 
46.4 



43.8 
44.7 
44.9 



43.8 
46.1 

44.8 

47.1 



47-5 



deg. 
54.7 
56.7 


deg. 
49.o 
50.7 


55-8 
59-5 
59.0 


50.0 
50.2 
499 


58.4 


50.5 


58.2 
57-1 


51.8 
51.4 


56.0 


5i-5 


54.5 
56.0 


50.0 
51-7 


54.8 
57.9 
56.4 


49-3 

51-3 
50.7 


52.1 
57.6 


47-9 
51-9 


57.1 


50.9 


57.8 


52.5 


... 


• 


56.3 


51.9 



deg. 
20.0 
23.0 

18.0 
19.0 



deg. 
78.0 
79-0 

79.0 
81.0 
81.0 



17.0 82.0 



22.5 
22.0 



28.1 

24.0 
231 



21.0 
26.0 
22.0 



20.0 
22.4 

35.8 
24.6 



14.0 



28.0 



79.0 
76.0 



80.0 

75-o 
76.7 



76.0 



76.1 
76.0 
77.4 



79.o 
78.6 

66.3 

7&1 



77.0 
80.0 



83 



84 



83 



82 



0-10 
6.1 



7.1 



7.o 



7-3 



7.o 
5.8 



6.3 



6.0 



hours. 



1528.7 
1782.3 
1527.2 
1726.6 



1752.2 
1929.4 
1626.3 



1764.5 
1856.6 



79 



74 



66 



7i 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 
PART I. 

BY J. J. ALEXANDER, M.A., J. P. 
(Read at Tiverton, 23rd July, 1919.) 



, I. Introduction. 

Forty-two years, the limitation imposed by the old Copy- 
right Act, 1 have elapsed since James Bridges Davidson 
published in the Transactions his paper on " The Saxon 
Conquest of Devonshire." During these years a few fresh 
facts have been brought to light, and opinions once widely 
held have been revised as the result of more careful study. 
It seems therefore reasonable, apart from the poor pre- 
tence of a legal right, that the subject should be reopened 
for discussion. 

The contrast between what we now believe and what 
was believed forty or fifty years ago in regard to Anglo- 
Saxon times is due rather to a salutary change of method 
than to any large access of new knowledge. Early Vic- 
torian antiquaries (and also, one regrets to observe, some 
of more recent date) were in the habit of quoting largely 
from effusions less than a century older than their own r 
with a very occasional reference to a medieval source. 
And the medieval source was more often than not one of 
low validity, a forgery like the nojv notorious De Situ 
Britannice 2 a romance like Geoffrey of Monmouth'^ 
Historia Begum Britannia, or in the case of a trustworthy 
work, a corrupt edition containinginterpolations, erroneous- 
readings, and mistranslations. Very little regard was paid 
to chronology, one of the most potent considerations in 
ensuring the accuracy of narrative writing. 

The present day investigator finds the need for what 

1 1842 (amended in 1911), 

2 Published by C. Bertram in 1757 ; exposed in 1866 by Woodward. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 153 

is practically an inversion of this procedure. He recog- 
nizes the essential value of arranging events, as far as 
possible, in chronological order, and he will probably 
construct among his rough notes a sort of date chart for 
the period with which he proposes to deal. He will attach 
due weight to the opinions of recent writers considered 
solely as opinions, but the foundation of his work must 
be early sources, properly edited and carefully translated 
(or better still, in the original tongue). It is a safe rule 
that any account of Anglo-Saxon affairs must be based 
on sources earlier than a.d. 1135. Within this limit we 
include not only all the Anglo-Saxon annalists and writers 
of various sorts, but also all the Anglo-Norman chron- 
iclers who were capable of obtaining second-hand or third - 
hand information worth recording, and were stimulated 
in their quest by the conciliatory attitude of Henry I 
towards his English subjects. We include among this 
later group of authors Florence of Worcester and Simeon 
of Durham, who are strongly deserving of credence ; 
William of Malmesbury, who is useful but less trustworthy ; 
and Henry of Huntingdon, whose value is somewhat 
doubtful. We exclude Geoffrey of Monmouth and his 
imitators. All of the admissible sources we have here 
indicated, except William of Malmesbury's works and the 
Anglo-Saxon Charters, are printed in the Monumenta 
Historica Britannica (Petrie and Sharpe). William's 
chief writings are published in the Rolls Series ; the 
Charters and kindred documents are to be found in collec- 
tions by Kemble (Codex Diplomaticus), Birch (Cartu- 
larium Saxonicum), and Napier and Stevenson (Crawford 
Collection) ; last, but not least, we have the Devonshire 
Domesday. 

Even the history specialists, in whom we place more 
confidence than in mere local antiquaries, are not wholly 
satisfactory for the Anglo-Saxon period. Their scope is 
too wide ; they have infringed what a dramatic critic 
would term the unities of time, place, and action. A 
historical genius might disregard these, as Shakespeare 
did in the realm of drama, but historians are not all 
geniuses. In later history a specialist usually achieves 
his greatest success when he restricts himself to a century 
or two in time, to a few neighbouring states, or to one 
department of historical knowledge. The detailed study 
of Anglo-Saxon history embraces three periods of about 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



154 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

two centuries each ; three groups of territories (Northern, 
Midland, and Southern) ; and at least three departments 
(ecclesiastical, political, and social). In whatever way one 
regards it, there is work here for at least three expertsj; 
no single author can give it adequate treatment. 

II. The Mid-Victorian Writers. 

Having, sketched the difficulties which a student of 
Anglo-Saxon times has to encounter, we can now turn our 
attention to the state of knowledge when Davidson's 
paper was written. The writers then most in vogue for 
the story of the South-West were Edwin Guest (1800-1880), 
Thomas Kerslake (1812-1891), and Edward Augustus 
Freeman (1823-1892). Guest, a Cambridge mathematician 
turned antiquary, was highly commended and quoted 
as an authority by leading historians of his day. Several 
of the maps published by standard authors like Green and 
Gardiner are based on his topographical statements. 
Opinions have since changed about the soundness of his 
work. One extract from a recent critic will illustrate the 
change : — 

" Guest's lucubrations belong to a class that must be 
painfully familiar to those whose lot brings them into 
close connexion with local histories and the proceedings 
of antiquarian societies, local or otherwise. The methods 
are old. A theory is formed ; anything that can be con- 
sidered evidence in its support is eagerly seized, while the 
eyes are closed to anything' that conflicts with it ; the 
evidence is loosely interpreted or perverted ; a guess is 
furtively slipped in, and is used as a basis for another 
which is held to prove it." (Mr. W. H. Stevenson in the 
English Historical Review, XVII, p. 641.) 

It may be questioned whether Guest really deserves so 
severe a censure ; and whether faults of the type described 
are really worse, or a greater hindrance to progress, than 
the traits of indolence, timidity, and vanity, which cause 
people to adopt — without reserve or modification — the 
opinions of an eminent writer on any subject in which 
they are interested, instead of thinking for themselves at 
every step. 

Guest was an enthusiastic and industrious worker, 
but in trying to frame a coherent account of the Conquest 
of South Britain from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Geoffrey 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WHEN THE SAXONS CAME T^O DEVON. 155 

of Monmouth, and his own ingenious speculations, he 
essayed an impossible task. His narrative of events in the 
South- West during the sixth century, when subjected to a 
minute chronological test, appears peculiarly improbable. 
Kerslake's efforts were less perilous ; he published useful 
monographs in connection with Devon, but in a few in- 
stances he was very tenacious of wrong conclusions. Free- 
man's pronouncements relating to the country are more 
or less of a tentative character ; his reputation rests on 
achievements of greater magnitude and wider scope than 
these. 

We pass now to our own Transactions. The first com- 
prehensive attempt to deal with the subject is to be found 
in Volume VII. Richard John King was the 1875 President, 
and in his Address he treated the early history of the 
county with a commendable vigour and independence of 
view. Judged from the standpoint of the present day, his 
exposition displays a clearness of vision superior to that 
possessed by most of his contemporaries. If Davidson 
gave us in 1877 the completed structure, King is fully 
entitled to the credit of having in 1875 laid the foundations. 

III. The Five Conclusions. 

No sweeping condemnation of Davidson's work is im- 
plied by the suggestion that the influence of opinions 
current in his time led him into a few errors and hasty 
judgments. Leaving these on one side for the moment, 
we can say that he has given us an admirable account ; 
his data are skilfully analysed, and his conclusions lucidly 
presented. 

He begins by pointing out how the Saxon Conquest 
differed in thoroughness and permanence from other con- 
quests recorded in British History, and then premises that 
the conquest of Devon was intermediate in point of time 
and in degree of completeness between those of Somerset 
and Dorset on the one hand, and that of Cornwall on the 
other, later and less complete than the first two, earlier 
and more complete than the third. All this is fairly reason- 
able statement. Conquests may be graded according to 
the treatment meted out to the conquered : extermina- 
tion, enslavement, confiscation, occupation, or mere 
annexation. The Saxon policy was not uniform ; there 
was undoubtedly great severity of treatment in the early 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



156 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

phases, and a decline of severity in the later phases, but- 
it does not follow iihat the curve of severity continuously 
sank dowmwards ; on the contrary, it is probably that the 
tendency to mercy was often interrupted by relapses into 
savagery. It has been repeatedly asserted that after the 
conversion of the Anglo-Saxon states to Christianity the 
curve in question took a steep downward slope, that merci- 
ful treatment was thenceforth the rule, and that conquest 
was carried on by the process of peaceful colonization 
followed by absorption under pressure. Here we are 
.obliged to dissent from the views of Davidson and those 
whom he follows. Most of the Christian kings of Mercia, 
and two at least of the Christian kings of Wessex, Caed- 
walla and Cynewulf, were undoubtedly guilty of grave 
atrocities ; even in very recent times the' policy of " fire 
and sword " has not been unknown among nations nomin- 
ally Christian. It should be remembered that nearly all 
our written accounts are derived from ecclesiastics, and 
great allowance must be made for their proneness to exag- 
gerate the importance of ecclesiastical influence on military 
events. An account four hundred years hence of the 
recent Great War culled from the pages of contemporary 
parish magazines or religious weeklies would be a quaint 
version of what has actually occurred. 

Wars of conquest arise from one or more of four causes : 
religious animosity, racial antagonism, military ambition, 
and economic pressure. Of these four the most compelling 
by far is the economic cause, and for a better grasp of the 
subject we must realize that food shortage and the desire 
to wrest from their British neighbours good productive 
land probably influenced the Saxons far more, both before 
and after the introduction of Christianity, than any agree- 
ment or disagreement on matters theological. 

We pass now to Davidson's conclusions respecting the 
date and other circumstances of the Saxon Conquest. 
Broadly speaking, we can state them as five propositions : — 

(a) That the Conquest took place over the whole' 
county at one and the same time, that is to say, within 
the limits of a single generation ; 

(b) That it was not accompanied by extermination, 
but by confiscation and settlement ; 

(c) That no part of it occurred before the year 710, the 
date of the war between Ine of Wessex and Gerunt of 
West Wales (or Domnonia) ; 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WHEN THE SAXONS CAIpE TO DEVON. 157 

(d) That it was most probably begun and completed 
during the reign of Cynewulf , to whom Davidson assigns 
the dates 755-784 (756-786 is more accurate) ; 

(e) That no part of it occurred, after the year 823, the 
date of the battle of Gafulford. 

We can agree with (e) with one slight correction, 825 
for 823 ; we can accept (b) and (d) as true for certain 
portions (not the same portions in both cases) of the 
•county ; but with (a) and (c) no agreement is possible. 

IV. The Simultaneity op the Conquest. 

In favour of proposition (a) Davidson advanced four 
arguments : (i) a uniformity in nomenclature, (ii) a same- 
ness in dialect, (iii) a resemblance in race and features, 
(iv) the implied result of the testimony of the early 
historians. 

The vast majority of place-names in Devon, as in the 
counties east of it, are undoubtedly of Saxon origin. Some 
terminations, such as ton, ham, and ford, are of such 
common occurrence, both in Devon and elsewhere, that one 
would have thought it impossible to frame any argument 
on them. They are not peculiar to the conquests of any 
one tribe or of any one century. Yet Davidson (Trans. 
VIII., pp> 398-399) makes the point in favour of simul- 
taneous conquest that the practice of joining ton to the 
names of rivers in order to describe places standing on their 
banks is more characteristic of Devon and South Somerset 
than of other parts of England. The weakness of this 
point is that it couples the Devon conquest with that of 
South Somerset, which occurred in or soon after 658 ; also 
we know that one of these riverside tons, Taunton, was 
a notable place in 722 (A.-S. Chronicles), so that the argu- 
ment imperils propositions (c) and (d). 

There are other terminations which are very unequally 
distributed throughout the county. Hay (or hayne) and 
minster are found only in the east, nymet (or nympton) only 
in the north centre, cot and worthy mainly in the north and 
north-west. The two latter are also plentiful in the north- 
east of Cornwall. Bury and stock (or stoke) occur in groups 
or ranges, and if these terminations are to be interpreted 
as applying to places constructed for military defence, 
their distribution is of some significance. They he mainly 
on three lines, one a little to the north of the South-Western 



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158 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

Railway main track between Chard Junction and Crediton, 
another from Teignmouth round the south coast to Ply- 
mouth and thence up the Tamar to Tavistock, and a third 
from Okehampton through Torrington and Barnstaple to 
Stoke Rivers. There is also a line of places ending in bury 
which runs along the south-east coast between Lyme Regis, 
and the Exe. These lines may have a meaning if we could 
only disoover it. One of them, that between Chard Junc- 
tion and Crediton, may have been a military precaution 
against British attempts to recover Saxon territory on its 
south. Those on the south coast may have been intended 
either to defend a coast strip against Britons in the interior, 
or to defend the interior against a coastal attack by Danes. 
It would be indeed interesting to know what connection 
each of the lines had with the various British and Danish 
wars. 

Most of the place-names of Saxon origin were un- 
doubtedly introduced between the sixth and the ninth 
century, and any deduction drawn from a comparison of 
them is important. A lesser degree of importance attaches 
to a comparison of dialects. It is too much to believe that 
people in adjoining parts of the same county, under a 
common shire-administration, a common episcopal care, 
a common experience of national progress and foreign 
wars, and common climatic conditions, trading together 
and intermarrying would preserve for over a thousand 
years any marked differences in speech and accent. Ex- 
cept for a somewhat greater activity in the seaport towns 
during periods of foreign war, there is nothing recorded 
in the later history of Devon which would have tended to 
prevent a steady levelling of dialectic distinctions. Even 
if three different nationalities speaking three different 
languages had lived in Devon twelve hundred years ago, 
we might not now be able to detect any marked difference 
between them. As a matter of fact, there is not one 
uniform dialect all over the county. Competent judges 
claim to be able to tell a North Devon man from a South 
Devon man, and an East Devon man from either. We 
draw no very decided inference from this want of uniformity 
but it is just enough to negative any possibility of drawing 
an inference from uniformity. If nearness of dialect goe& 
for anything, North Devon is probably nearer in this, 
matter to North-east Cornwall than it is to East Devon. 

We can deduce very little by comparing dialects ; we 



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WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 159 

can deduce even less by comparing races and features. 
It is difficult to see what data we have for this last com- 
parison, or in what way it could help us with the history 
of a particular century. The anthropologist reckons time 
on a scale immensely greater than that of the historian ; 
as the latter deals with years and generations, so the 
former deals with epochs and ages. 

" The implied result of the testimony of the early 
historians " is the very subtle phrase in which Davidson 
seeks to verify proposition (a) by the use of some or all of 
the remaining four, but as he seems to assume it for the 
purpose of proving them, there is an appearance of " argu- 
ment in a circle " about this part of his reasoning. 

There is in fact nothing in " the testimony of the early 
historians " to show that a shire took its boundaries from 
the limits of a single conquest. The cases of Wiltshire 
and Somersetshire, whose conquests took place in stages 
separateti by long intervals, are evidence to the contrary. 

We can perhaps best challenge the whole theory of the 
simultaneous conquest of Devon by asking one plain 
question. Is there any evidence in favour of it which 
would not be equally good, or even better evidence, in 
favour of simultaneous conquests of (i) West Dorset and 
East Devon, (ii) North Devon and North-east Cornwall,, 
and (iii) South Devon and South-east Cornwall ? It is 
fairly easy to prove that all six conquests did not come 
together, but much less easy to disprove the suggested 
grouping in pairs ; and if even one of the three groupings 
can be firmly established, Davidson's first proposition 
tumbles to the ground. 

V. The Nature of the Conquest. 

We have already discussed the different kinds of con- 
quests. The nature of any one conquest would depend 
partly on whether the victorious leader was humane or 
ferocious, partly on whether the resistance offered was 
mild or desperate, and partly on whether the land annexed 
was fertile or uninviting. Our knowledge of the first two 
conditions is scanty ; we do know something about the 
land ; and we are fortunately able to supplement this 
knowledge by two other methods of inquiry. A marked 
uniformity of Saxon place-names of a few types in a par- 
ticular district would appear to point to an exterminating: 



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160 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

policy ; a variety with British names sprinkled among 
them to a more kindly treatment. We can learn something 
too from the distribution of hides and the areas and shapes 
of the hundreds. The Burghal Hidage 1 drawn up about 
the close of Alfred's reign appears to divide the shire into 
four la;rge districts : Exeter in the east, with 734 hides ; 
Pilton (near Barnstaple) in the north, with 360 hides ; 
Lydford in the west, with 140 hides ; and Halwell (near 
Totnes) in the south, with 300 hides. The total hidage 
thus given, 1534, is about 400 greater than the Domesday 
return for the whole of Devonshire, and as no Cornish 
burghs are enumerated, it is possible that the reckoning 
included the Saxon settlements in Cornwall, which may 
have been distributed in various proportions between 
Pilton, Lydford, and Halwell ; but whether this is so 
or not, the preponderance of Saxons in the Exeter district 
is very significant. A glance at an old map of Devon 
Hundreds is also suggestive. We are reminded of the map 
of the United States of America, where we find on the east 
side the smaller irregularly shaped early settlements, 
peopled before the American Constitution was drafted, 
•and on the west side the thinly populated areas of regular 
geometrical pattern, portioned out before they were com- 
pletely settled. Most of the Hundreds of East Devon 
and some of those in North Devon are of the small 
irregular type ; whereas in the south-west, enclosed on 
three sides by the Dart, the English Channel, and the 
Tamar, we find six large Hundreds, fairly uniform in size, 
and with boundaries comparatively regular though not 
quite geometrical. 

The Conquest of Devon may have been, and probably 
was, carried out on merciful lines throughout a large 
portion of the county, but these reflections on place-names 
and the distribution of Saxon settlers impel us to con- 
ceive that in the east and north-west scenes of devastation 
and atrocity may have occurred. We can picture the 
Britons between the Axe and the Exe fleeing northward, 
and those between the Taw and the Camel fleeing west- 
ward, to escape the rapacity of their conquerors. 

VI. The Fifth and Sixth Centuries. 

A few words about the origin of Wessex may not be 
out of place. It was formerly the custom to take for granted 

1 See Maitland's Domesday Booh and Beyond, 



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WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 161 

the account given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, that the 
kingdom of Wessex was founded in 495 by a band of sea- 
rovers from North Germany under a leader named Cerdic, 
who with his son Cynric landed on the coast of Hampshire, 
and was reinforced by a second band in 514. 

There is a remarkably artificial flavour about the whote 
story. The name Cerdic appears to be of British, not 
Saxon, derivation ; the names of other chiefs seem to 
have been invented to fit in with Hampshire place-names. 
The events also are dated at suspiciously regular intervals. 
For these and other reasons some investigators of recent 
years, such as Mr. H. M. Chadwick (Origin of the English 
Nation, Chapter II), favour quite a different view of the 
beginning of the West Saxon nation. l 

The early English settlers in Hampshire and the Isle 
of Wight were (according to Bede) Jutes, and not Saxons. 
The mission of Birinus to the West Saxons in 634 had its 
headquarters at Dorchester in Oxfordshire. It was not 
till 660 that the episcopal see of Wessex was transferred 
to Winchester, when the pressure of the Mercians on the 
northern border had caused a shifting of the centre of 
power from the Thames to Hampshire. 

The earliest king of Wessex of whom we are quite cer- 
tain is Ceawlin, who began to reign before 575. The Chron- 
icles described him in one place as " the son of Cynric, the 
son of Cerdic,' ' and in another place as " the son of Cynric, 
the son of Creoda, the son of Cerdic." Both Cynric and 
Creoda have Saxon names, and both probably were real 
personages. The name Creoda, in the mouths of speakers 
whose decendants pronounce great " gurt," and Crediton 
" Kirton," may conceivably have become distorted and 
confused with a name common among the Britons, so that 
Creoda and Cerdic may have been one and the same 
person. 

The dating of events from the Christian era was first 
introduced by Dionysius Exiguus about the year 532, and 
the practice was unknown in England before the advent 
of the Roman missionaries. 

Amialistic writing, therefore, cannot have begun in 
Wessex before 534, and probably cannot be dated farther 

1 See also Oman's England before the Norman Conquest and articles 
by Sir Henry Howorth and (per contra) Mr, W. H. Stevenson in The 
English Historical Review (Vols. XIII. and XIV.). 



VOL. U. 



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162 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

i 

back than the establishment of the Winchester bishopric 
in 660. Taking 100 years as the limit (and a very outside 
limit) of credible oral testimony, first hand, second hand, and 
third hand, we are forced to the conclusion that no credence 
can be given to any Wessex records earlier than 560. The 
annals before that date were probably invented by Win- 
chester monks to magnify the antiquity of the West Saxon 
possession of Hampshire. 

What probably did happen was this. There was origin- 
ally a large settlement of Saxons in the lower reaches of the 
Thames. Finding themselves too crowded for comfort 
they parted company, like the herdsmen of Abram and 
Lot ; one body of settlers pushed southward and founded 
the kingdom of Sussex ; another, probably the most en- 
terprising and vigorous section, moved up the Thames 
and formed themselves into the kingdom of Wessex ; 
those that were left behind called themselves Essex and 
Middlesex. By 560 the West Saxons held a large tract of 
territory north and south of the upper Thames. A victory 
at Salisbury, recorded as having been gained over the 
Britons in 552 by Cynric, is probably well founded, though 
the date is outside the strict limits of credence. This 
brings us into Wiltshire. Next we have a still greater 
victory gained in 577 by Crawlin at Deerham (Dyrham) 
in Gloucestershire, and resulting in the capture of 
Gloucester, Cirencester and Bath. This brings us into 
Somerset. 

Through the mists of uncertainty that hang over the 
events of the sixth century, the one fact in relation to 
Wessex that we clearly perceive is that during a late 
portion of it a vigorous ruler named Ceawlin reigned 
there, who won several battles and for a time was the most 
powerful king or Bretwalda of South Britain. In 591 
(according to the Chronicles) or in 588 (according to some 
modern commentators ; there is no certainty about 
either date) the savage old monarch was deposed by a 
nephew named Ceol, who, dying six years after and leaving 
a young family, was succeeded by his brother Ceolric. 
The latter died in 611 (here the date is tolerably certain 
to within a year), and was succeeded by Cynegils, son of 
Ceol. like Cynric and Ceawlin, Ceolric is stated to have 
been a successful fighter on many fields of battle. 

Our information about the Britons of the sixth century 
is no less obscure. Gildas, writing about 545,. enumerates. 



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WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 163 

five British kings, Constantino of Damnonia, 1 Aurelius 
Conan, Vortipore of Demetia (South Wales), Cunoglasse, 
and Maglocune of North Wales. If the arrangement of 
names is in geographical order from south to north, as the 
three whose kingdoms are known seem to suggest, then 
Cunoglasse should be assigned to Mid-Wales, and Aurelius 
Conan (probably a descendant of the great Ambrosius 
Aurelianus) to a position between Damnonia and Demetia, 
that is, to the region between the Severn and the English 
Channel east of Devon, including Gloucester, Wilts, 
Somerset, and Dorset, or large portions of them. If this 
location of what we may call the Aurelian kingdom is 
correct, it must have sustained the chief shock from the 
hammer blows of Ceawlin and his successors, and cannot 
have lasted much beyond the sixth century, as we hear 
nothing of its existence from any writer later than Gildas. 
At the end of the seventh century there was only one 
British Kingdom in the West, and the British fugitives 
from the adjoining regions had found refuge either there 
or across the sea in Brittany. 

VII. The Seventh Century. 

A Saxon invasion of Devon could take place in one of 
three ways : by sea, through Somerset, or through Dorset. 
There is always the possibility that the Jutes, who in the 
fifth century conquered Kent, the Isle of Wight, and the 
South of Hampshire, may have, unknown to the chroniclers, 
occupied the coast farther west. But in the absence of 
any mention by Gildas or of any linguistic evidence of 
Jutes in Devon, a consideration of how difficult it would 
have been for them to maintain communications with 
their countrymen in the east, and to defend themselves 
in isolated positions, leads us to think that no such occupa- 
tion occurred, or that if one occurred, it did not last very 
♦long. From all we know of the West Saxons we must 
recognize (unless we can accept the Cerdic tradition) that 
they probably began as an inland state, and extended their 
dominions almost entirely by land warfare, much as we 
are tempted by the naval prowess of their descendants to 
think otherwise. 

Writers have enlarged on the difficulties of a land in- 
vasion of Devon. They mention four kinds of military 

1 Sic in Gildas. 



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164 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

obstacles : the trackless swamp, the steep mountain, the 
dense forest, and the flooded river. The last two can hardly 
be regarded as formidable except under adverse conditions 
of season, and weather ; and when we eliminate all the 
portions of the Devon border which an invader may have 
found difficult, two routes at least still remain, one through 
West Somerset by way of Wellington and Culmstock, the 
other through West Dorset by way of Axminster. The 
latter had several advantages : it followed the line of the 
old Ronfan road from Dorchester to Exeter ; an army 
using it had the sea on its left flank, and so was in no great 
danger of being entrapped or tjut off from its supports. 
Also it is probable that the conquest of Dorset, of which 
there is no extant account, was completed before that of 
Somerset, where the Mendip Hills, the Parret Marshes, 
and the Quantock Hills made progress necessarily slow. 

Cynegils, the first Christian king of Wessex, died in 642, 
seven years after his conversion by Birinus, and was 
succeeded by his son Cenwealh. The latter gained two 
notable victories over the Britons, the first at Bradford- 
on-Avon in 652, and the second at Peonna (probably Pen- 
selwood) in 658. These victories seem to have settled 
the fate of the Britons in Dorset and Somerset ; and the 
pressure of the Mercians on Wessex north of the Thames 
may have increased the desire of the West Saxons for 
further expansion westward. The removal of the See of 
Wessex from Dorchester-on-Thames to Winchester in 
660 shows that the centre of gravity of the West Saxon 
kingdom was moving in a southerly direction. 

Cenwealh died in 672 or early in 673. About the same 
date Archbishop Theodore, the Greek prelate whose ad- 
ministrative activities contributed largely to the founda- 
tion of a united England, convened the notable Synod 
of Hereford. At that Synod the constitution of Wessex 
into a single episcopal province under the See of Winchester 
was confirmed. 

In 682 a younger brother of Cenwealh, named Centwine, 
who was then king of Wessex, is stated to have driven the 
Britons to the sea. Florence of Worcester explicitly states 
that the Britons in question were those of the West. 
Freeman and his followers are content to believe that this 
conquest only referred to a strip of West Somerset between 
the Parret and the Brendon Hills. But having regard to 
the prominence given to this conquest in the annals, a 



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WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 165 

prominence which the capture of a comparatively unin- 
viting and insignificant tract of hill country would, hardly 
justify, there is strong ground for believing that the drive 
was from the Axe to the Exe, and perhaps even farther. 

In the life of Winfrith, better known as Boniface, the 
apostle of Germany, it is stated that he was born at Credi- 
ton, and received his juvenile education at an Exeter 
monastery. The place of his birth is derived from no 
written record earlier than the time of Bishop Grandisson 
(1327-1369), but the second statement is based on the 
nearly contemporary evidence of his fellow-worker and 
biographer, Willibald. We learn also that he was of 
Saxon parentage, and are able to fix the date of his birth 
as about 680. 

These facts taken together go to show that there was a 
Saxon monastic settlement in Exeter before 690, and by a 
further inference, a Saxon occupation before that date. 

VIII. The Limit of 710. 

Ine, the next king but one afteE Centwine, is noted as 
an organizer rather than as a conqueror. In the early part 
of his reign, about 693, a code of laws was published, from 
which it appears that he had a considerable British popu- 
lation within his dominions. Twelve years later a new 
Episcopal See was established at Sherborne for the western 
portion of Wessex. This is fairly conclusive eyidence that 
the constitution of Dorsetshire and Somersetshire had been 
completed, and indicates that during the thirty-two years 
that followed the Synod of Hertford Wessex had made 
substantial advances on its western border, since the seat 
of the bishopric was only some twenty miles from the 
Devon boundary. Aldhelm was its first bishop. 

There was still an independent British, or West Welsh 
kingdom. Its capital, according to a later tradition, was 
situated at Celliwig, between the Tamar and the Lynher, 
probably near the modern Callington. Regarding this as a 
central position for the capital of the little Celtic state, 
one is inclined to think that the extent of its area east of the 
Tamar did not greatly exceed the area of Cornwall. . We 
do not know much about its kings. Tradition has been 
busy in providing names for them, but the only well- 
authenicated monarch of the series is Gerunt, Ine's con- 
temporary, whose name appears both in the Chronicles 



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166 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

arid in a letter, of Aldhelm. There are several versions of 
the name, but that of Aldhelm, a contemporary and a 
profound scholar, seems entitled to preference. 

The letter, written in the year of Aldhelm's promotion 
from the Abbacy of Malmesbury to the Episcopate of 
Sherborne, is a praiseworthy attempt to effect reconcilia- 
tion between the Roman and Celtic Churches, then sadly 
at variance over certain matters of ritual. The good 
Abbot, in his florid Latin, addresses his letter to " King 
Geruntius, the most glorious lord of the western king- 
dom . . . and at the same time to all the priests of God 
dwelling throughout Domnonia." *■ A poem attributed to 
the same writer refers to a journey he had made through 
Domnonia and Cornubia, so that then a distinction was 
being made between the eastern and western portions of 
West Wales. 

Aldhelm died in 709, and next year Gerunt was at 
war with Ine. At this point, according to Davidson and 
the other Victorian writers already cited, the conquest of 
Devon by the Saxons is said to have begun. The most 
notable of these writers, Freeman, in a paper read at 
Exeter in 1873, said : — 

" I cannot myself bring the West Saxon conquerors 
even to the borders of Somerset at any time earlier than 
the days of Ine, when the powerful King Gerent reigned 
over Damnonia, and when Taunton was a border fortress 
of the Englishman against the Briton." 

No opinion of Freeman's has been more frequently 
quoted by our local writers, and one might venture to add, 
no opinion of his has less to commend it. It involves 
several assumptions, some of which are very doubtful. 
It assumes that no advance into Devon took place before 
or during the time of Cenwealh, that Centwine's " drive " 
was confined to West Somerset, and that the story of 
Winfrith's education at Exeter (Adescancestre) is due to a 
misinterpretation. With these a further assumption is 
implied, though not explicitly used in the sentence quoted 
above, to the effect that Ine achieved no annexation of 
Devon territory between 688 and 710. Freeman's paper 
on " King Ine," (Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical Society, 1872) expounded at length the case for 
these and other beliefs which he held. Take for instance 
his statement : 

1 Sic in Aldhelm 



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WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 167 

xe Taunton was founded by Ine at some time before 722 ; 
we can hardly doubt, therefore, that it was founded as a 
new border fortress for the defence of his conquests. Its 
almost certain date will be in, or soon after, the year 710, 
the year when these conquests were completed." 

Taunton may conceivably have been, and very likely 
was, founded by Ine much earlier in his reign, for the 
better organization of his Somersetshire territory. Note 
the phrases " we can hardly doubt," and " its almost 
certain date." Davidson exhibits the same touch in the 
sentence : " That the scene of the conflict of 710 between 
Ine and Gereint was on the northern slopes of the Black- 
down Hills, just above Taunton, is a point on which all 
historians are agreed." There is an air of aggressive 
dogmatism about these " certainties " and " agreements " 
which almost makes us tremble, until we find on closer ac- 
quaintance that they are more often than not decorations 
hung up to hide cracks in the building. There flits across 
our minds the vision of the young lady who wrote in a 
Geometry examination : " For reasons which I prefer 
not to mention, AB is equal to AC." 

It is true that one of these writers, Kerslake, admits 
the existence of Wessex colonists in Devon during the 
seventh century, but this he does by postulating an 
oasis of Saxondom in the midst of British territory under 
the rule of Winfrith's brother-in-law, a certain Richard, 
who, we are told, exercised his royal functions in the 
Creedy valley. Now when we consider how many recorded 
conflicts occurred during the seventh century between 
Wessex and West Wales, and how many other conflicts 
may also have occurred outside the knowledge of our non- 
military annalists, it is hardly conceivable that an en- 
clave of Saxons could have existed for any length of time 
without suffering expulsion or extermination or effecting 
a junction with their kinsmen. 

There are two tests which demonstrate the fallibility 
of these writers. 

The first is the discrepancy between some of their firmly 
held beliefs and the facts revealed by the recently dis- 
covered Crawford Charters. 

The second is their blind acceptance of the dates given 
in the Winchester Chronicle (C.C.C.C. 173) ; recent critics 
have shown that these dates are faulty in many instances, 



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168 WHEN THE SAXONS CAME TO DEVON. 

and Freeman himself corrected several in the later editions 
of his Norman Conquest (Volume I). 

Putting together what we learn from the wars of Cen- 
wealh and Centwine, from the career§ of Boniface and 
Aldhelm, and from the legislation of Ine, we have reason 
to believe, opinions to the contrary notwithstanding, that 
by the year 710 the kingdom of Wessex included a con- 
siderable tract of what is now Devon. Speaking in terms 
of modern parliamentary divisions, we are inclined to 
place within its borders Honiton, Exeter, and a substantial 
part of Tiverton ; perhaps also portions of South Molton, 
Totnes and Torquay. We cannot fix the boundary line ; 
we can only vaguely guess at its position. We should be 
inclined to think that the site of Tiverton town lay out- 
side and to the north of it, and that on its western side it 
stopped short of Dartmoor. 

Here we must leave the unfinished story. There is 
much more than can be said ; Davidson's two remaining 
propositions, the chronology of the period, the evolution 
of the county name, and the " Defnsaetas " theory, are 
matters still requiring examination in detail. But this 
paper is now long enough \ a discussion of events subse- 
quent to 710 and other topics relevant to the subject 
must be postponed to a future occasion. 



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COB COTTAGES FOR THE TWENTIETH 
CENTURY. 

BY T. J. JOCE. 

(Read at Tiverton, 23rd July, 1919.) 



It is clear that whatever may be done in the changed, timea 
before us on behalf of town folk, the greatest and best work 
for the nation will be the re-establishing of our villages and 
the repeopling them with a vigorous and healthy stock,, 
not of labourers only but of sturdy yeomen, and this will 
be dependent in great measure on our being able to en- 
courage and aid the small builder, or the man who longs 
to own his cottage and garden, or the estate owner who in 
many cases would build readily enough could great expense 
be avoided. 

Every person of taste and every lover of our county 
desires to spare the beautiful countryside the disfigurement 
of a multitude of erections produced in continuous and 
wearisome facsimile, and it is surely the wish of every 
worthy citizen, by favouring economical construction, to 
save some portion of the vast public subsidy devoted to 
new buildings. 

The one unquestioned economy is to make the best and 
most intelligent use of the local materials which are ready 
to hand, and which, moreover, in their natural surround- 
ings have a fitness beyond controversy. In addition, a 
very great saving in transport would be effected, and there 
is prospect that difficulties in that service will lead to 
rigorous limitations. 

It may be bluntly stated that cottages will not be built 
by private persons except it be possible to adopt a cheaper 
and more rapid process than hitherto. 

The object of this paper is to suggest a method by which 
that excellent and f amiliar material — our Devon cob — can 
be used in a truly up-to-date manner, superseding entirely 

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170 COB COTTAGES FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTUBY. 

the antiquated system and able to compete in cheapness 
with structures that are distressingly utilitarian. 

Cob — the unrivalled material for a cosy human dwelling ; 
set upon a stone foundation to two feet above ground level ; 
a non-conductor of heat, within doors cool in summer and 
warm in winter ; its comfort is marked by those who com- 
pare it with cold stone walls. It is particularly valuable 
in our damp climate in allowing no moisture to percolate 
as it does through brick, which requires stucco on account 
of its porosity, nor does it condense the moisture on its 
surface when warm rain-laden winds come from the south* 
west and for days every cold wall is streaming. So dry is 
<5ob that old cob walls on the border of the rainy Moor 
were bought to tear down and use as fine dust to sow with 
turnip seed. Nor is damp-course ever thought of. It 
loses heat so slowly that a cob wall is the finest support 
and shelter for fruit trees. One of the best-known gar- 
deners and florists in South Devon has noted the sun's 
warmth retained by a cob wall when stone or brick showed 
a temperature 20° lower. 

Loam or clay shillet may be found almost everywhere, 
thus the substance for walling is actually on the ground, 
and unskilled labour suffices. Possessing these advan- 
tages, let us see if modern appliances can be so wisely 
used as to enable it to compete economically with other 
materials. The old method of cob walling is out of the 
question. It sufficed when wages were low and time was 
no object. To heap up forkfuls of cob and then wait about 
till dry, or to dance on a stodgy rampart from whioh 
several inches of thickness must be pared off later is not 
a process for present-day labour. 

The forlorn, bulging and unkempt appearance of some 
cob cottages has caused all of them in the estimation of 
many to be regarded as obsolete, like the tinder-box or 
stage-wagon. The explanation is, either uneven settle- 
ment owing to using wet cob or, more generally, the nails 
fastening the roof-ties having rusted through, the walls 
receive the direct thrust of the rafters burdened with 
thatch accumulated to a thickness of many feet, and are 
thereby gradually pushed out of the perpendicular. 

As to permanence, it lasts for centuries, many old houses 
still testifying. There is in this county, in the parish of 
Kentisbeare, a fifteenth-century clergy house of this 
material in excellent condition, and, one may say, it is 



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COB COTTAGES FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. 171 

possible to pick out pieces of straw reaped during the 
Wars of the Roses. 1 

The loamy or shillety earth, well trodden by oxen, 
horses, or men, and mixed with straw — barley by prefer- 
ence — was heaped up into a wall several feet thick, beaten 
and trampled as the work proceeded, a leisurely process, 
that the mass might settle and dry. Indeed dawdling was 
an important part of the work. If wet weather set in it 
was not seldom stopped for the season and resumed the 
next year. 

At Budleigh Salterton a cob house has been recently 
built in the old-fashioned way. Eight men were engaged 
upon it, and it took three months to reach the wall-plate 
height. The walls were made three feet thick, and then 
pared to two feet six inches. Thus money was lost in 
putting up one-sixth and more in paring it off again. 

The walling should be of blocks of cob, say, 18" x 9" x 9" 
or 18"xl2"x9", compressed by wheel-and-screw press, or 
better and more expeditiously as follows : Let the cob be 
mixed in a small pug mill or mortar mill such as many 
builders use, then be filled into a die or mould-box of hard 
wood of sufficient depth to hold the loose material and 
allow of compression of contents. A steam press brings 
two tons pressure on it, and in a few seconds a block is 
ready to be carried on its board and slid off with the flat 
of another into its place on the rising wall. Less moisture 
is necessary in the mixture than when it has to make its 
own pressure, and much less time is needed for drying. 
Form is given to the mass of earth and straw, and it can 
set without fear of changing it. In the primitive method 
the upper load gives pressure by long weighting of the 
under mass. By a press this is done instantly. The wall 
surface is true, and bulging does not take place. Just 
enough skill is requisite to make men interested in their 
work. The process is straightforward, and no paring is 
done. 

In various parts of our county there are dilapidated 
walls, stable buildings, low-ceiled cottages, etc., many of 
which, to the delight of the despondent owner, could be 
so repaired or renovated that the sound parts would be 
saved and decayed portions made good by renewing with 
•pressed blocks for much less than it would cost to tear 

1 The Rev. E. S. Chalk wa3 kind enough to show the writer over the 
house. 



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172 COB COTTAGES FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. 

down and, replace with new brick buildings. There is in 
this direction the possibility of conserving beautiful but 
time-worp. steadings or homes and of effecting an excellent 
economy. 

The plant for mixing, pressing, and delivering could be 
quite a small steam outfit working a slow mixer and 
giving a pressure of two tons on the contents of mould-box. 
A portable engine of the moderate power required would 
work the machinery and move the plant from place to 
place. Wherever desired a stack of blocks for future use 
could be made and the plant taken on to its next station. 
The Cobmakeronits travels would be a welcome 
visitor. 

Sundry details are here suggested which would tend to 
render the cottages convenient, picturesque, and in good 
taste. A cottage is distinguished from a villa in having 
no accommodation provided for servants. For ground- 
floor cottages, a term more suitable than the foreign and 
ugly-sounding one. often used, the walls need not be more 
than 18" thick, those having an upper storey 24" below 
and 18" above. The effect of a batter in the walls with 
generous eaves is good, though in a block-built wall rather 
more trouble. The work should all be constructional and 
where possible the construction shown. All pretentious 
deceits are to be shunned, such as the shamming of vener- 
able age by packing up ridge ends to imitate sagging of 
the roof, and other unworthy devices. A very admirable 
effect could be obtained by dressing the rafters with the 
adze, leaving the tool marks, the timbers should then be 
stained and left exposed, the spaces between pargeted and 
whitewashed. A great increase in the air space of the room 
is also obtained. Where there is an upper storey the floor 
joists should be left exposed and stained and the underside 
of the floor boards left natural colour. Lintels and clavela 
to be of wood or made cheaply from small rubble and 
cement, and not hidden from sight. For roof covering for 
snug appearance and for comfort, thatch, but with remem- 
brance of damaging storms and all-devouring flame. Reed 
thatch is more reliable. Rustic slates and stone slates,' 
graded large at eaves to small at ridge, form a good and 
tasteful roof, as does also the excellent green Ruberoid 
which harmonizes perfectly in the landscape. There are* 
also other bitumen felts on the market. Tiles, though a 
good roofing, need heavier scantlings and belong by right 

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COB COTTAGES FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. 173 

to other districts. One cannot admire the red asbestos 
" slates " as they have an unpleasant meaty tint, do not 
tone, but turn black. Chimneys could be formed boxed 
up in rubble concrete or built. Round flues have a better 
draught than square. Windows, casement, larger to be 
multiples of smaller. The cooking-stove should be of 
American or colonial pattern, and be placed in a get-at- 
able position. Front and back doors should have hoods 
and weather-boards, and water supply and offices should 
be reached under cover. Doors to be of stout flooring, 
T and G, ledged and braced. Clacking latches to be 
avoided. Porch seats have often proved to be invaluable 
harbours of refuge. Plaster on walling is not needed as 
a protection; and the natural colour tones with its surround- 
ings of course, yet the walls may be lime-washed, coloured 
with red-earth water. Apply with spray, not brush. 
Spray enters pores of wall ; brush is apt to disturb surface. 
Two or three sprayings are satisfactory. Guard stones at 
quoins. For linings of rooms one of the reliable and rapidly 
fixed fibre boards on battens is to be preferred to wet 
plaster, for it is a wood-and-plaster ready dried in one. 
The house is fit for habitation very soon. A chair-batten 
and picture-rail round rooms. If floors are solid, sleeper 
walls, etc., are saved. Cob blocks give a firm bed, then 
tar and sand. The wearing surface as desired, whether 
wood, linoleum, wood and cement, or quarries. The fitted 
bath for the villa, but for the cottage the portable copper 
and bath box. Rain gutters and launders of tarred boards. 
Timber will be reaching this country in large quantities in 
a year or so. Village artizans for cottage repairs. On a 
hilly site the higher side should be channeled to intercept 
the water which comes down over the rock beneath the 
soil after the rains. The simple precaution is often 
neglected and the house itself blamed for being damp. 

Ground-floor cottages, it is often objected, cost so much 
more by reason of double roofing, etc. This is not quite 
true, for stair space is saved, also stair-climbing and stair- 
cleaning. The room-planning for the ground has more 
choice, and landing-space is not required. Bedrooms can 
be apart instead of all opening from the same spot. More 
rain-water can be collected. Stairs are a danger to small 
children, and crippled or infirm persons who would other- 
wise have to stay upstairs and be waited on are able to 
hobble about on the ground floor and take their place with 



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174 COB COTTAGBS FOR THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. 

the family or even get out of doors. The very great in- 
crease of the never-ceasing work in the case of a house- 
wife with children, who has also to attend to a bedridden 
person or a patient in a long illness, will make her desire 
the ground-floor. 

It will very reasonably be asked what value, since the 
writer is neither an architect, a mechanical engineer, or a 
practical builder, can these suggestions and ideas have, 
and they may therefore lie on the table till forgotten. 

They have been submitted to an architect-engineer, 
formerly engaged on one of our great railways, and he 
pronounces them to be in every way practical and their 
object desirable. 

They have also been laid before a leading firm of mechani- 
cal engineers in this county, and their chief engineer states- 
that the principle is thoroughly sound, and says also that 
a compact and portable plant for the purpose could be 
designed which would deliver the compressed blocks at an 
economical figure, a large number every working day, and 
that, given an engineman to attend to the machinery, 
ordinary unskilled labour would suffice, and he offers 
valuable suggestions. 

And in addition, two pressed blocks are here exhibited. 
They took but a few minutes to prepare, received two tons 
compression, and have been drying for four days. They 
are now nearly as hard as rock. The weight of the upper 
has already united it with the lower, and a solid homo- 
geneous wall is begun. 

Let the brick-built villa adorn the township and the 
useful cement concrete provide that immense number of 
raw and scientific structures requisite to accommodate the 
industrial Vrmy in populous centres, but let us, who the 
divini gloria ruris so greatly prize, pile up our sweet, clean 
soil, man's best and seemly shelter, and that which through 
his labour brings forth his daily bread. Let it surround 
and protect him and repeat to him our mother Nature's 
lesson that " out of it wast thou ta'ken." And let us 
acknowledge that, true to the elements of our mortal frame, 
no granite, no burnt brick, no wood, no galvanized metal 
or patent slab has ever begotten in the dwellers therein 
such a gentle and grateful affection as those own for it who 
have passed their years within homely walls of Devon 
Cob. 



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MtKOWliKADS AND SPKAIMIKADS. 

I'u.vr Imi'i.kmkms Found on Dakt.mi-ok. — To fare p. 1T.'>. 



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MEMORANDUM OF FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND> 
ON DARTMOOR. 

BY T. V. HODGSON. 
(Read at Tiverton, 24th July, 1919.) 



The late Mr. J. D. Prickman was a well-known member 
of the Association and an enthusiastic lover of Dartmoor. 
During his rambles in the neighbourhood of Okehampton, 
he accumulated a collection of flints which has now passed 
into the hands of the Municipal Museum at Plymouth 
through the generosity of Mrs. Prickman. Among these 
implements there are, of course, a number of fragments 
derived from the manufacture of more important tools ; 
several flints worked to serve as scrapers ; but, most 
important of all, are five barbed and tanged arrowheads 
and two elongated implements which might equally well 
be called, large arrowheads or small spearheads. All these 
are such fine specimens, that it has been thought desirable 
to put them on record and to figure them. The figures on 
the Plate are all of natural size. 

It is unfortunate that there is no precise locality with 
any of the specimens, but they were all found, at intervals, 
on the Moor, in the Okehampton District. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Of translucent flint, Fig. 1 less so than the 
other and about half of one barb is missing. Both 
these two are rounded in outline. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Arrowheads of translucent flint, with 
straight edges. 

Fig. 5. A very large specimen ; the largest that I have 
seen from Dartmoor, being 2-ft-" in length, of opaque- 
grey flint with straight edges. 



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176 FLINT IMPLEMENTS FOUND ON DARTMOOR 

Fig. 6. A leaf-like spearhead, of translucent flint, thin 
and beautifully chipped. A really very fine specimen. 
Not quite so large as the last, being 2 T V' long. 

Fig. 7. If it may be called a spearhead, is narrow and 
diamond shape in section, with a prominent ridge 
running down the centre. It is well chipped and of a 
dull colour. Length 2^". 



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THE STUDY OP PLACE- AND FIELD-NAMES. 

BY MRS. FRANCES ROSE-TROUP. 
(Read at Tiverton, 24th July, 1919.) 



The study of the derivation of Place- and Field-names 
should be classed as an exact science, and all guesses and 
traditions as to their origin should be looked on askance. 

Dr. Skeat remarks i 1 " Perhaps there is no subject of 
study that is, generally speaking, in so neglected a state. 
The wild and ignorant guesswork of the eighteenth century, 
and even of the nineteenth, has filled our books of anti- 
quities and our county histories with many misleading 
stories, and the results of these unconscionable inventions 
have not unfrequently found their* way even into ordnance- 
maps." And Mr. W. H. Stevenson's scathing remarks 
should give pause to those who would rush in where the 
learned fear to tread. " We have in this," he writes of the 
identification of Kennith and Hubbaston with places 
in Devonshire, 2 " an instructive example of the worthless- 
ness of ' tradition,' which is here, as so frequently happens 
elsewhere, the outcome of the dreams of local antiquaries, 
whose identifications become gradually impressed upon 
the memory of the inhabitants." Again he writes : "The 
whole article [on the site of the Battle of Ethandun] is of 
a very imaginative and unsatisfactory nature, built upon 
improbable assumptions, baseless identification of sites, 
impossible etymologies, and shows a general lack of critical 
restraint." 3 

It is important that a learned society like ours should 
take up this subject with great care and should not give its 
sanction to " improbable assumptions," " impossible 
etymologies," or " unconscionable inventions," while at 
the same time our Association is eminently fitted to 
produce satisfactory work that will lead to good results. 

1 Place-names of Cambridgeshire, p. 1. 

* Asser's Life of King Alfred, p. 262. » Ibid,, p. 274. 

VOL. LI. M 



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178 THE STUDY OF PLACE- AND FIELD-NAMES. 

It is to find the best method of accomplishing such a task 
that I bring the subject forward. 

Dr. Skeat mentions that he had not made a wide and 
extended study of English place-names, and points out that 
in many instances one place-name is likely to throw light 
upon another and it is upon this point that I would like to 
lay special stress. 

I understand that the Secretary of our Place- and Field- 
names Committee has done a fine work in collecting a vast 
number of Place-names grouped under Parishes ; but, if 
I may be permitted to say so, something more than a list is 
needed. To put it briefly, we want " collation and loca- 
tion," and so, after finding a " common denominator," we 
may arrive at the true derivation of* the name. To 
accomplish this some carefully-thought-out scheme should 
be adopted. I put forward the following suggestions in 
the hope that those present will do their best to improve 
upon them : — 

Let us ask the co-operation of members and others in 
collecting place- and field-names with any data concerning 
the place itself. Such information should be collated and 
card-indexed, and the assistance of scholars learned in 
Celtic and Old English and the evolution of languages 
should be sought. Eventually we should publish in the 
Transactions those names upon which some unity of 
derivation or meaning has been reached. 

As for details : we might ask contributors of information 
to cast it in a given form and to write it on a card oi 
selected size, say, that of a postcard 5£ by 3'J inches, and 
written across the longest way, uniformity being desirable 
for filing purposes. The formula might run in this order : 

The modern name ; its district ; if hamlet, field, road r 
etc., and what it is. 

Its earliest known form with reference to, and date of y 
document where it occurs. 

Any real variation of spelling of an intermediate date. 

Its earliest known appearance in its present form. 

Any peculiarity of local pronunciation. 

Information concerning its characteristics, its situation,, 
or its history. 

Reference to any cognate names in the district, county,, 
or elsewhere. 

Any suggestion as to its meaning might be added, but 
let the contributor give his reasons for it. 



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THE STUDY OF PLACE- AND FIELD-NAMES. 179 

All such cards should be sent to the Secretary of our 
Committee or to such deputy as he may appoint. 

Those of us who have given microscopic study to a 
district in Devonshire should be qualified to present 
valuable information, even if we have not made a study of 
etymology. Let us take, for instance, some of the common 
terminations and try to find in what respect places so 
named resemble each other. 

Are all slades in valleys leading into other valleys ? 
Leigh, ley. Is the place so named a meadow or, at some 
period likely to have been, a wood? Does the name 
" silver " occur in the vicinity ? 

Shutes. Is the field near a watercourse which may have 
been conducted through a " shute," or is it near the Great 
Field that was divided into "shots " ? Ford. Is the place by 
a river or does it occur in early documents as " worth," or 
" worthy," an enclosed homestead ? Is there a Roman 
Road on which " Cold Harbour " stands ? Or take the 
place-name Alvington, Alwigton, Alphington or Alfington, 
Allington, etc. Is there any trace of ownership by an 
Alfred or other Al ? 

As for variations in spelling we would want only those 
having some real difference, such as Tipton in Ottery 
St. Mary, which we find in early document's as Twyppeton 
and Tuppeton, or as Oxenlease which occurs as Oxmalese. 

Such points as these might be recorded by one who is not 
an expert in etymology, yet they would throw light on the 
subject in hand and might lead at long last to some satis- 
factory conclusion. For I do not believe there is any 
royal road to this learning, and a short cut usually leads us 
into a cul-de-sac. We may well labour to prepare the way 
for those who come after. 

Example : — 

OTTERY SAINT MARY. 



[Parish and Manor.] 



Otri (Charter of Edward the Confessor) 
Sancte Marie Otry (Assize Roll) 
Otery beate Marie (Assize Roll) . 
Oterhay beate Marie (De Banco Roll) 
Auterey (State Papers) .... 
Present form, Ottery St. Mary, occurs in Com- 
mon Plea Rolls 1561 



1060 
1237 
1309 
1511 
1512 



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180 THE STUDY OF PLACE- AND FIELD-NAMES. 

Suggestion : — From the- name of the river Otter, on 
which it lies ; this river-name may be derived from Celtic 
y-dwr =the water ; the river is described in some docu- 
ments as "the Great Water." The terminal y may be 
from O.E. ig, one meaning of this being " watery-place," 
and is applied to flooded meadows ; this might account for 
many Otris of Domesday Book — watery-meadows on the 
Otter, a river with low banks. 



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A. IK Starley, phot 

HACCOMBB CHURCH. 

"Typical Early Pointed Caps of Bker Stone." 

(See Part I, p. 342.) 

To face page 181. 

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: ^ > -, 



..r { 6 ^, ! 



M-5 ii; « '. / ■> "i..f. • > m, .h -S <j j-i" -ill u; ■ /i ;*: 



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ARCH] 



Ralph, son of Arch 
Dtto le Archdekne. 



Sir Micha 
alive i 



fa I) 



rmicia, who as wid« 
Nansladron 






(b) Odo 
ob. c. 









■= James Treviados 
( Vivian) 



d) Odo~ ? (e 



iii rl M) 


Y'W.l 


.7/" 


ri?i ■ /-/loitii" " 


) 


[If .0'< 










a 


b'; 


. ! i" 1 


,»:'- v ' 




. .do 


'"'' 


b - 


. .» .v\v< 





Thomas 
1379-1420 



Jot 
06. a 



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Gocgle 



HACCOMBE. 

PART II. (1330-1440). 

BY A. W. SEARLEY. 

(Read at Tiverton, 24th July, 1019). 



REFERENCES TO BOOKS NOT QUOTED FROM IN PART I. 



Assize Rolls. 

Alexander, J. J., Devon M.P.'s. 

Banke's Dormant Peerage, 

Blue Book. 

Book of Aids. 

Blount's Ancient Tenures. 

BoutelTs Heraldry. 

Burke's Peerage. 

Calend. of Inquisitions. 

Calend. Genealogicum. 

Calend. of Doets. 

Carew's Survey of Cornwall. 

Cornwall Register. 

Coram Rege Roll. 

Cokayne's Peerage (Vicary Gibbs' 

ed.) 
CresswelTs History of Teignmouth. 
Cutt's, Dr., Parish Priest. 
Dunn's Visitation. 
Dunkin's Brasses of Cornwall. 
Dictionary, Imperial. 
Diet, of National Biography, 
DanieU's Hist, of Cornwall. 
Dymond's MS., E. C. L. 



and 



Escheat Rolls. 

Fine Rolls. 

Furneaux, J., Of Antony 

Sheviocke Churches'. 
Gilbert, C. S., Survey of Cornwall. 
Harleian MS. 
Haccombe House MSS. 
Hewett's Decorative Remains in 

Exeter Cathedral. 
Jewers, A.. J., Heraldic Church 
y Notes. 
Lower's Family Names. 
Lyson's Cornwall. 
Maclean, Sir John, Hist, of Trigg 

Minor. 
Original Rolls. 
Polsue's History of Cornwall. 
Polwhele's Cornwall. 
Papal Registers. 
Risdon's Note Book. 
Tregothnan Charters. 
William of Worcester's Itinerary 

of Cornwall. 



The Archdeacon Family. 

The name is peculiar, and few families have had such 
marvellous variations of spelling. The following list is 
possibly yet incomplete : — 



Arcedeakene. QuiviTs 

Reg., 1280. 
Arcedeakne. Feud. Aids, 

1346. 



Arcedecne. Will m Malerbe, 

1384. 
Arcedekne. Stapelden's 

Reg., c. 1320. 



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182 



HACCOMBE 

Bitton's 




Arcedeakene. 

Reg., 1291. 
Arcedyakene. Bitton's 

Reg., 1291. 
Arced yakin. Assize Roll, 

1302. 
Archdeacon. Camden, 1695 
Archdeaken. Feud. Aids, 

1346. 
Archdeakon. " Scroll of 

Arms," 1588. 
Archdecne. Inq. p.m., 

1397. 
Archdecon. Sir G. Carew, 

c. 1588. 
Archdekan. Sir G. Carew. 
Archdekne. Sir G. Carew. 
Archdyakene. Bitton's 

Reg., 1307. 
Archedeacone. Epis. Reg. 

1309. 
Archediakqn. Inq. p.m., 

1397. 
Archedecon. Sir G. Carew. 

1588. 
Archedeken. Pipe Rolls, 

1416. 
Archedekne. Pipe Rolls, 

1397. 
Archediakon. Inq. p.m., 

1397. 
Archid'. Pipe Rolls, 1194. 
Archidecon. Sir G. Carew, 

1588. 
Archideken. Leland, c. 

1540. 
Archidiacone. F. of F., 

1277. 
Ercedeakne. Inq. p.m., 

1340. 
Ercedbcne. Pole, c. 

h 

Inq. p.m., 



Ercedekene. Inq. p.m., 

1304. 
Ercedekne. Inq. p.m., 

1329. 
Ercedyakne. Palgrave 

Writs, 1308. 
Erchedecne. Pole, c. 1630. 
Erchdecon. Risdon, c. 

1635. 
Erchdeken. Cornwall Reg., 

1847. 
Erchedekeny. Gilbert, 

1817. 
Erchdekne. Pole, c. 1630. 
Ersedekne. Pat. Rolls, 

1333. 
Hercedekne. Feud.. Aids, 

1346. 
Kercedekne. Feud. Aids, 

1346. 
Larcedekne. Tregothnan 

Charter, 1230. 
Lercedeakne. Pat. Rolls, 

1327. 
Lercedeckne. Crabbe, 

1861. 
Lercedekene. Grandis- 

son's Reg., 1357. 
Lercedekken. Inq. p.m., 

1483. 
Lercedee^e. Pat. Rolls, 

1339. 
Lercedekyn. Pari. Writ., 

1308. 
Lercedicon. Risdon, g. 

1635. 
Lercedykne. Inq. p.m., 

1335. 
Lerchdeacon. Westcote, 

c. 1600. 
Lerchdeckne. Prince, c. 

1700. 
Lerchedeken. Inq. p.m., 

1407. 



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/ 



HACOOMBB. 183 



Lerchdekken. Inq. p.m., 

1483. 
Lerchdekne. Pari. Writ., 

1308. 
L'erch-Deacon. Polsue's 

History, 1867. 
L'Ercedekne. Lysons, 

1822. 



L'Erchedekene. Pari. 

Writ, 1308. 
leErgedecne. Pole,c.l630. 
le Ercedeene. Inq. p.m., 

1386. 
le Erchdeacon. Polwhele. 
le Erchediakne. Pat. 

Rolls, 1337. 



Carew, in his Survey of Cornvxill, says, " Sir John 
Lerchedekne, Knight, and not Priest (for he was so called 
of his Family, and not by his Calling, as in Froissard you 
shall note the like to be familiar amongst the nobility of 
Gascoigne)." Mr. Reichel suggests that a son may have 
been born before ordination — see the case of the Rector 
of Rousdon in Cal. of Doets in France, or he may have 
been born afterwards. This subject is discussed in D. A. 
Trans., 1905, p. 316, where it is stated that the Bishop 
of Exeter was called upon to deal with the difficult question 
of married people, one of whom wished to enter a monastery 
when the other was unwilling to follow his or her example. 
On the marriage of the clergy Pope Alexander III writes 
to Bishop Bartholomew, " we have been informed that in 
your diocese certain sub-deacons have presumed to enter 
upon matrimony and live with their wives like laymen." 
Whereupon he advises, " although such action is contrary 
to the regulations of the Holy Canons/' that it should be 
tolerated, " provided only that they do not approach to 
minister at the Altar, nor to hold ecclesiastical benefices." 
In 1107 the Pope sent a letter to Anselm of Canterbury 
declaring that as the most valuable part of the clergy 
were priests' sons, such persons should be promoted in 
the Church. This gave great offence to the English bishops; 
but the King (Henry I) took sides, and raised much revenue 
by permitting the clergy to retain their wives on paying 
a fee for licence to do so. The large amount obtained in 
this manner proves that a great number of clergy retained 
their wives ; and it is safe to assume that in the thirteenth 
century many of the clergy were married men ; and, 
although illegitimacy was supposed to prevent ordination, 
a search of the Episcopal Registers will show a number of 
dispensations to set this aside (see Dr. Cutts' Parish Priest). 

In Piers Plowman's Vision the situation is thus summed 
up:— 

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184 HACOOMBE. 

" Since Bondsmen's bairns have been made Bishops, And 
Bastard's bairns have been Archdeacons, 

And Cobblers and their sons for silver have been Knights,, 
and Monks and Monials that Mendicants should feed, 

Have made their kin Knights, and Knights' Fees purchased,. 

Popes and Patrons poor gentle blood refuse, and take 
Simon's son, Sanctuary to keep." 

Arms of Archdeacon : Argent 3 chiverons Sable (Pole). 

These arms occur carved on a bench-end in Landulph 
Church (Notes and Gleanings, Vol. I, p. 39) ; also " lately 
extant in the glass windows of Liskeard Church " (Polsue,. 
p. 22) ; and on a tile in Exeter Cathedral. The family 
has an unfortunate beginning, for the earliest reference 
to the name shows that Ralph, son of " Ralph Archid'," 
had been outlawed for an unknown offence. In 1194 
he is stated to owe £35 3s. 4d. for a judgment made in 
the King's Court by which he was quit of an appeal in 
outlawry against him (Rot. Pip. 6 Rd. II). The Sheriff 
of Cornwall the same year accounted for 41s. " of the issues 
of Hymene which belonged to Ralph Archid'." A Ralph 
Larcedekne (probably the same) was a witness to a charter 
belonging to Tresodorn in 1230 (Tregothnan Charter No. 
15, quoted by Maclean). In 1235 Odo le Archedekne was 
one of the Justices of Assize at Launceston (Rot. Fin. 
19 Henry III). In 1269 Roger Arcedekne was witness to- 
a Charter relating to Rodam (Rot. Fin. 1 Edw. I). In 
1277-8 Stephen de Archdekne had married the third 
daughter and co-heir of Thomas Fitz-Anthony, who had a 
grant from King John, " ad fermam feodi " of lands in 
Dessia and Dessimonia in Ireland, and this Stephen was 
in the war of Kyldare against the King (Cal. Geneal. 
No. 41, p. 268). A branch of the Archdeacons must have 
settled in Ireland at an early date, for in 1302, John,. 
Silvester, and William le Ercedekne (possibly sons of 
Stephen) are described among the " Fideles " of Ireland ; 
and Maurice le Ercedekne is a column lower thaji the 
others for the same purpose. Each had a letter of credence 
from the King concerning the wars in Scotland (Pari. 
Writs. I, p. 584). In 1309 Mauricius and Reymundus le 
Ercedekne, " Fideles of Ireland," were requested to per- 
form military service against the Scots (Palgrave, 3 Edw. 
II). In 1322 Reymundus Lercedeakne was requested, as 
one of the " Nobiles " of Ireland to perform military 



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HACCOMBE. 185 

service ; and in 1324 he was commanded to obey Johannes 
Darcy, Justiciar of Ireland. In the same year letters of 
credence were sent him concerning aid for the Duchy of 
Acquitaine. 

Maclean, p. 254, considers all these persons were of the 
same family, but we can find no evidence of their relation- 
ship to each other. Burke, sub " Dunboyne Barony," says, 
" The Arcedeaknes were of Baronial rank in Ireland temp. 
Edw. I and Edw. II, and were summoned to Parliament 
as Barons by those monarchs. Gortnamona was given by 
Cromwell to a descendant of the Kilkenny family." 

The Archdeacons had great possessions in Cornwall, 
and were connected with the Trevanions of Carhayes, 
Trefry of Trefry, St. Aubyn of Clowance, Arundell of 
Lanhern Gerveis, Cary of Launceston, Tresham, Godolphin, 
Trefusis, and many others (see Pole). Five members of 
this family achieved altogether 18 elections for Cornwall 
between 1305 and 1390. 

Thomas (4a) eight times between 1305 and 1390 (Pal- 
grave). 

Odo (4b) three times in 1313-15-19 (Palgrave). 

John (5b) twice, in 1332 and 1336 (Palgrave). 

Warin (6b) three times, once in 1380 and twice in 1382 
(Blue Book). 

Michael (6j) twice, in 1385 and 1390 (Palgrave). 

It is noticeable that M.P.'s in those days were usually 
considerably under sixty ; their average was about forty. 
Elderly men did not willingly undertake the fatigue of a 
journey involving 7 or 8 days on horseback. John Arch- 
deacon was elected at 27 and 29, but not after ; Warin 
about 49 and 51, but not after ; Michael about 39 and 41, 
but not after. 

The earliest reference to an ancestor of the Haccombe 
branch is in Pole, p. 222, " Showbrooke (anciently Shog- 
brooke), anno 27 of Kinge Henry 3 (1243), was thenherit- 
ance of S r Michaell le Ercedecne (1) ; whom lineally 
succeeded S r Thomas, S r Otho, etc." . . . " This mannor 
was given unto Alexander Carew by his mother and 
contynewed in the famyly of Carew of Antonie unto 
Richard Carew, w ch sold this mannor unto S r Will a m 
Periam K>, w° h granted the same unto S r Robert 
Basset K>, w th Elizabeth his 2 daughter ; and they have 
sold it unto Richard Reynell, of Credy Wiger, Esq 1 *,. 



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186 HACCOMBB. 

lately deceased, unto whom is succeeded Peryam Reynell 
his sonne/' ..." Fulford lieth part in the parish of 
Shogbrooke, and part in the parish of Qrediton, and was 
granted by Michael le Ercedecne unto Roger le Squier." 
{The Squier family are again mentioned in connection 
with the Archdeacons in a deed made by William Squyer 
and dated at Heaunton Punchardon 13 Oct. 3 Henry V). 
There is no reference to this Michael in Testa de Nevil, 
or the Hundred Rolls, but only in secondary authorities. 
Tregothnan Charters state that in 1272 Michael le Arche- 
dekne gave half a mark for an Assize (Maclean). 

Michael (1) had two sons, Odo (2a), and Thomas (2b). 
In 1277 Orger de Pomerai petitioned against Odo le 
Archdekene, and against " Alice who was the wife of 
Thomas brother of Odo " (Assize Roll, 6 Edw. I). Cornwall 
F. of F. No. 98. At Lanslaveton (Launceston) 24 Ap. 
1244. Between Reginald le Futur and Dionisia his wife, 
and Odo le Ercedekne whom John de Tagullou (in Gwen- 
nap) and Albreda his wife vouched to warranty, and who 
warranted to them 2 acres of land in Rendy (in Breage). 
Reginald and Dionisia granted the said land to Odo and 
his heirs, etc., rendering therefor yearly one pair of white 
gloves and Id. at Easter for all service and demand. 
And Odo gave to Reginald and Dionisia 24s. sterling. 
Odo probably died without heirs. 

Sir Thomas Archdeacon (2b) = Alice, is mentioned by 
Pole as succeeding Sir Michael ; he is also named in 
Viscount Falmouth's Deeds, No. 1911 (Maclean). In 1265 
he appears as a party to charter relating to Tregony. In 
1274 Margaret, relict of the Earl of Cornwall, petitioned 
against Thomas le Ercedekne concerning part of the manor 
of Elerky (De Banco Roll. 3 Edw.) I (see under Odo, 3b). 
In 1277 he was one of the knights performing military 
service due from Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. Muster at 
Worcester (Palgrave I, 198). Thomas and his wife Alice, 
and his son Odo and his wife Alice are named in 1284 
(Assize Roll. 12 Edw. I). It is probable that he died soon 
after 1277 (Maclean). 

There are numerous references to Thomas 2b, in Cornwall 
F. of F. :— 

20 Jany., 1274, No. 273. Between Thomas le Ercedekne, 
and Richard Trebigau and Matilda his wife as to 30s. of 
rent in Landeke. To Thomas and his heirs. For this 
Thomas gave to Richard 5 marks of silver. 



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HACOOMBB. 187 

29 Ap., 1274, No. 274. Between Thomas le Ercedekne, 
and John de Carkel and Joan his wife as to 30s. of rent 
in Langedeke. To Thomas and his heirs. For this Thomas 
gave them " 1 sore sparrow hawk " (Fr. Sor-falcon). The 
Imperial Dictionary defines a Sore sparrow hawk " as of the 
first year" (see D. and C. N. and Q. 9 1918, p. 119). Other 
peculiar fines or heriots referred to in this paper are 
" 1 clove gilly-flower " ; " 1 pair of iron spurs " ; " a grey- 
hound on Easter Day " ; "3 roses " ; "1 pair of white 
.gloves " (see Blount's Ancient Tenures). 

18 Ap., 1277, No. 275. Very similar to 274 ; between 
Peter de Ralegh and Thomas le Archidiacone as to 1 
messuage and 1 ploughland in Landegwe. Thomas gave 
Peter 36 marks of silver. 

25 Nov., 1277, No. 276. Between Thomas le Erce- 
dekne and John de Bello Prato as to 1 messuage and 
1 ploughland in Landege. To Thomas aiid his heirs. 
Rendering 1 clove gilly-flower at Easter. 

Geoffry (3a), eldest son of Thomas (2b), died a minor, 
j.p. An inquisition referring to him was taken at Tregony, 
4 May, 1339, on the petition of Sir John Archdeacon (5b), 
great-grandson of Thomas (2b), who alleged that Katherine 
de Monte Acuto, who was at one time Lady of the Manor 
of Elerky, gave the same to John Gattesden and his heirs, 
And that John gave the manor to Richard Earl of Cornwall, 
who gave the same to Thomas Lercedekne, great-grand- 
father of the petitioner, and the manor descended to Geoffry 
son of Thomas, who, being under age, William Monketon, 
Sheriff of Cornwall, took his body and the manor into the 
Bang's hands. The said Geoffry died within age, and his 
brother Odo (3b), who at the time was with the King in 
the Welsh wars, afterwards had livery of the said manor 
(Escheats, No. 62, 13 Edw. III). 

Odo (3b), son of Thomas (2b), died in 1290. Inq. p.m. 
marked " deest," 18 Edw. I. His wife Amicia, survived 
him, leaving Thomas (4a) his heir. His will is recorded 
but lost (Vicary Gibbs). 

Cornwall F. of F., No. 318. At Westminster, 27 Oct., 
1285. Between Eymer de Ponte and Matilda his wife, 
and Odo Le Erchedekne as to the manors of Ruddory 
(in Gwinear) and Ryvers (in Phillack). To Odo and his 
heirs, etc., For which Odo gave to Eymer and Matilda 
160 marks of silver. 

In 1289 Odo held West Liddaton (Brentor), and made 



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188 HACCOMBE. 

it over to the Abbat of Tavistock (Trans. XLVI, p. 236). 
The records of Ton Abbey state that in 1291 the whole 
property of an estate given by Sir Odo le Arcedekne was 
appropriated for ever to the providing of the poor with 
clothes and shoes (E. D. A. 8. Trans., 1844, p. 54). Amicia 
alias Alice, relict of Odo, afterwards m. " Serlo de Nansla- 
dron vel Lansladron," who in 1304 held £ of the manor of 
Elerky (S. Veryan) in right of Amicia his wife as dower 
(Extent. 32 Edw. I, No. 196). Amicia also held the manor 
of Lanyhorne in socage during the minority of Roger de 
la Poyle' (Coram Rege Roll, 30 Edw. I). Nansladron is in 
St. Ewe (see Cornwall F. of F., No. 505). 

1297. Serlo was returned as holding £20 yearly, and there- 
fore elegible as a Knight for military service. 

1298. Summoned from Devon for military service. 
1301. Summoned as a Baron. 

1305 and 1307. Summoned to Parliament. 

1308 and 1314. Summoned for military service against 
the Scots. 

1317, 20 Feb. He was one of the persons accused of 
making a forcible entry into the manor of Godolphin, 
belonging to Johannes de Treiago (Palgrave's Writs, 
p. 1077). John Treiago or Treiagu was a Conservator 
of the Peace in 1287 ; tax collector in 1301 ; a Burgess 
for Truro in 1305 ; and M.P. for Cornwall 1307. 

Maclean's statement that Serlo's wife was " Alice, relict 
of Thomas ," is manifestly incorrect. This is proved by 
Calend. Genealogicum, No. 195, 32 Edw. I, which says, 
" Margaret, relict of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. Extent 
of the manors of which the said Margaret claimed £ part 
against Walter de Cornu, Thomas Lercedekne, and Serlo 
de Lanladron and Amicia his wife ; the said Serlo and 
his wife do not hold to the full third part of the third part 
of the manor of Ilerky, because a certain Alice, the mother 
of Odo Lercedekne was dowered with a certain part of 
the said manor on the day on which Odo her son died, 
also because Amicia, wife of Odo, was unable to hold the 
third part of the same manor by way of dower." 

Arms of Lansladron : Arg. 3 chevronels Sable (Lysons* 
Cornwall). 

Amitia (3c) dau. of Thomas is mentioned by Vivian as 
having m. Sir Michael Petit, K*. This knight " acknow- 



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HACCOMBE. 189 

ledged homage to Eurinus de la Laund in Trenausmaur. 
2 A Edw. I " 1274 (Vis. Falmouth's Deeds, No. 1911). 

John (3d), mentioned by Maclean, was possibly father 
of Thomas Lercedekne (3dl), whose chequered career, 
largely owing to similarity of name, seems to be inextricably 

interwoven with that of Thomas (4a). Of this John 
nothing is known ; but of his son Thomas (3dl) Palgrave 
notes : " If the Thomas le Ercedekne, who served as K 1 
of the Shire of Cornwall, be not the person also summoned 
to Parliament as a Baron, he may be Thomas fiT Odonis 
Lercedekne or Ercedekne of Ellerkby, etc. (Esch. No. 33, 
5 Edw. III). The Thomas who was summoned to Parlia- 
ment is considered by Dugdale as Ercedekne of Sheepstall. 
" The military writs and other miscellaneous entries 
relating to the individuals of this name cannot be appro- 
priated with any certainty, nor can it be ascertained to 
which of the Ercedeknes the entries in Vol. I, p. 584, 
refer " (Palgrave). (He appears not to have known that 
Sheepstall was a hamlet in Elerky). Maclean, too, remarks 
" the orders and commissions given in the name of Thomas 
Lercedekne between 1310 and 1325 are very numerous, 
and it would appear that there were two persons of the 
same name to whom they were issued, for whilst on 
15 May, 1321, Thomas was summoned to attend Parlia- 
ment at Westminster as a Baron, a Thomas Lercedekne 
was returned as a Knight of the Shire for Cornwall to the 
same Parliament, as he was again subsequently. . . . 
We are, we believe, correct in stating that the Thomas 
who was M.P. from 14th to 18th Edw. II was Thomas 
son of Odo." Thomas (3dl) seems to have been completely 
eclipsed by his more imposing cousin, Thomas (4a), son 
of Odo. He married Anne, dau. of Sir John de Knovill 
(or Cnovil). The latter was a man of importance temp. 
Edw. I. He held Loddiswell in 1275 (Hund. Rolls) ; and 
Pole adds, " anno 24 of Kinge Edw. I by payment of fortie 
shillings rent yeerly." In 1303 " Ipplepen and Galmentona 
(in Churston Ferrers) were held by Gilbert de Knovill 

• and John Carru for \ fee " (Reichel, in Hund. of Haytor, 
p. 116). " Sir Gilbert de Knovill held in Yudeford (now 
called Edeford) Hillitor, and Dulchet, one knight's fee ; 
unto whom succeeded S r John " (Pole, p. 268). Sir Gilbert 
was Sheriff of Devon, 23-28 Edw. I (1294-1300) ; Chief 
Baron of Exchequer (Pole) ; commissioner of Forests 
(Palgrave) ; is referred to several times in the " Writs," 



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190 HACCOMBE. 

where he is stated to be deceased in 1316 ; but his Inq, 
p.m. shows that he died about 3 years previously (7 Edw. 
II). Pole in one place (p. 133) says, " the mannor of 
Batteshorn in the parish of Honiton was granted by 
Isabella, Countess of Devon and Albermarle unto ^ 
Gilbert de Knovill K* " ; and on the same page says that 
the Countess having " noe issue living sold it (and other 
estates) unto K. Ed. I, who granted- it unto S r Gilbert de 
Knovill." 

Sir John de Knovill (Inq. p.m. 10 Edw. II, 1316-7) held 
Pockington, Somerset (Feud. Aids). He was born c. 1275 
and died c. 1316. He had 3 daughters, (1) Cicely=Peter 
Achard, ob. s.p.; (2) Elinor = John Dun (or Donne) who 
had a son John ; and (3) " Anne, wief of Thomas Erce- 
decne " (Pole). There was also a son, Michael, who died 
s. p. " It is allowed to William de Leden, King's Escheator 
in Gloucestershire and Welsh Border, that having accepted 
security from William de Luscot who has married Alice 
(3d3), daughter and heir of Anne, sister of Michael, son of 
John de Knovill, deceased, for his reasonable relief, and 
having given legal possession of J part of the manor of 
Redwyk in Magor, with its appurtenances, etc." (Original 
Rolls, No. 3, 28 Edw. Ill, 1354). 

Arms of Donne, Dun, of Dunn : Arg. 3 mullets gules 
(Risdon). 

Arms of Knovill of Batishorti : Arg. 3 mullets of 5 points 
Gules (Pole). 

On the death of Sir John de Knovil his " land was 
parted betwixt his surviving daughter Elinor Dun, and 
Anne Lercedekne. The moyty (of Anne) descended unto 
Alis (3d3), the wife of William Luscot, d. of Thomas, and 
sister and he^re of Michael (3d2) Ercedecne, w° h had issue 
Alis (3d4) (? Joan) married unto S r John Arundell of 
Lanhern " (Pole, p. 134). Sir William (or Walter) Luscot 
is described by Pole as " a great lawyer and principal 
person in the management of the great offices of this 
country. Edw. III." " Luscot in the parish of Braunton ; 
John de Luscot dwelled in the same and had issue John, 
which by Matilda, dau. of Edmond Speccot, had issue 
Will a m, w ch by (Alis) sister and heir of Michael (3d2) son 
of Thomas Ercedecne and his wife (Anne) d. and coheire 
of Sir John Knovill, K*, had issue Alis (? Joan) married 
unto Sir John Arondell of Lanhern " (idem, p. 395). 

" Combhall in ye parish of Drewstington belonged unto 



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HkCCOMBE. 191 

S r Gilbert de Knovill, and by discent came unto Anne, 
on of ye daughters of S r John Knovill K*, wief of Thomas 
Ercedecne (commonly called Archdecon), whose son 
Michael dying without issue, it fell unto Alis his sister, 
wief of William Luscot, whose daughter (Jone) brought it 
unto the house of Arondell " (idem, p. 244). " Luscot 
gave name to its ancient owners, amongst whom William 
de Luscot lived here temp. Edw. Ill, who was learned in 
the laws and bore rule in the county. He much increased 
his ancestors' estate, as well by his own industry as by the 
marriage of the sister and heir of Michael Lercedecon " 
(Risdon, p, 338). 

" The King for £30 grants to William de Luscot the 
custody of 2 Fees, formerly the lands and tenures with 
appurtenances in Lodeswell, Yedeford (? Ideford), and 
Batteshorn in Devonshire, which Margaret, who was the 
wife of Gilbert de Knovill, deceased, held, etc., to have up 
to the legal age <}f their heirs " (Original Rolls, 31 Edw. 
III). 

Sir William Luscot was M.P. for Devon in 1372. 

Arms of Luscot : Az. a stag's head cabosed Arg. within 
a border engrailed Or (Pole). 

Brantyngham's Reg., fol. 80b., 30 Sept., 1380. " Item. 
Dominus concessit Licenciam Willelmo Luscote et Mar- 
garete uxori ejusdem, quod possint facere celebrari Divina 
etc. in Capella sive Oratorio infra mansiones suas de 
Luscote, in Parochia de Brauntone, et de Spraycombe, in 
Parochia de Mortho ; quamdiu Domino placuerit dura- 
turam." These oratories became very general in the 
houses of wealthy persons from the latter end of the 
13th century onwards. Bishop Stafford's Register men- 
tions 272 in Devon and Cornwall. All were under Episcopal 
jurisdiction, and had strict limitations to prevent abuses 
and interference with the rights of rectors. Anyone might 
build an oratory for private worship, but Mass could not 
be celebrated there without the Bishop's licence ; a bell 
might not be used, nor anything be done to draw away 
people from worshipping in their parish church. These 
licences were usually issued " in forma communi" stating 
the name of the individual, and including his wife, children, 
servants, and guests ; and they generally stipulated that, 
except in case of physical infirmities, all shall attend their 
Parish Church on Sundays and Festivals, and there hear 
Mass. Brantyngham's Reg. fol. 143b records that a.d. 



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192 HACCOMBE. 

1385, the Lady Johanne Arundell obtained a similar 
licence for an Oratory ; on Aug. 23 of the same year she 
was permitted to select one or more priests as confessors. 

Arms of Arondell : Argent 6 Swallows Sable 3.2.1. (Pole). 

In June, 1337, things w6re looking dark for Thomas 
Archdeacon, for ip. ten days there were three warrants 
issued for his arrest. (I) Pat. Rolls, memb. 31d. June 2, 
1337. At Stamford. " Appointment, pursuant to the 
ordinance of the late Parliament at Westminster for the 
arrest of suspected persons, of John Hamely, Sheriff of 
Cornwall, to arrest Thomas Lercedekne, and to have him 
safely kept in Launceveton prison until further order." 

(2) Pat. Rolls memb. 14d. June 9, 1337. At Stamford. 
" Appointment of John Dauney, Ralph Bloyeu, and John 
Cole, Sheriff of Cornwall, to arrest and imprison at Laun- 
ceveton Thomas le Erchedekne." 

(3) Pat. Rolls memb. 14d, June 12, 1337. At Stamford. 
" Appointment of John Lercedekne, John Dauney, John 
Darundell, and Ralph Bloyou, Knights, to arrest and im- 
prison at Exeter, Thomas Lercedekne, KV 

Ralph Bloyou was in 1336 M.P. (with Sir John Arch- 
deacon) for Cornwall. 

John Dauney was in 1316 M.P. for Dorset. 

From the expression " arrest of suspected persons " 
(supra) it would appear that the offence committed by 
Thomas was a political one, but the sequel shows it to 
have been ecclesiastical, for the following week he was 
publicly excommunicated in Exeter Cathedral. Prebendary 
Hingeston Randolph, on p. 1709- of the General Index to 
Bp. Grandisson's Register, Vol. Ill, says, " Sir Thomas 
Lercedekne Knt. and Matilda his wife, 559. . s . His 
excommunication, public penance in the Cathedral and 
absolution, 841." This is incorrect and misleading, for 
the inference is that the guilty person was Thomas (4a), 
the husband of Matilda ; and this belief seems to have 
been general. There is a certain amount of pleasure, 
.after the lapse of six centuries, in being able to clear the 
character of a man with such a splendid record, and to 
fix the guilt on the right shoulders. Thomas (4a) son of 
Odo," died in 1331, and the excommunication did not 
take place until June 16th, 1337, thus convicting Thomas 
(3dl) son of John. Unfortunately it is not quite clear 
as to what charges were preferred against him, for " folio 
207 has been cut out of the register, the stump of the 



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-/. IV. Sea Hey, phot. 

HACCOMBE CHURCH. 

"Thk Remains of a Vested Arm in Freestonk. 

(See Part 7, p. 342.) 

To face page 193. 



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HACCOMBE. 193 

extracted leaf still remaining to tell the tale" (footnote 
by Preb. H. Eandolph). This looks as if some member of 
the family had endeavoured to remove all traces of the 
disgrace. Dr. Oliver, on p. 7 of the Additional Supplement 
of the Monasticon, under the heading of " Crantock 
Collegiate Church," refers to the offence as " some trespass 
on this establishment or some parochial churches." As 
far as can be gathered from his " Confession," Thomas had 
offended " in particular against Sir William de Londay, 
Dean of the Church of Carentoke (Crantock) ; Sir Richard 
de Gomersale, canon of Glasney ; John Billounde de 
Trethuwel, and Master William de Carslake." There is a 
full account of the ceremony in Grandisson's Reg., fol. 
208, showing how thoroughly things were done in those 
days, from " Excommunicacionis Majoris " to public 
Confession, Penance, and Absolution. The penitent was 
led to the Great Altar of Exeter Cathedral, " nudus pedes 
et caput, camisia et tunica tantum indutus, zona deposita, 
virgam deferens in manibus, et petiit a Sentencia super- 
adicta humiliter se absolvi." This Thomas probably died 
c. 1354. 

Thomas (4a) son of Odo ; born c. 1275, died 1331. 
Inq. p.m. 5 Edw. Ill (1331-2). 

Darnell's History of Cornwall, referring to a paper by 
Mr. H. M. Whitley {Jour. R. I. Cornwall, Vol. X, p. 425), 
states that Thomas who died in 1331 was son of Thomas 
of Lanyhorn Castle, who was " slain in the woeful fight 
of Bannockburn " (24 June, 1314). This statement is 
incorrect in three particulars, because (1) Thomas (4a) 
was son of Odo (Original Rolls, 53) ; (2) in his pedigree Mr. 
Whitley describes the supposed father of Thomas as having 
died in 1303 ; and (3) the real father, Odo, died in or about 
1290. 

Under the heading " Lord Archdenke," C. S. Gilbert in 
lis Survey of Cornwall, 1817, Vol. I, p. 529, writes, " Thomas 
Erchedekeny, as the name was then written . . . inherited 
two noble seats in Cornwall, of which the Castle of Ruan 
Lanihorn, then called (as is supposed) Shepestall, was 
perhaps the most superb, but the family in later days 
most assuredly resided on their manor of East Anthony, 
which was obtained by a marriage with an heiress of 
Daunay." Carew in his Survey of Cornwall refers to 
Anthony as " the poor home of- my ancestors." 

Vicary Gibbs in the 1910 edition of Cokayne, thinks 

vol. u. N 



194 HACCOMBE. 

" with Thomas Lercedekne the family attained the zenith 
of importance " ; but this importance did not decline with 
John and Waiin of Haccombe. H. M. Whitley in Lanyhorn 
Castle and its Lords, mentions that " in the village of 
Ruan on a branch of the Fal, still exist slight remains 
of the feudal castle of the Ercedeknes ; for years they 
served as a quarry for the little village now standing on 
the site." He also gives a history of Elerchi, to which 
Lanyhorn is attached. Lanyhorn Manor was held of the 
honour of Launceston Castle by the service of presenting 
a brace of greyhounds. William of Worcester's Itinerary 
of Cornwall speaks of the castle as standing temp. Edw. IV, 
and Leyland's Itinerary records " At the head of Lanyhorne 
Creeke standeth the Castelle of Lanyhorn sumtyme a 
Castel of an 8 tourres, now decaying for lak of Coverture. 
It longgid as principal house to the Archdeacons. The 
Landes descendid by Heires general to the best Corbetes. 
of Shropshir, and to Vaulx of Northamptonshir, (but) 
Vaulx's part (has been) syns bought by Tregyon of Corne- 
waul." 

J. F. Tonkin notes that in his time one tower was 50 feet 
high, but was pulled down by Mr. Grant, the rector, who 
built several houses with the material ; he also states 
that within 30 years of the time of his writing, six out of 
eight towers of the castle had been standing (see Whitaker's 
notes, R.I.C. Journal, IX, 437). 

" A coheiress of Archdekne (Alianora 7a) married Lucy r 
and the coheiress of Sir William Lucy married into the 
families of Corbet and Vaux. One moiety of the manor of 
Lanihorne being described as lately parcel of the posses- 
sions of Sir William Vaux attainted, was granted in 1462 
to Avery Cornburgh ; this moiety passed by purchase ta 
the Tregians, and in 1620 belonged to Ezekiel Grosse ; the 
other moiety was then vested in Sir Henry Wallop, K* " 
(Lysons' Cornwall, p. 279). 

Knights who held their lands by military service in the 
14th century had no light duty to perform, as will be seen in 
the following record of events chronicled under the heading 
of Sir Thomas Lercedekne. 

1293 (Survey of Henry de Pomeray's lands). "Thorn le 
Arcedek holds 12 acres in Reswori containing 12 
Cornish carucates (plough-lands), and pays 2s. at 
Michaelmas, and does service. Also 1 acre in Tre- 



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HACCOMBE. 195 

worgy Scor, containing 1 Cornish carucate, and pays 
23d. at Purification (2nd Feb.), and does service " 
(Testa de Nevil, 21 Edw. I). 

1297. July 7. Returned for Cornwall as holding £20 in 
land. Summoned to perform military service with 
horse and arms overseas. Muster at London (Pal- 
grave's Writs, I, p. 285). 

1299. Paid 3s. 9d. of aid beyond what he had already 
paid (Pipe Rolls, 28 Edw. I). 

1301. June 24. Summoned for military service against 
the Scots. Muster at Berwick (Palgrave, I, p. 350). 

1302. Oliver Clayton sued him respecting a mill in Magna 
Clummer ; Oliver alleging that Thomas had no ingress 
except by Odo le Arcedyakin (36), to whom Thomas 
Arcedyakin, grandfather of the said Thomas, had 
devised it (Assize Roll,, 30 Edw. I). 

1303. Witness to a charter relating to Tregarek (Tre- 
gothnan Charter, 4307). 

1303. An inquisition was held to ascertain the value of 
his lands (Maclean). 

1303. Knight of the Shire for Cornwall. Obtained " writ 
de expensis " for 15 days from March 20th (Maclean). 
1305. 16 Feb., and 28 Feb., M.P. for Cornwall ; sum- 
moned to Westminster ; obtained " writ de expensis " 
(Palgrave, I, 141). 

1306. One of the securities for Richard de Beaupre and 
others of Cornwall. Day after Ascension (Palgrave, 
I, 163). 

1306. Summoned to Carlisle for- service against the 
Scots (Palgrave, I, 377). 

1306. Again summoned, but denied liability. On his 
lands being seized by the SherifE of Cornwall he 
petitioned the King to enquire whether he was liable 
to service or not. It was commanded that the 
Treasurer and Baron of the Exchequer should enquire 
into the matter (Rot. Pari., Vol. I, 196, quoted by 
Maclean). 

1308. March 17. Conservator of the Peace in Cornwall 
(Palgrave, II, 12). 

1309. Ap. 27. One of the Assessors and Collectors 
(Palgrave, II, 39). 

1309. Dec. 18. One of the Justices appointed to receive 
complaints of Prizes being taken contrary, to statute 
(Palgrave, II, 25). 



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196 HACCOMBE. 

1310. Ap. 1. Ordered to proceed with greater activity 
in executing commissions for conservancy of the peace 
(Palgrave, II, 28). 

1311. One of the Supervisors of Array in Cornwall (also 
in March, 1322) (Palgrave, I, 409). 

1312. Governor of Tintagel Castle, and Sheriff of Corn- 
wall, 1313-4 (Vicary Gibbs' Cokayne). 

1312. Steward of the Duchy, vice Piers Gaveston, exe- 
cuted (Close Bolls). 

1313. Sept. 23. Summoned to Parliament at West- 
minster as K* of the Shire (Palgrave, I, 104).. 

1313-4. Eef erred to as Sheriff of Cornwall at Launceston 
(Stapeldon's Reg., fol. 200 b). 

1313-4. Jany. 14. Appointed executor for John Arun- 
delle. On 11 March of the same year Bp. Stapeldon 
sold to Thomas Lercedeakne for " centum libris 
sterlingorum " (£100) the wardship of John, son of 
John Arundell, together with the custody of the 
" Manerium de la« Heme " (Lanhern) during the 
minority of the said heir (Stapeldon's Reg., fol. 
• 102). 

1315. Jany. 20. Summoned to Parliament at West- 
minster as Knight of the Shire (Palgrave, I, 141). 

1316. Aug. 20. Summoned to Newcastle for military 
service against the Scots (Palgrave, I, 178). 

1321. "Summoned to Parliament 15 May, 1321, to 
13 Sept., 1324, by writs directed Thomas Lercedekne, 
whereby he may be held to have been Lord Arch- 
bekne " (Vicary Gibbs). 

1321. Investigating the piracies so common on the Devon 
and Cornish coasts. It appears that certain men of 
Cornwall had attacked a Portuguese ship near Fal- 
mouth, and carried off ship and goods to the value 
of £400 to Penryn (Close Rolls). 

1321. Ordered to abstain from attending the meeting of 
" Good Peers " illegally convened by the Earl of Lan- 
caster to be held at Doncaster (Maclean). 

1322. 2 and 6 Feb. Summoned for service against the 
Scots at York ; also to raise as many men-at-arms 
as he can, and hold himself in readiness to march 
when summoned (Palgrave, I, 545 and 614). 

1322. 14 Feb. Muster at Coventry to march against 
rebels adherent to the Earl of Lancaster (Palgrave, 
I, 547). 



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HACCOMBE. 197 

1322. May 7. Instructed to surcease from enforcing 
levies in maritime townships in Cornwall (Palgrave, 
I, 567). 

1322. June 2. Ordered not to proceed with the task of 
raising 500 foot-soldiers as a truce had been con- 
cluded with the Scots rebels to last until June 12th, 
and for thirteen years from that date (Close Rolls, 
memb. 4d.). 

1322. " It may be worthy of remark that on 27 Nov., 
1322, he was commanded to assemble as many men 
as he could . . . and to repair to such of his manors 
as were nearest to York to march from thence against 
the Scots in case of invasion " (Maclean). 

Note. — From 1322 onwards it is possible that the M.P. 
for Cornwall is Thomas (3dl), as Thomas (4a) was 
summoned as a Baron. Still the fact remains that 
there was no Thomas M.P. after 1330. 

1323. March 9. In spite of the truce of 1322, he was 
again summoned for service against the Scots and 
to raise as many men-at-arms as he can over the 
contingent due by tenure. On Ap. 25 he is com- 
manded to raise 200 foot-soldiers ; on Ap. 18 he is 
ordered to provide pack-saddles for the army in case 
they advance without waggon-train ; but on June 2 
he is discharged from attendance from the muster and 
commanded to stay execution of commission (Pal- 
grave, I, 632). 

1323. Nov. 20. Summoned to Parliament for 20 Jany., 
1324 (Palgrave, I, 287). Dec. 26, same year, re- 
summoned to Parliament prorogued to Feb. 23, 1324 
(Palgrave, I, 287-9). 

1324. May 9. Returned by the Sheriff as being in 
Gascony on the King's service (Palgrave, I, 655). 

1324. Aug. 4. Summoned for service in person for the 
defence of the Duchy of Acquitaine, etc., and to raise 
all the force he can in addition to his contingent due 
by tenure (Palgrave, I, 664). 

1324. Sept. 13. Summoned to Parliament at Salisbury ; 
afterwards altered to London, but to which he was 
not resummoned (Palgrave, I, 317). 

1325. " Sir Thomas Lercedekne, governor of Tintagel, 
was summoned as a Baron to Parliament 14 th to 18 th 
Edw. Ill " (Rogers). 

1325. Feb. 17 and May 1. • Summoned to Portsmouth 



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198 HACCOMBB. 

for military service in Gascony (Palgrave,' I, 714) ; 
but on July 10, he was discharged from attending 
(idem I, 723). On 21 Dec. he was again summoned 
(idem I, 684). 

1327. Feb. 24. Pardon to Thomas Lercedekne for ad- 
herence to Hugh le pespenser the elder and other the 
King's enemies and rebels (Pat. Rolls, memb. 32). The 
elder Despencer had been slain at Bristol the previous 
year. In this connection note Pat. Rolls, memb. 5d : 
"Ap. 11, 1332. Commission to Robert de Assheleye, 
Richard de Haccombe, and Walter de la Grave, on 
information that goods of the late king were carried 
away from his manor of Fulmere, Berks, at the time 
of the pursuit of Hugh le Despenser, to make inquisi- 
tion what goods the King had there, by whom stolen, 
etc." This Richard appears to have been the same 
person as the Richard de Hattecoumbe who was ap- 
pointed J.P. for Dublin " during pleasure " the 
following year (Pat. Rolls, memb. 19, Oct. 2, 1333). 
Again, in 1335, from the same source of information 
we find that Richard de Haccoumbe and others were 
appointed to enquire into a complaint concerning a 
distraint of oxen by the king, which oxen had been 
illegally rescued. 

1329. May 18. Commission of the Peace to Hugo de 
Curtenay 'Me fitz " in the co. of Devon, and to Thomas 
Lercedekne in the co. of Cornwall (Pat. Rolls, memb. 
16). 

1329. Commanded to provide 40 dolia of wine and pro- 
visions for the Scots expedition (Close Rolls). These 
levies of provisions became a burden too heavy to be 
borne ; and we find the people petitioning against 
Thomas for seizing wine and corn for the King's 
service without paying for them, to such an extent 
that the corn grown in the county was not enough 
for the wants of the people (Pari. Rolls, I, 387). 
Sir Thomas Archdeacon also exercised much Church 
patronage, as may be seen from a perusal of the 
Episcopal Register of Bishop Stapeldon — in each case 
" ad pres. Dom Thome Le Ercedekne, Militis." 

1308, Dec. 21. In eccl. Creditonie, William Storke, sub- 
deacon ; also Oliver de Roscof , deacon. 

1309, Mar. 15. In eccl. S. Karontoci (St. Crantock). 
William Storck de Tregbni, deacon. 

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HACCOMBE. 199 

1310, Ap. 18. In eccl. Cath. Exon., William Stork, priest. 

1312, Mar. 11. In eccl. Convent. Tottonie, Radulphus de 
Bocyny, deacon. 

1313, Dec. 22. In eccl. Convent Tottonie, Radulphus de 
Bocyny, priest. 

1315, Dec. 20. In eccl. Cath. Exon., Ric. Bruwyn, and 
Henricus de Cornwaille, priests. 

1317, Sep. 24. In eccl. Cap. S. Jac de Tengemue (Teign- 
mouth), John Adou, Gregorius de Redruth and Roger 
Ruel, subd. 

1318, Junel7. Ineccl.Conv. S. Germani, John Adou,deacon. 

1318, Sept. 23. In eccl. Cath. Exon., Richard Trevayles 
. de legitimatus, subd. 

1319, Sept. 22. In eccl. Cath. Exon., Richard Trevayles, 
subd. and John Adou, priest. 

1320, Sept. 20. In eccl. Axminster, Richard Trevailes, 
priest, and Thomas Donnynge, subd. 

1320. St. Ruan Lanyhorne, Sir W m de Mileburne first 
occurs as Rector 21 Dec, 1308. On his resignation 
Master Henry Bloyou, Clerk, was inst. 10 June, 1320. 
Same patron. 

1321, Sept. 19. In eccl. Cath. Exon., John Gras subd. 
and Thomas Donnynge, deacon. 

Thomas (4a) was twice married. His first wife (called 
Elizabeth by Maclean) was Alis, dau. of Sir Thomas de la 
Roche. " S r Thomas w ch maried Alis, daught r and co- 
•heire of S* Thomas de la Roche and had issue S r John " 
(Pole, p. 222). " Cotlegh w° h is in ye hundred of Coliton 
in ye 27 of ye Kinge Henry 3, belonged unto Richard de 
Rupe or Roche, unto whom in ye beginninge of Kinge 
Edw. I. Robert de Roche succeeded " (idem, p. 146). 
Richard de Rupe is also referred to in connection with the 
Arondell family (p. 228). 

Arms of Roche : Gules 3 roaches naiant in pale Arg. 
<Burke). 

According to Banke's Dormant Peerage, I, 228, Thomas 
and Alis had a son called Odo (5a), who apparently died 
s.p. ; reference to him will be made later. A pedigree of 
Roch in Dunn's Visitation, Vol. I, p. 164, states that 
*' Alissia, 3 rd dau. (but not coheir) of Thomas le Roech m. 
Tomas le Archdecon, and was mother of his son Odo. 
Against this we must set Grandisson's Reg. of Nov. 14, 
1337, which mentions " unam marcam pro obitu Domine 



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200 HACCOMBB. 

Matillidus Lercedeakne matris dicti Domini Lercedekne 
et ejusdem Johannis cum ab hac luce migraverint " 
(quoted by Vicary Gibbs). But the " S r John " of Pole 
(supra) was not by Alis the first wife, but by Maud or 
Matilda, a second wife. " Et domini Thome Lercedekne 
militis, patris domini domini Johannis, ac domine Matilda 
matris ejusdem, etc." (Archives of Ex. Cath., No. 1007). 
This Matilda according to Har. MS. 4031, appears to have 
been a d. of Lord John de Moeles of Kingskerswell. There 
is an account of the de Molis, Moeles, Molys, or Mules 
family in D. A. Trans., 1918, p. 358, by the Eev. O. 
Reichel. See also Pole, p. 272. King Henry III granted 
the manors of Karswell and Depeford (Kingskerswell and 
Diptford) with the advowsons to Nicholas de Moeles in 
1230. He died c. 1265 (Diet, of Nat. Biog.), and was 
succeeded by his son Roger (ob. 1295. Inq. p.m. 2& 
Edw. I) father of Lord John Moeles = Alice, parents of 
Matilda Lercedekne. John died in 1310 (Inq. p.m. 3 
Edw. II), leaving 3 sons and a daughter. Alice survived 
her husbajid and died in 1338, seized of Kinges-Carswell 
and Dupeford which he held in dower (Inq. p.m. 11 Edw. 

in). 

Arms of Moeles of Kingscarswill : Argent 2 barres and 
3 torteaux in Chief (Pole). 

Vicary Gibbs, speaking of Thomas (4a), says : " He m. 
istiy Alice, 3** dau. of Thomas de la Roche of Roch Castle, 
co. Pembroke, and 2 nd1 ? Maud, whom genealogists call, 
without proof, dau. of John de Mules. She was one of the 
heirs of John Tracy, from whom she inherited a small fee 
in Trevisquite." Maclean, too, thinks she was the heir 
of John Tracy of Trevisquite, " 1 fee of which she held 
in 1346 and alienated to John de Sowy in 1347." In 1361 
she presented to the Church of S. Maben, and seems to 
have been heir to the manor of Treberveth. " Isold, the 
second dau. of Sir Henry Tracey of Wollecombe, m. firstly 
Sir Richard Fitz Stephen ; and secondly, John Mauger. 
From her brother John (who, according to Pole died s.p. 
she inherited a moiety of the manor of Trevisquite in S. 
Mabyn " (Maclean). This moiety passed into the posses- 
sion of Matilda Lercedekne, second wife of Sir Thomas 
(D. N. and Q., Vol. VI, p. 155). 

" Licence for Michael Trenwith the elder, to grant the 
manor of Treberneth, held in chief as of the county of 
Cornwall, to Thomas Lercedekne and Matilda his wife ia 



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HACCOMBE. 201. 

tail male, with remainder to John, son of the said Thomas 
and his heirs by Cicely, dau. of Jordan de Haccombe, and 
to the right heirs of Thomas. By fine 2 marks " (Pat. 
Bolls, memb. 37, 26 Jany, 1329-30). 

Arms of Trenwith (in Probus) : Arg. on a fess sable 
3 chevronels palewise, the points to the dexter argent 
(Lysons). 

Arms of Tracy : Or an escallop in the dexter chief Sab. 
between 2 bendlets gules (Carew). 

On 20 Feb., 1329-30. * Matilda Lercedekne obtained a 
Lenten Dispensation from Bp. Grandisson (Epis. Reg., 
fol. 29) to obtain milk, etc., on account of her physical 
infirmities. The document is of sufficient interest to quote 
in full : " Johannes, etc. dilecte filie Matildi, uxori Thome 
Lercedekne, Militis, salutens etc. — Ex parte tua, Peticio 
nobis exhibita continebat quod, cum sis nunc gravida et 
partui vicena, (et) escis piscium stomachum tuum nequeas 
coaptare, (ut) pro corporis tui sanitate lacticiniis, hoc 
instanti tempore Quadragesimali, licite possis uti, Licen- 
ciam impendere dignaremur. Nos, igitur, hujusmodi 
Petioioni juste et racionabili, si ita sit, favorabiliter 
inclinati, ad scrupulum consciencie tue removendum, 
quatinus de medicorum consciencia butero ac lacte, 
ceterisque lactiniis, in hoc casu uti licite valeas, tempore 
Quadragesimali non obstante quatenus ad nos pertinet 
Licenciam concedimus specialem. Ita, tamen quod 
elemosinarum largicione ac aliis operibus caritatis, et 
oracionibus devotis debita per te fiat recompensacio Deo 
grata. Vale. Data apud Cliste, 20 Feb. 1329-30." 

After the death of her husband Matilda seems to have 
passed through deep waters, for Grandisson's Reg., fol. 183, 
deals with the sentence of Excommunication passed 
19 July, 1334, upon " Domina Matillide, relicta Thome 
Lercedekne, Militis, defuncti," for adultery with Jullanus 
de Treganhay. She had not even the excuse of youth, 
for she must have been at least 45 years old at the time, 
and her son John was then 28. 

In 1345 Matilde de Haccombe was Prioress of Canons- 
leigh (ordinis Sancti Augustini). " Sue humiles et devote 
filie Matillis de Haccombe " (Grandisson's Reg., fol. 125b). 
Her identity is very uncertain. It has been suggested 
that she was the relict of Sir Thomas, making atonement 
for her past ; but this seems improbable considering her 
record. (? Was she sister of Jordan de Haccombe). 



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202 HACCOMBE. 

1348, 2 Dec. Matilda Lercedekne (5d) " damsel, of 
the Diocese of Exeter is authorised to chose a confessor 
who shall give her, being penitent, plenary remission at 
the hour of death, with the usual safeguards " (Papal Reg. 
7 Clement VI). This may have been a daughter of Thomas 
And Matilda. 

1302. Nov. 3. Cornwall F. of F., No. 373. A suit 
between Thomas de Ercedekne and Matilda his wife, 
and Isabella de Sancto Albino as to the manor of 
Rodwory and Bosyweyn and 18 pounds worth of 
rent in Kesteltalcarn, Trevalsu, and Porthmur, and 
including demesnes, homages, service of freemen, 
villeinages, woods, meadows, pastures, waters, ponds, 
mills, fisheries, moors, heaths, liberties, and other 
things. Finding of Court — to Thomas and Matilda 
and their heirs for ever. 

1328-9. Feb. 9. Cornwall F. of F., No. 502 (see Tre- 
berneth, supra). At York. Between Thomas le 
Ercedekne and Matilda his wife, claimants, and 
Michael de Trenewyth (in Probus) senr. deforciant, 
as to the manor of Treberveth. Finding of Court : 
To have and to hold to Thomas and Matilda and the 
heirs male of their bodies. Should they die without 
heirs the manor shall revert to John son of the said 
Thomas and the heirs which he shall have begotten 
of Cecilia, d. of Jordan de Haccombe. Should John 
die without heirs begotten of Cecilia the manor shall 
revert to the heirs of Thomas. 

F. of F., No. 503 (same date). Between Thomas son of 
Odo Le Erc'edekne and Michael de Trenewyth, senr., 
as to the manors of Elerky, Lanrihoern, and Laundege, 
(Kea), and the advowson of the Church of Lanrihoern. 
Thomas acknowledged the right of Michael, etc. 
Finding of court similar to No. 502. 

1329-30. (Rot. Fin. 3 Edw. III). Treberveth (Trebar- 
with) was vested in Michael Trenewith, senr., and 
on June 22 Thomas Lercedekne made fine with the 
King in 2 marks for license to acquire it of Michael, 
the manor being held of the King in capite as of the 
Earldom of Cornwall. At the Inq. p.m. on Thomas it 
appears that the manor was held of the Castle of 
Launceston in socage by the rent of 13s. 2£d. per 
annum for all services, and that it consisted of 5 



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HAOCOMBE, 203 

Cornish acres, which were of the value of 100s. per 
annum. 

1329-30. 26 Jan. (Pat. Rolls, Part I, memb. 38). At 
S. Albans. Licence for Michael de Trenywith the 
elder to grant the manors of Elerky, Lanyhoern, and 
Laundege to Thomas son of Odo le Ercedekne for life, 
with remainder to John son of Thomas, and his 
heirs by Cecily, d. of Jordan de Haccombe. By fine 
of 40s. 

1294. May 2. Cornwall F. of F. At Launceston. 
Between Thomas le Archedekne and Odo le Arche- 
dekne (his brother), as to 2\ ploughlands in Bodwenan, 
Kestel, Lanryon, and Killagorok (in Duloe). Finding 
of Court : To have and to hold to Odo of Thomas . 
and his heirs during the life of Odo. Rendering 
therefor yearly 1 pair of iron spurs at Easter. 

1331. (Cal. of Inquisitions, 345, 5 Edw. III. Elerky, 
Larihorn, Laundegg. These manors, including the 
advowson of the. church of Larihorn and a park there 
with wild beasts, held of the gift of Michael de Treno- 
with for his life, with remainder after the death of 
Thomas to John his son, and the said John and his 
heirs by Cicely, d. of Jordan de Haccombe by service 
of rendering a greyhound at Bodmin on Easter Day 
to the steward of Cornwall. 

Rot. Fin., 6 Edw. II. memb. 2. In 1312 the King com- 
mitted the town and castle of Tintagel to Thomas le 
Ercedeackne to hold during the King's pleasure, at which 
time Thomas was Sheriff of Cornwall. 

Thomas 4(a) died in 1331, aged c. 56. Inq. p.m. held 
5 Edw. Ill (1331-2). His will states that his son John 
was 25 years old, and m. to Cecily, dau. of Jordan de 
Haccombe. 

Odo (4b) son of Odo (3b) =Alis or Alice. Little is known 
of either. 

1318-9. 20 Jan. (Devon F. of F. 1079, 12 Edw. II). 
Between Odo le Ercedekne and Alice his wife, 
claimants, and Ralph le Ercedekne, deforciant, as to 2 
messuages, 3 ploughlands, 60 acres of meadow, 15 acres 
of wood, and 51s. 3d. of rent in Cokebiry (Cookbury) 
and Cokebirwyk (Cookbury Wick) next Bradeford, 
and 3 parts of the manor of Asshewauter. Ralph 
granted these to Odo and Alice and their heirs for 



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204 HACCOMBE. 

ever. Should they die without heirs, then the afore- 
said 3 parts of the manor of Asshwauter shall remain 
* in their entirety to the right heirs of Alice, and the 
other tenements shall remain to the right heirs of 
Odo. In 1323 this tenement was the subject «of an 
action by Thomas (4a) against his brother's estate 
(Devon F. of F., No. 1115. 16 Edw. III. 29 May, 
1323.) At York. Between Walter de Stapeldon, 
Bishop of Exeter, and Richard de Stapeldon, claim- 
ants, by Adam de Baunton in Richard's place, and 
Thomas le Ercedekne, deforciant, as to 10 messuages, 
2 mills, 6 ploughlands, 100 acres of meadow, 100s. of 
rent, and a moiety of 1 knight's fee in Cokebiry and 
Cokebyrywyk. The Bishop acknowledged the tene- 
ments to be the right of Thomas. For this Thomas 
undertook for himself and heirs that the said tene- 
ments which Alice, who was the wife of Odo le Arce- 
dekne held for term of her life of the inheritance of 
the aforesaid Thomas in the said township on the 
day on which this agreement was made, and which 
after her death ought to revert to Thomas and his. 
heirs should remain in their entirety to the Bishop 
and Richard and the heirs of Richard, etc. For this 
the Bishop and Richard gave to Thomas 10 silver 
marks. 
1318. 8 July. (F. of F. No. 457). At Westminster. Be- 
tween Odo le Ercedekne and Alice his wife and 
Ralph Le Ercedekne as to 2 messuages, 1 mill, 2 
acres of land, 10 acres of wood, 3s. 6d. rent, and a 
rent of 3 roses in Tregennen, Trevelyan, Luyeny (in 
S. Ewe) and Penstradou (also in S. Ewe). This was 
granted to Odo and Alice and their heirs for 
ever, etc. 

In 1313, 1315, and 1319 Odo was returned to Parliament 
as Knight of the Shire for Cornwall, and obtained his 
" writ de expensis " on 15 May, 1319 (Pari. Writs, II, 
p. 816). " Eudo le Ercedekne held the lordship and Castle 
of Trematon in 1312 " (Gilbert). Of this man Maclean 
says, " we have not discovered his paternity and cannot 
place him with certainty in the pedigree." He died 
c. 1321, and his will is mentioned in Stapeldon's Register. 
Alice, his widow, and Ralph are named as his executors* 
This Ralph cannot be identified. ( ? ) Was he Odo's brother. 



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HACCOMBE. 206 

Constance (4c) dau. of Odo (3b) is stated by Vivian 
as having m. Richard Godolphin. 

Sir John Archdeacon (5b). 1306-1377. Extract 
from Dymond's MS. E.C.L. " In the armoury the MSS. 
in the Library in the N. tower of Exeter Cathedral, are 
two volumes from which I have made the extract .(with 
other names)." John Ercedekne of Haccombe K* 
22 Edw. Ill (1348). The writer adds, " These knights 
I do find rpectly by the date of the deedes when they 
lived." 

In 1342 Sir John was in possession of Haccomb, Clifford, 
and Ringmore (Lysons II, 493) ; but in 1346 West Clifford 
was held by William Pypard and Margaret his wife (Trans., 
1912, p. 325). For Pipard history see Pole under Lark- 
beare, p. 180 ; North Bovey, 263 ; Midleton, 304 (of 
which it is said, " This mannor came afterwards unto 
Carew of Haccomb and is lately sold unto Sir James 
Bagge of Plymouth by Carew of Haccomb." It thus 
appears that West Clifford was leased to Sir William 
Pipard) ; and Langdon, 328. 

Arms of Pipard : Arg. 3 bars gemelles, Az. (Lysons). 

Bocland and Churleton of the honour of Plympton, in 
Haytor Hundred were held by John Ercedeakne for \ fee 
in 1346 (Feud. Aids, 392) ; and the same date he held 
Haccombe of the honour of Okehampton. The same year 
he held \ Knight's fee in Trenrys, which his father formerly 
held (Book of Aids). 

" Buckland in the Moor, whence Roger de Buckland 
took name, of whom William de Buckland was Sheriff of 
Devon and Cornwall in the reign of King Richard, five 
years together. After which family Sir John Arch- 
deacon succeeded to the land " (Risdon, p. 151). John 
does not seem to have inherited Treberveth, for it 
is not mentioned in the settlement of his lands made 
in 1365. Possibly it was held by Matilda, relict of 
Thomas (4a), his mother, who, it can be presumed, was 
still alive. 

On 23 Dec, 1327, Sir John Lercedekne obtained a licence 
from the Pope to marry Cecily, d. and heiress of Jordan de 
Haccombe by Isabel, d. of Mauger de S* Aubyn, she being 
within the prohibited degrees of affinity (Calend. Papal 
Reg., II, 166). There is no direct evidence, but it is 
highly probable that Cicily, at a very early age, had been 
betrothed to Odo (5a), the half-brother of John, who, 



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206 HACCOMBE. 

as already has been shown, died without heirs. Now 
Cecily must have been twelve years of age or more at the 
time of her betrothal, which fixes her birth well before 
1316, and agrees with Jordan possessing Ham and Pidkes- 
well at that date (Trans. , 1918, p. 350). The fact seema 
to be that Jordan was married at a very tender age in 
order to secure that important property. 

1365-6. 21 Jany. (Cornwall F. of Fines, No. 693, 39 
Edw. III). At Westminster. Between Adam Pistre, 
clerk (see Grandisson's Reg.), claimant, and John 
Lercedekne knight, and Cecilia his wife deforciants ; 
as to 5 messuages, 1 mill, 2 plough-lands, and 12 
acres of pasture in Dynnerdawyk, Vorsknapp, 
Uphamme, Cadeston, Croft . . . and Cadebury 
in co. Cornwall (Dinnerdake, Fursnap, Upham, Cad- 
son and Cadson Bury is St. Ive ; Croft may be Crist 
in St. Ive) ; and 5 messuages, 2 mills, 11J plough- 
lands, 12 acres of meadow, 11 acres of pasture, 120 \ 
acres of wood, and £20 0s. 6d, of rent in Lygham 
(Leigham in Egg Buckland), Colrigg (Colridge in 
Egg Buckland), Southtaunton (South Tawton), 
Lobba (Lobb in Braunton), Churchull (Churchill in 
East Down), Pydikville (Pickwell in Georgeham), 
Overhamme, Netherhamme (in Georgeham), Asse- 
lond (Hasland in Petrockstowe), Withybrigg (Withy- 
hedge in Plymstock), Hoo (Hoe in Plymstock), 
Bokeland (Buckland in the Moor), Okeford (Oak- 
ford), and Ma^yton (Manaton), in co. Devon. Plea 
of covenant was summoned . John and Cecilia acknow- 
ledged the tenements to be the right of Adam as by 
their gift. For this Adam granted them to John and 
Cecilia and gave them up to them at the court. To 
have and to hold to John and Cecilia during their 
lives of the chief lords of that fee by the services 
which belong to the said tenements. After their death 
5 messuages, 1 mill, 2 ploughlands, 12 acres of pas- 
tures, 6d. of rent of the aforesaid tenements in the 
towns of Dynnerdawyk, Vorsnapp, Uphamme, Ca 
. . . Croft . . . and Cadebury shall remain in their 
entirety to Ralph, son of John and Cecilia, and 
the heirs male of his body. To hold of the chief 
lords ... for ever. With remainder after his 
death in default of heirs male to Warin his brother 



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HACCOMBE. 207 

and the heirs male of his body. To hold as aforesaid 
for ever. 

With remainder on his death, on similar conditions, to 
Eichard his brother and his heirs male, with remainder in 
default to Odo, John, Robert, Martin, Reginald, Michael, 
and the right heirs of the said Cecilia. 

And 1 messuage, 1 mill, 1 ploughland, 100 acres of 
wood, 26s. of rent of the aforesaid tenements in Lygham 
and Colrigg, with remainder to the said Warin and his 
heirs male, with remainder in default to Ralph, Richard, 
Odo, John, Robert, Martin, Reginald, Michael, and the 
right heirs of Cecilia. 

And 1 messuage, 1£ ploughlands, 3 acres of pasture, 
22s. of rent of the tenements in Lobba and Churchull to 
the said Richard and his heirs, with remainder as before 
to Warin, Ralph, Odo, John, Robert, Martin, Reginald, 
Michael, and the right heirs of Cecilia. 

And 1 mill, 1 moiety of ploughland, 10 acres of wood, 
£12 of rent of tenements in Southtauton to Odo and his 
heirs with remainder to Warin, Ralph, Richard, John, 
Robert, Martin, Reginald, Michael, and the right heirs of 
Cecilia. 

And 1 messuage, \\ ploughlands, 5 \ acres of wood, 3 
acres of pasture, 41s. of rent of Pydykwille, Overhamme, 
Netherhamme, and Asselond to John and his heirs, with 
remainder to Warin, Ralph, Richard, Odo, Robert, Martin, 
Reginald, Michael, and the right heirs of Cecilia, as 
before. 

And 1 messuage, 2 ploughlands, 12 acres of meadow, 
3 acres of pasture in Withybrugg and Hoo to Robert and 
his heirs, with remainder to Warin, Ralph, Richard, Odo, 
John, Martin, Reginald, Michael, and the heirs of Cecilia, 
as before. 

And 1 ploughland, 5 acres of wood, 3 acres of pasture, 
and 41s. of rent in Pydykeville, Overhamme, Nether- 
hamme, and Asselond to Martin and his heirs, with 
remainder to Warin, Ralph, Richard, Odo, John, 
Robert, Reginald, Michael, and the heirs of Cecilia, as 
before. 

And 1 messuage, 2 ploughlands, 41s. of rent in Bokeland 
and Okeford to Reginald and his heirs, with remiander 
to Warin, Ralph, Richard, Odo, John, Robert, Martin, 
Michael, and the right heirs of Cecilia, as before. 



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208 HACCOMBB. 

As Maclean remarks, " each son had a portion except 
Michael." This was probably an arrangement to give 
marriage portions to the various sons who were between 
21 and 36 at the time. 

Sir John was not only the owner of numerous estates, 
but he led a strenuous public life. He was Knight of the 
Shire and M.P. for Cornwall in 1332 ; also in 1336 (Blue 
Book) ; and had his " writ de expensis " for 18 days 
{Close Rolls, 6 Edw. III). His colleague in 1332 was Sir 
William Basset, probably descended from Andrew de 
Haccombe (Trans,, 1918, p. 335). He was summoned as 
a Peer in 1342, but " neither he nor his issue had summons 
afterwards " (Maclean). 

1333. Feb. 10 (Pat. Rolls, memb. 25d.). At York. 
" Commission of oyer and terminer to John Lerce- 
dekne and others touching alleged oppressions by 
John Treiagu, late Sheriff of Cornwall, by colour of 
his office " (see under Odo 3b). 

1333. Dec. 6 (Pat. Rolls, memb. 6d.). At Marlborough. 
" Commission, etc., to Hugh Courtneye, John Lerce- 
dekne, and John Inge on complaint of the Abbot of 
Bucfestre that certain persons had taken away 24 
oxen of his worth 24 marks at Sele Monachorum, 
felled his trees at Bucfestre, carried them away, and 
dug his several soil at Bucfestre, so that he lost the 
profit thereof." 

1334. Obtained a charter for a weekly market at Shepe- 
stall (Elerky), with an annual fair of three days' dura- 
tion (Charter Rolls, 9 Edw. III). 

1335. Jany. 31 (Pat. Rolls, memb. 34). At Roxburgh. 
" Licence for John Lercedekne to crenellate his 
dwelling-place of Larihorne in Cornwall," which he 
also enlarged ; thus making it, as described by 
Leland, one of the finest in the county (see under 
Thomas 4a). 

1335. Nov. 16 (Pat. Rolls, memb. 17d.). At Newcastle. 
" Commission, etc., to Hugh de Courtenay and others, 
on complaint by the said Hugh, that John Lercedekne 
and 28 others, including the Abbots of Tavystok, 
Bokeland, and Bokfast, had entered his free chace 
of Dertmore, co. Devon, hunted there, and carried 
away his deer." It must have been an edifying 
spectacle to witness the consternation of this highly 



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HAOCOMBB. 209 

respectable gang of poachers, especially when they 
discovered that the wily Courtenay had managed 
to get placed on the commission to try his own case. 
However, the dignity of the church was not allowed 
to be hurt, for the case appears to have been hushed 
up, and the wounded feelings of the noble Earl healed 
by the customary diplomatic process. 

In- 1335 he served in the French wars (Vicary Gibjbs). 

In 1351 he was imprisoned in Launceston Castle (reason 
not stated) ; whence he escaped, and was pardoned in 1352 
for escaping (Pat. Rolls). 

His numerous possessions gave him the right of much 
ecclesiastical patronage. In each case below the patron is 
Sir John Lercedekne, K*. 

1340. Nov. 13 (Grandisson's Reg., fol. 43b). St. Ruan 
Larihorne. On the resignation of Master Walter 
Botriaux, John de Aldestowe was instituted (at 
Chudleigh). 

1340-1. Jany. 9th. On Aldestowe's resignation Sir 
William Glyvan, priest, was instituted. 

1351-2. Feb. 23 (Ep. Reg., p. 1421). Laryhorn. John 
de Sulthorne was inst. (at Chudleigh). 

1357. Sept. 19 (Ep. Reg., p. 1446). Larihorne. Sir 
John de Sulthorne exchanged benefices with Sir John 
de Plimstoke, Rector of Calstock, and the latter was 
instituted. 

1361-2. Dec. 21 (Grandisson's Reg., fol. 134b). Sancti 
Georgii de Hamme (Georgeham). Sir Andrew de 
Tregors had been instituted by undermentioned 
commissaries. " Ob zelum justicie et reverenciam 
demendantis." Patrons, Sir John Lercedekne K* 
and Cecilia his wife, and Joan, relict of Sir Thomas de 
Mertone, after an inquisition had been held as to the 
vacancy and right of patronage, by Richard Norreys 
and John de Holonde, Canons of Exeter. 

The great event in the life of Sir John Archdeacon, as 
far as Haccombe is concerned, was the carrying into effect 
the wish of Sir Stepen de Haccombe to secure a foundation 
of Secular Priests. Limitations of space prevent this 
being described in the present paper, so the History of 
Haccombe Archpresbytery must be held over for another 
year. After his marriage with Cecily Sir John continued 

VOL. li. o 

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210 HACCOMBE. 

to reside mainly at Ruan Larihorn until his death in 1377, 
His Inq. p.m. (No. 30, 2 Richard II, 1379) runs : " Joh'es 
Lercedekne, Ch'r. Cornub'-Trenrys unum feod', Lerky 
unum feod', Trerygon unum feod\" His will, however, 
was not proved until later. In Brantyngham's Reg., foL 
215, we find : " Clyst, 27 Jan., 1390-1. Testamentary — 
Probacis Testamenti Domini Johannis Lercedekne," — In 
the common form, — " in quo nominati sunt Executores 
Warinus Lercedekne et Michael Lercedekne " (his 2nd and 
9th sons). 

It is usually stated that Sir John Archdeacon died in 
1390, but the following disproves the assertion : At an 
Inq. p.m. held at Lostwithiel on Thursday the Feast of 
S. Thomas the Apostle, 1378, it was stated that Sir John 
Lercedekne was then dead ; that he died seized (inter alia) 
• of the Manor of Elerky, leaving a certain Stephen his son 
and heir ; which Stephen entered upon the said lands and 
died, wherewith they descended to Warine his brother as 
his nearest heir, which Warine had livery of seizure 
(2 Richd. II, No. 30). Maclean notes that " the name 
Stephen is erroneous ; it should be Ralph." This leads, 
to a curious speculation. Did John call his eldest son 
" Stephen " after his grandfather Stephen de Haccombe r 
and on finding so much money diverted to the foundation 
of the Archpresbytery did his feelings cause him to change 
the name to " Ralph " ? It is noticeable, too, that there 
is no monument to Stephen (7) in existence ; probably 
the Archpresbytery was in itself considered a sufficient 
memorial. Sir John appears to have been buried with his 
ancestors at Anthony, and there is nothing to show that 
any of his children were buried at Haccombe. On the other 
hand, Leland, c. 1535, says, " Hexham Lordship of olde 
Tyme longgid to one of the Archidekens, of whom ther 
be dyverse fair tumbes in the Chirch ther." To-day they 
have disappeared — if they ever existed. Lord A. Compton 
notes, " the greater part were removed soon after the year 
1759, and the various brasses and slabs were placed in their 
present position." There was another shuffle in 1 81 1 , when 
Powell (MS., E.C.L.) tells us that " the church had long 
been disused, and at the time of my visit was fitting up." 
N.B. — I again wish to express my' hearty thanks to- 
Mr. J. J. Alexander for his invaluable assistance and 
criticism. 



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THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 

Pabt VI. 

BY MISS KATE M. CLARKE. 

/ (Read at Tiverton, 24th July, 1919.) 



Cushion-bowl 'Fonts. 

It has been mentioned that the design of a pillar capital 
was sometimes adopted for a font ; the most general 
models were the cushion capital, and the subdivided 
cushion or scalloped capital. 

The plain cushion capital appeared in the last quarter of 
the eleventh century, the scalloped capital about thirty 
years later ; it was used until the end of the Norman 
style. 

It is not to be inferred that the fonts copied from these 
capitals were contemporaneous with them ; Mr. Francis 
Bond justly remarks, " it was not until the design of a 
capital had become thoroughly familiar and acceptable 
that it would be adopted for a font." 1 

But if I may venture to obtrude my own opinion, it is; 
that though the cushion bowls were no doubt influenced 
by the cushion capitals they were not directly copied from 
them, for the font bowls are nearly all founded on a 
circular plan, whereas the capital is square, with an 
abacus. This, in passing, is not an important point. 

The method of producing the cushion shape is to remove 
four vertical segments at equal distances from a hemi- 
spherical block. This process produces four faces whose 
upper boundary is horizontal, the other edge being part of a 
circle. The bowls fajl into two groups : — 

Type A. The four faces do not touch, the spacer 
between retain the original line of the circle. This type is 
found at Alverdiscott, Eggesford, Hockworthy (mutilated),, 

1 Fonts and Font-covers, p. 147. 

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212 THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 

Instow, and Inwardleigh. Probably also Clovelly and 
Sheepwash, though both have been cut down, eo that the 
original plan is obscured. 

Type B. The semicircular faces are made to touch at 
the rim ; this makes the bowl square in plan at the top, 
though the lower part remains hemispherical. This type 
is found at High Bickington, Landcross and Upton Helions. 

Ashwater and Bratton Clovelly represent a varian 
from Type A, in that masks are placed between the 
vertical faces where the small section of the original circle 
is left, and there are square mouldings all round the rim, 
thus accentuating the tendency to squareness which gained 
in force later on ; but in all the cushion bowls, even if the 
rim became square, the lower part remained, if not hemi- 
spherical, at least curved, and as we shall see later, this 
characteristic was often retained in fonts the bowls of 
which were definitely square. . 

In the last paper it was mentioned that the bases of 
Southpool, Rattery and Newton St. Petrock fonts are 
plain inverted cushions, and at Clawton and Tetcott they 
are inverted cushions enriched with ornament. The bowls 
in all these cases are circular, but the bases show that 
those with cushion bowls are of approximately the same 
date, and as the masks of Ashwater and Bratton Clovelly 
show their relationship to the fonts of Clawton and Tetcott 
those shall be described first. 

73. Ashwater. 

A very handsome font, with cushion bowl, on the 
Cornish model, which has two divergences from the 
Devon type ; the upper edge of the bowl is square, and is 
finished by two mouldings, square at the rim and a round 
one below ; at each corner in the space between the semi- 
circular faces and below the mouldings is a large mask. 

The main part of the bowl is rounded and cushioned off 
into four semicircular panels, which are framed by plain 
bands terminating in dragons' heads facing one another. 
This is another Cornish feature, as to which I shall say 
more presently when dealing with the font of Bratton 
Clovelly. 

The principal designs are different on all four sides. The 
eastern face has a quatrefoil in the centre 1 with trefoils 
springing from it, and an outer wheel with trefoils spring- 



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THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 213 

ing inwards. On the right of the wheel is a salamander, 1 
the corresponding space on the left has a single leaf on a 
broad stem. The northern face has five conventional lilies 
surrounded by foliage inside the semicircular band. Tho 
western face has a lion without a mane which closely 
resembles one on the font of St. Kea in Cornwall. There 
also it is on the western face. On the south are trefoils and 
foliage ; this design and that on the eastern face are quite 
Early English in character. 

The font is made of grey cliff stone. The shaft and 
base are octagonal, the base has a sloping chamfer six 
inches wide. It is raised on two platforms, both jnodern, 
the upper one forming a step. 

The description gives but a poor idea of the Remarkable 
character of this font. I have said it is of Cornish type of 
construction, but the ornament is unique, and as far as 
I know there is no font in either Devon or Cornwall at all 
like it. 

74. Bratton Clovelly. 

A handsome font of the same type as Ashwater, but the 
ornament resembles that of nine Cornish fonts. Before 
describing it I should like to quote a short passage from 
Fonts and Font-covers, by Mr. Francis Bond 

" The group of Cornish fonts is quite sui generis. From 
the twelfth to the fifteenth century they have a physi- 
ognomy quite their own ; moreover, to a considerable 
extent the design that was in vogue in the twelfth century 
still survived in the fifteenth. One peculiarity was the 
employment of non-constructional shafts, e.g. St. Cuby ; 
another the frequent employment of masks at the angles 
of the bowl, another the frequency of the design . . . of a 

1 The salamander appears on fonts not infrequently, for example at • 
Winchester Cathedral, and at St. Austell and Luxulyan in Cornwall, and 
in other places. It has been frequently stated, probably because it 
occurs on fonts, that the salamander is a symbol of baptism ; that is 
not quite correct. According to the bestiaries, from which all interpreta- 
tions of animals in ecclesiastical ornament are derived, the creature is a 
sort of lizard which can put out a fire by passing into it, and typifies the 
righteous man who is not consumed by the fires of luxury and lust, but 
extinguishes them. It may perhaps refer to the promise of a person 
baptized to renounce the devil and all his works. The bestiaries quote 
passages from the Scriptures, such as Isaiah xliii. 2: "When thou 
walkest through the fire thou shalt not be burned " ; they refer also to 
the three Children who were cast into the burning fiery furnace and 
came forth unharmed. In all representations of salamanders on fonts the 
legs are set far forward, and there is a knot in the tail. 



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214 THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 

petalled circle flanked, by a serpent with two heads with 
extended jaws and forked tongues, and heads at the 
angles." 

The last-mentioned feature we have at both Ashwater 
and Bratton Clovelly ; both have also the masks at the 
angles of the bowl, and Bratton has also the " petalled 
circle " or star on each face. I have mentioned that there 
are nine fonts in Cornwall following the same design ; these 
are Altarnun, Callington, Jacobstowe, Landrake, Laneast, 
St. Thomas (Launceston), Lawhitton, Tideford (St. 
Germans), and Warbstowe. Bratton Clovelly forms oner 
of the sajne group, and brings the number up to ten. 
There may be more, but these are all I have heard of. 
These fonts, "though similar, are by no means identical in 
design, but follow the same lines in a general way. 

The upper part of the bowl is square, not only at the rim, 
but the square effect is retained for about half-way down 
the bowl, then it is rounded off. The rim, square and plain, 
is 3 inches deep ; below it at each corner is a large mask 
about 10 inches in depth. On these masks the ears are 
very prominent ; some font masks have no ears at all. The 
edge of the basin is sunk to receive the cover. 

The low shaft is octagonal ; the base has rounded sides 
cushioned off. On the north side the semicircular shape 
is clearly seen, but the cushion does not extend to the floor 
level. On the east the base has been cut back an inch, and 
only extends 2£ inches beyond the shaft, whereas on the 
other sides the projection is 3£ inches. 

Hitherto the ornament on fonts has been free, and 
devices are not perfectly symmetrical. This is still the 
case here with regard to the masks and dragons, but 
geometrical instruments must have been used to produce 
the stars. At this point free ornament begins to retreat, 
and soon disappears altogether, so that the designs are 
found to be set and accurate, but more formal. 

75. High Bickington. 

A cushion bowl of the second type, the four hemi- 
spherical faces meeting at the corners, so that the bowl is 
square at the rim. Each face is covered with ornament. 

North. Two Maltese crosses, the ends of the arms 
rounded, so as to produce a circular effect. Both are 
damaged and repaired ; the fragmentary one on the right 



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THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OP DEVON 215 

shows that each arm had a triangular hollow, following the 
outline, which remains as a square-edged, ridge. As back- 
ground to the crosses, there are chevrons, incised diagonal 
lines, and raised bands with deep hollows between, ail 
arranged in an arbitrary way, without any attempt at 
pattern. 

West. Similar in design, but the crosses are only 
roughed but ; their shape is the same as on the north face, 
but there is no ornamentation of hollows. The chevrons 
and lines are less determinate, and the whole face appears 
to be somewhat unfinished. 

South. Instead of crosses there are two wheels of eight 
spokes, each enclosed in a circle of pearls, with chevrons in 
the interspaces. At the top edge is a band of raised zig- 
zag and crosses, 2£ inches deep. 

The eastern face has had to be much restored. There 
are two large four-leaved flowers about ten inches in 
diameter ; the leaves project beyond a circle of pellets. 
Chevron in the interspaces, and a band at the edge of 
scallop and pellets. 

About three inches of the shaft is cut in the same block 
as the bowl, it is, rather larger than the rest of the shaft, 
so that the appearance of a necking is produced. At the 
foot of the shaft is a cable, five inches deep. The material 
of the font is a cream-coloured stone of a crumbling nature. 

The font was repaired and restored in 1902, and an 
interesting account of it (unsigned) is published in Devon 
Notes and Queries, Vol. II, No. 109, p. 145. 

The writer states that before restoration the font .was in 
forty-five pieces, partly through the use of iron clamps 
which had been let in to hold it together, but which 
disintegrated it instead. The actual metal removed 
weighed 16J pounds. 

76. Inwardleigh. 

A particularly interesting font. The cushion bowl is 
ornamented on all four sides ; the eastern face has a 
circular medallion Hi inches in diameter containing a 
naturalistic spray of leaves, with a background of small 
pyramidal cones, or nailhead. Each side of the central 
design is a panel the shape of a cornucopia with a trefoil 
at the widest part. It fills the space very satisfactorily. 

The northern face has a semicircular panel with three 



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216 THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON, 

plant stems, each bearing a flower and long pointed leaves. 
The flower is thistle-shaped, but there are no spines on the 
leaves, so perhaps it is a kind of knapweed. A botanist 
will object that the leaves of knapweed are alternate, and 
not in pairs as here, but in his desire for symmetry the 
artist would disregard scientific accuracy. Again, the 
cluster of leaves at the root rather suggest the sea-pink, 
otherwise thrift ; and the flower is not unlike it, though on 
a magnified scale. There are two large leaves extending 
beyond the edge of the panel, but they are only to fill the 
side spaces. 

The western face has three semicircular incised lines, 
not exactly following the shape of the cushion, crossed by 
four horizontal lines. A stem crowned by the same flower 
as on the northern side, but without leaves, goes straight 
up the middle. The combination of semicircular and 
horizontal lines results in an effective background. Similar 
arrangements 6i lines are found on some Cornish fonts. 

The southern face has three round medallions, each 
enclosing a star ; the central one measures 11 inches in 
diameter, the side ones 5£ inches each. It has been neces- 
sary to insert two pieces of new stone at the upper part of 
the bowl ; one at the south-east corner measures 14 x 6 J x 5 
inches thick, and that on the north 19x5x5 inches thick. 

The naturalistic sprays are very beautiful ; well 
designed and delicately worked. Perhaps they owe 
something to Cornish art. There are many instances in 
Cornwall of sprays of branching leaves, but those are more 
conventional, rather like the well-known renderings of 
the tree of life ; and I am told by a gentleman who has a 
very extensive knowledge of ornament in Cornish churches 
that he has never met with a thistle-shaped flower. The 
bowl is not lined. 

The cylindrical shaft is in three courses of shaped stones ; 
the upper course which is 4 inches deep has an incised 
scroll over 23 inches. The circular base has a deep 
chamfer. The plinth, also circular, has also a chamfer 
5 inches deep filled with chevron ornament. On the west 
for a space of 21 inches the chevron is reversed. 

77. Sheejnvash. 

An old cushion bowl on a modern shaft and plinth in a 
modern church. The semicircular eastern face is filled 



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THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 217 

with ornament very similar to that of Inwardleigh ; a 
graceful arrangement of a flowering plant with spreading 
leaves, contained in a circle. Each side of the circle is a 
pine-shaped panel with a filling of three rings and a 
digitated leaf. The whole design is well managed and 
excellently balanced. The horizontal edge at the rim has a 
square moulding ; the semicircular face is bounded by a 
round moulding. 

The other faces of the bowl are plain, and I strongly 
suspect they have been planed down, as the edge mouldings 
are absent, and on the northern and western sides there 
seem to be traces of vanished ornament . At the four points 
below the corners there are graceful foliage designs. A 
patch of new stone is inserted on the south side. 

The bowl is made of the grey stone of the district, and is 
the only ancient part ; it stands on a modern freestone 
octagonal shaft which merges into meaningless convolu- 
tions at the foot, and a modern plinth, square, with a 
chamfer at the upper part. 

The semicircular faces almost touch at the rim, but 
I think this is the result of the cutting down, and that 
originally it had rounded corners like Inwardleigh. 

78. Alverdiscott. 

A cushion bowl of the#first type. The semicircular 
faces are neither as wide nor as deep as in most examples, 
and this makes the spaces between much larger than the 
average ; each is adorned by a fleur-de-lis 12 inches high, 
defined by an incised outline, the flower very slightly 
raised. This flower is the most noticeable feature of the 
font ; it is much more effective than the unassuming 
leaves at Sheepwash which occupy the same position. 
Each vertical face holds a lily (or six-pointed star), in low 
relief in an incised circle. The lily has a centre of three 
raised lobes ; this most clearly suggests the pistil of the 
flower. 

Unfortunately the bowl has been cut down, and the edge 
finished with cement. The bowl of Eggesford font, which 
is of the same design, is only about an inch wider, but it is 
five inches deeper, so that of Alverdiscott must have been 
deprived of at least four inches in depth. It has no lining 
and no drain hole. The surface bears modern axe-dressing ; 
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218 THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 

parts. The basin is- square with the corners rounded. 
The bowl stands on a modern granite shaft, which is too 
tall in proportion, placed on a limestone plinth. 

79. Eggesford. 

Of the same pattern as Alverdiscott, but gaining con- 
siderably because the upper part of the bowl has been 
retained, though necessarily patched in five places with 
new stone. On each face is a lily in a sunk circle as at 
Alverdiscott, but the background is punched so as to - 
throw out the flower ; the punching is modern, and ought 
not to have been applied. The rest of the bowl is plain, 
without the fleurs-de lis on the curves as at Alverdiscott. 
The sh.aft and plinth are restorations ; there is a chevron 
as necking and cable at base. 

The plinth is formed of scallops placed on a slope with 
the edge cut into unnatural curves, and has a trivial look. 
If the illustration is compared with the following one of 
Landcross the superiority of the original design is manifest. 
But on the whole the treatment is satisfactory. 

The material is limestone ; there is a modern lead 
lining to the bowl. 

80. Landcross. 

A cushion bowl of the second type, in which the semi- 
circular faces touch at the corners. The font is inserted in 
a curious way into oak panelling placed against the 
western wall ; the central panel has a semicircular arch 
under which the font stands, and on each side is linen- 
fold pattern. The wood almost touches the shaft, and comes 
over part of the cable moulding at the base, and the 
western side of the bowl is hidden to the depth of four 
inches. 

The shaft is encircled at the top by a band of chevron, 
3 inches wide, and at the foot by a cable measuring 2J 
inches. We have just noticed these effective ornaments 
at Eggesford, but there they are modern work ; at Land- 
cross they are original. They are seldom met with in fonts 
of this type, indeed had practically dropped out of use in 
most parts of the country ; but they were retained in 
Cornwall, where they are found on fonts as late as the 
fifteenth century, and at Landcross they show the same 
taste and feeling as prevailed in the adjoining county. 



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PLATE IV. 



INSTOW HOCK WORTHY 



CLOVBLLY. UPTON HELIONS. 

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Baptismal Fonts of Devon. — To ace p. 219. 



THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OP DEVON. 219 

The bowl, shaft, base, and plinth are original, but the 
lowest platform is modern. The material is a grey stone 
which still bears traces of paint and whitewash, which are 
better left there than scraped out. The inside of the bowl 
is square ; it is unlined. 1 

81. Instow. 

A cushion bowl of the first type. Quite plain except for 
axe-dressing which is modern work. Patches of new stone 
have been inserted at the rim on all sides but the north. 
The modern base is circular, with mouldings of thirteenth- 
century type and a water rim. The material is limestone ; 
the bowl is lead lined. 

82. Hochworihy. 

This font is made of Thorverton trap, a scoriated stone 
of a reddish colour ; it has been much scraped, no doubt 
in removing whitewash. It has been stated, even in print, 
that it is of abnormal shape ; the fact is, it was originally 
a cushion bowl, but it is now only perfect at the south-east, 
where the curve is very pleasing ; the other sides meet at 
right angles, for they have evidently all been planed down. 
It looks also as if the lower part of the bowl had been cut 
away. This may have been the sad result of an attempt to 
smarten up the font by giving it a smooth surface, or 
perhaps it has at some time wedged between pews and thus 
mutilated so that it should occupy as little room as possible ; 
very likely both causes contributed to the disaster. Other- 
wise the bowl is in good condition ; it is lead-lined, but 
there is a pewter basin inside. The shaft is cylindrical, on a 
square plinth. 

83. Clovelly. 

This font has not only a cushion bowl but an inverted 
cushion for base. It has suffered in the same way as 
Hockworthy . On the western and southern sides both 
bowl and base have been cut away ; on the western side 
the base is brought flush with the shaft ; no doubt at some 
time it was sacrificed to make room for a pew. The font 
stands clear at present. 

1 In this font General Monk was baptized, on December 11th, 1608, 
as recorded in the parish register. 



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220 THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 

There is a round, moulding at the foot of the bowl, a 
striking feature which I have not found, in any other 
cushion-bowl font, though it occurs in some of those with 
scalloped bowls. On the eastern face is an incised Greek 
cross measuring 1 J inches each way. 

The font is made of local stone of a reddish colour, but 
is cream-washed, so that the actual stone is only revealed 
where & slice has been taken off on the north side. 

84. Upton Helions. 

This font has a cushion bowl of the second type with 
the tops of the semicircular faces meeting at the corners ; 
but a modern restorer has mounted it on a support in the 
Early English style, with one central column flanked by 
four smaller ones. 

It is made of freestone ; each face is covered with 
vertical dressings, except for a border an inch wide, round 
both edges of each semicircle, which has diagonal dressings. 
This is probably modern work ; all the stone seems to have 
been refaced. 

The plinth appears to be original : it is made of five 
separate blocks 3 J inches deep ; three are of veined marble 
and two of lava. It rests on a slab 1£ inches thick. 

The soft stone of the bowl has been cut into at all four 
angles by a wire strained round to accommodate the 
atrocities which pass under the name of " Church Decora- 
tions." A practice leading to such irremediable damage 
cannot be too strongly reprobated. 



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THE BAPTISMAL FONTS OF DEVON. 



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LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED FROM 
THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 

BY COLONEL J. W. YERBURY, F.Z.S., F.E.?. 

(Communicated by Coryndon Matthews, f.z.s., f.e.s.) 
(Read at Tiverton, 24th July, 1919.) 



Many years ago the Baron Osten Sacken suggested 
dividing the order of Diptera, into three sub-orders, as 
follows : — 

(i) Orthorrapha Nematocera. 
(ii) Orthorrapha Brachycera. 
(iii) Cyclorrapha Athericera, 
and it is proposed to follow this arrangement in the follow- 
ing paper. 

The Cyclorrapha Athericera have been selected to com- 
mence with, mainly on account of the material available 
for reference ; the estimated number of species to hand 
being four hundred and fifty-four, in this sub-order, against 
three hundred and fifty, in the other two together ; and, 
moreover, it contains the Syrphidae, probably the most 
popular family in the whole order. 

A critic may possibly raise the point — why Devonshire ? 
— when probably nine-tenths of the insects are recorded 
only from the neighbourhood of Plymouth ; but one has to 
cut one's coat according to one's cloth, and material from 
other districts is scanty in the extreme ; even such dis- 
tricts as the Braunton Barrows and the salt marshes and 
mud flats of the estuaries of the Exe, Dart, and Tamar, 
being almost untouched. The higher regions of Dartmoor, 
too, ought to be richer than its exploitation has so far 
held out promise. 

One of the difficulties brought home to the writer, whilst 
compiling this list, has been the want of a central collec- 
tion, where county records could have been registered, 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 22$ 

and specialists might have worked out their hobbies to 
advantage. Bignell did this in some measure for the 
Tipulidae, and Verrall during his visit to Torcross, for the 
Chironomidae, but no one has tackled the Devonshire 
Diptera in the systematic manner Dr. Wood did the 
Diptera of Herefordshire. 

The total number of species recorded for the county is 
eight hundred and eighteen, or thereabouts, but this is 
probably less than a third of the number actually to be 
found there. 

The manuscript lists of the two other sub-orders have 
been compiled and are ready for publication. 

Cyclorrapha Atherioera. 

Aschiza. 

platypezid^j. 

Platypeza dorsalis Mg., Torcross, 15th Aug., 3rd and 9th 
Sept., 1903. Although the county seems to be re- 
markably weak in this Family, this is possibly due to 
neglect, as four other species cccur by the side of the 
road between Scraesdon Fort and Sheviock, not far 
from the county boundary, viz. P. consobrina, P. 
rufa, P.modesta and P. fasciata, all of which are likely 
to occur on the Devonshire side of the Tamar. These 
flies sit on broad leaves, such as sycamore and Spanish 
chestnut, and are on the wing late in the season, 
in Sept. and Oct. At this season, the $ $ are often to 
be seen ovipositing on big fungi. 

PlPUNCULID^. 

Chalarus spurius Fin., Ivybridge, 18th June, 1887. Com- 
mon and generally distributed. 

Vetrallia ductus Ivybridge, 3rd July, 1887. 

V. villosus Ros., " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

Pipunculus zonatus Zett., Avon Valley, 19th June, 1896. 

P. modestus Hal., " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

P. varices Mg., Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. 

P. campestris Latr., Shaugh, 3rd May, 1893. Holne, 26th 
July, 1896. Torcross, 25th Aug., 1903. 

P. pratorum Fin., Ivybridge, 8th June, 1887. 

P. rufipes Mg., Lydford, 17th April, 1893. 



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224 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

P. geniculates Mg., " Exeter " (Verrall). 
Another neglected, family ! 

Syrphid^e. 

Paragus tibialis Fin., Salcombe, 22nd, May, 1893. Tor- 
cross, 8th Aug., 1903. 

Pipizella virens Fab., Crownhill Fort, 29th May, 1889. 

P. flavitarsis Mg., Devonshire (without locality or date). 

P. heringi Zett., " Chagford " (Verrall). Probably common 
throughout the county. 

Pipiza noctiluca linn., Salcombe, 22nd May, 1893. Avon 
Valley, 11th June, 1896. Holne, 19th Aug., 1896. 
Cornwood, 8th Sept., 1888. 

P. bimaculata Mg., 2nd May, 1893. Salcombe, 24th May, 
1893. 

P. lugubris Fab., Ivybridge, 16th June, 1889. Warleigh 
Marsh, 24th June, 1889. Crownhill, 30th Aug., 1889. 

Orthoneura brevicornis Lw., " Exeter " (Verrall). 

O. nobilis Fin., Ivybridge 4th May, 1893. Crownhill Fort, 
17th June, 1889. Torcross 21st Aug., 1903. 

Liogaster metallina Fab. Tamerton Folliot 21st May, 
1889. Holne, 3rd July, 1896. „ Crownhill, 19th July 
and 7th and 15th Aug., 1889. Budleigh Salterton, 
Aug., 1918 (Champion). 

L. splendida Mg., Holne, 3rd Aug., 1896. 

Chrysogaster virescens Lw., " Ivybridge " (Verrall). 

C. splendens Mg., Salcombe, 21st May, 1893. Tamerton 
Folliot, 5th June, 1889. Plymbridge, 15th June, 1889. 
Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. Torcross, 9th Sept., 1903. 
Cornwood, 14th Oct., 1888. 

C. hirtella Lw., Avon Valley, 23rd May, 1896. Plymbridge, 
28th May, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 9th June, 1889. 
Crownhill Fort, 11th June, 1889. 

C. solstitialis Fin., Shaugh Bridge, 7th June, 1889. Tamer- 
ton Folliot, 11th June, 1889. Crownhill Fort, 11th 
June, 1889. Plymbridge, 15th June, 1889. 

Chilosia maculata Fin., Bickleigh Vale. Common at 
flowers of garlic, on slope between the railway and 
village. Avon Valley, 23rd May, 1896. Bickleigh 
Vale, 12th and 25th April, 1893. Cornwood, 23rd 
April, 1893. 

C. sparsa Lw., 25th April, 1893. Plympton, 27th April, 
1893. Avon Valley, 14th May, 1896. Ivybridge, 
19th May, 1893. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 225 

C. antiqua Mg., Bickleigh, 5th, 12th and 21st May, 1893. 

Cornwood, 23rd, May, 1893. 
C. scutellata Fin., Ivybridge, 8th July, 1888, and 11th 

Aug., 1889. Torcross, 18th Aug., 1903. " Exeter " 

(Verrall). 
C. soror Zett., Ivybridge, 30th June, 1889. 
C. pulchripes Lw., Tamerton Folliot, 6th May and 10th 

Aug., 1889. Bickleigh, 30th Aug., 1889. Torcross, 

25th Aug., 1903. Crownhill Fort, 23rd May, 1889. 

Berr Ferris, 11th April, 1893. Cornwood, 2nd April, 

1893. 
C. variabilis Pz., Warleigh Marsh, 24th June, 1889. Bick- 
leigh, 18th June, 1889. Ivybridge, 10th June, 1889. 

Crownhill Fort, 19th June, 1889. 
C. honesta Rnd., Ivybridge, 17th May, 1896. 
C. intonsa Lw., Tamerton Folliot, 5th May, 1889. Wist- 

man's Wood, 6th May, 1889. Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 

1889. Torcross, 3rd Sept., 1903. Exmouth, 14th 

Sept., 1896. " Dartmoor and Ivybridge " (Verrall). 
G. vulpina Mg., Salcombe, 20th May, 1893. Avon Valley, 

24th May, 1896. Devon (Verrall). 
C. illustrata Harris, Ivybridge, 24th June, 1888. Tor 

Royal, Dartmoor, 4th Aug., 1889. Bickleigh, 30th 

July, 1889. Salcombe, 20th May, 1903. Common 

everywhere. 
C. grossa Fin., Walkham Valley, 21st March, 1893. Bovi- 

sand, 23rd March, 1893. " Devon " (Verrall). Not 

uncommon in the early spring. 
C. albipiUa Mg., Bovisand, 23rd March, 1893. Ivybridge, 

20th April, 1893. " Devon " (Verrall). 
€. nebulosa Verr., Bickleigh, 5th April, 1893. Walkham 

Valley, 6th April, 1893. Ivybridge, 8th April, 1893. 

" Bickleigh and, Ivybridge " (Verrall). 
d. impressa Lw., Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. Avon Valley, 

24th May, 1896. Holne, 28th July, 1896. "Devon " 

(VerraU). 
C. albitarsis Mg., Plympton, 27th April, 1893. Tamerton 

Folliot, 21st and 23rd May, 1889. Torcross, 25th May, 
* 1893. Shaugh Bridge, 22nd, April, 1893. 
C. fraterna Mg., Tamerton Folliot, 15th Sept., 1889. 

Cornwood, 2nd June, 1889. Morthoe, 9th Aug., 1909. 

Shaugh Bridge, 18th May, 1896. 
C bergenstammi Beck., Morthoe, 13th and 18th Aug., 1909. 

" Dunsford " (VerraU). 
vol. u p 



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226 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

C. prcecox Zett., Ivybridge, 17th May, 1893. Torcross, 

25th Aug., 1903. 
C. mutabilis Fin., " S. Devon " (Verrall). Ivybridge, <y 

and $ 27th June and 1st July, 1888 (C. Matthews). 

Torcross, 25th August, 1903 (British Museum). 
G. vernalis Fin., Ivybridge, 11th Aug., 1889. Cornwood, 

30th July to 15th Aug., 1889. 
C.'Vdutina Lw., Morthoe, 13th Aug., 1909. Not in Verrall's 

list, but this species was recorded by him in E.M.M. 

Vol. XXIII, 2nd Series, Aug., 1912, p. 191, from the 

above locality, taken by Dr. Longstaff. 
G. proximo, Zett., Avon Valley, 14th May, 1896. Ivybridge, 

8th May, 1893. Cornwood, 8th Sept., 1889. Sal- 
combe, 20th May, 1903. 
Platychirus manicatus Mg., Salcombe, 21st May, 1893. 

Bovisand, 5th May, 1893. Marsh Mills, 16th May, 

1893. Generally distributed. 
P. discimanus Lw., Bickleigh, 5th April, 1893. Ivybridge, 

15th April, 1893. 
P. peltatus Mg., Marsh Mills, 16th May, 189S. Crownhill 

Fort, 17th May, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 6th June, 

1889. Torcross, 24th May, 1893. 
P. scutatus Mg., Tamerton Folliot, 21st May, 1889. 
P. alhimanus Fab., Budleigh Salterton, 23rd and 26th 

April, 1898. Plympton, 27th April, 1893. 
P. immarginatus Zett., Warleigh Marsh, 11th July, 1889. 

Tamerton Folliot, 12th July, 1889. 
P. clypeatus Mg., Ivybridge, 14th May, 1893. Cornwood^ 

31st July, 1889. Crownhill Fort, 5th July, 1889. 

Generally distributed. 
P. angustatus Zett., Ivybridge, 31st July, 1887. " Devon 9r 

(Verrall). 
P. sticticus Mg., Stowford Cleeve, 15th May, 1887, and 

20th May, 1888 (Verrall). 
Pyrophcena, granditarsa Forst., Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. 

Whitleigh Marsh, 13th and 24th June, 1889. Crown- 
hill Fort, 30th May and 17th June, 1889. Torcross, 

25th May, 1893 " Devon " (Verrall). 
P. rosarum Fab., Tamerton Folliot, 19th June and $th 
• Aug., 1889. Holne, 4th July, 1896. Ivybridge, 7th 

May, 1893, and 26th July, 1893, Crownhill Fort, 

19th July, 1889 " Devon " (Verrall). 
Mdano8toma arribiguum Fin., Beer Ferris, 11th April, 1893- 

Yealm Mouth, 3rd April and 10th May, 1893.. 

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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 227 

M . meUinum linn., Fox Tor Mire, 4th Aug., 1889. Shaugh 
Bridge, 22nd April, 1893. Walkham Valley, 21st 
June, 1889. Generally distributed. fl 

M. scalare Fab., Warleigh Marsh, 11th July, 1889. Plym- 
bridge, 28th May, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 10th Aug., 
1889. Generally distributed. 

Melangyna quadrimaculata Verr., Maker, 31st March, 1889. 

Leucozona lucorum Linn., Tamerton Folliot, 23rd May and 
1st and 5th June, 1889. Ivybridge, 19th May, 1889. 
Generally distributed. 

Ischyrosyrphus glaucius Linn., Bickleigh Vale, 17th July, 
1889. Ivybridge, 1st July, 11th Aug., and 1st Sept., 
1889. " Ivybridge and Bickleigh " (Verrall). Prob- 
ably these specimens. 

/. laternarius Mull., Ivybridge, 11th Aug., 1889, and 10th 
July, 1892. Not uncommon. 

Didea fasciata Macq., Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. Holne, 3rd, 
18th and 28th July, 1896. Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. 
Common at blackberry bloom at Holne. 

Catabomba pyrastri Linn., Budshead Wood, 26th June, 
1889. Walkham Valley, 21st June, 1889. Tamerton 
Folliot, 29th June and 12th July, 1889. Bickleigh, 
7th June, 1889. Plymbridge, 1st July, 1889. Dart- 
meet, July, 1912. Salcombe, 1911. " Slapton and 
Ivybridge " (Verrall). Common and generally dis- 
tributed. 
var. unicolor Tamerton Folliot, 27th June, 1889. Crown- 
hill, 15th Aug., 1889. -Bickleigh, 30th June, 1889. 

O. sdenitica, Mg., Cornwood, 5th July, 1889. Holne, 27th 
July, 1896. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

Syrphus dlhostriatus Fin., Walkham Valley, 9th May, 1893. 
Shaugh, 3rd May, 1893. Salcombe, 20th May, 1893. 
Yealm Mouth, 10th May, 1893. 

8. tricinctus Fin., Ivybridge, 11th Aug., 1889. 

S. venusPw Mg., Ivybridge, 18th May, 1890, and 2nd May, 
1893. Salcombe, 20th May, 1893. 

S. anmdipes Zett., Lynton. " Wainwright " (Verrall). 
Very rare. 

S. annvlatus Zett., " Ivybridge " (Verrall). 

S. grossvlarice Mg., Ivybridge, 16th June, 1889. Cornwood, 
3rd July, 1889. Avon Valley, 23rd June, 1896. 

8. ribesii Linn., Ivybridge, 12th May, 1893. Holne, 4th 
July, 1896. Avon Valley, 27th June, 1896. Generally 
distributed. 



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228 LIST OP DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

8. vitripenni8 Mg., Ivybridge, 30th April, 1893. Generally 

distributed,. 
8. latifasciatus Macq., Budshead Wood, 1st July, 1889. 

Fox Tor Mire, 4th Aug., 1889. Holne, 2nd July, 1896. 

Bickleigh, 4th July, 1884, and 21st April, 1893. 

Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. Torcross, 28th May, 1893. 

Crownhill, 7th Aug., 1889. Ivybridge, 3rd July, 

1887. and 14th July, 1888, C. Matthews. "Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). 

S. nitidicollis Mg., Shaugh, 20th May, 1896. Salcombe, 

21st May, 1893. 
S. nitens Zett., Ivybridge, 23rd May, 1896. " Ivybridge, 

24th July, 1887 " (Verrall). Rare. 
S. corollas Fab., Torcross, 24th and 25th May, 1893. 

Yelverton, 7th June, 1889. Salcombe, 20th May, 

1893. Generally distributed. 
S. luniger Mg., Torcross, 26th May, 1893. Bovisand, 6th 

May, 1893. Salcombe, 20th. May, 1893. Bickleigh, 

14th April, 1893. Holne, 17th July, 1896. Common. 

S. bifasciatus Fab., Tamerton Folliot, 5th June, 1889. 

'Ivybridge, 8th April, 1893. Bickleigh, 12th May, 

1893. Dawlish, 8th June, 1893. Lydford, 17th April, 

1893. " Devon " (Verrall). Common. 
8. balteatus Deg., Devon, many but without date or 

locality. Generally distributed. 
S. cinctdlus Zett., Bickleigh Vale, 12th and 25th April, 

1893. Ivybridge, 15th May, 11th Aug., 1893, and 1st 

Sept., 1889. Shaugh, 3rd May, 1893. "Ivybridge" 

(Verrall). 
8. ductus Fin., Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883, and 20th May, 

1888. Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. Crownhill, 5th Sept., 

1889. " Ivybridge and Dunsford " (Verrall). 

8. auricollis Mg., Budshead Wood, 26th June, 1889. 

Tamerton Folliot, 26th June, 1889. Plymouth, 

bred by Bignell, from larvae feeding on Aphis 

pruni. 
var. maculicornis Zett., Budleigh Salterton, 26th April, 

1898. Tor Royal, 14th Aug., 1889. Ivybridge, 8th 

and 15th April and 26th June, 1893. 
S. tvjchrvmus Kow., Beer Alston, 13th March, 1893. 

Bickleigh Vale, 25th April, 1893. " S. Devon, 

Bloomfield " (Verrall). 
8. umbeUatarum Fab., Avon Valley, 27th May and 18th 

June, 1896. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FROM THE COUNTY OP DEVON. 229 

S. guttatus Fin., Ivybridge, 11th June, 1893. One speci- 
men only (C. Matthews). " Ivybridge and S. Devon " 
(Verrall). This was the specimen on which Verrall 
included the species in his list. 

8. punctvlatus Verr., Bickleigh, 12th April, 1893, Ivybridge, 
2nd July, 1888, and 15th April, 1893. " Ivybridge " 
(Verrall). 

S. compo8itarum Verr., " Ivybridge " (Verrall). 

8. lasiopthalmus Zett., Ivybridge, 26th and 30th March 
and 8th and 15th April, 1893. Bickleigh, 5th and 12th 
April, 1893. Mount Edgcumbe, 29th March, 1903. 

S. barbifrons Fin., Ivybridge, 30th March, 1893. 

Sphcerophoria, scripta linn., Walkham Valley, 21st July, 
1889. " Exeter, 17th July, 1871 " (Verrall). 

8. menthastri linn., Budshead Wood, 1st July, 1889. 
Crownhill, 15th July and 25th Aug., 1889. Walkham 
Valley, 21st July, 1889. 
var picta Mg., Crownhill, 17th and 19th July and 12th 
Aug., 1889. Fox Tor Mire, 8th Aug., 1889. Walkham 
Valley, 21st July, 1889. Ivybridge, 30th April, 1893. 

S. flavicauda Zett., Wistman's Wood, Princetown, 6tht 
Sept., 1889. 

Xanthogramma ornatum Mg., Tamerton Foliiot, 1st June, 
1889. Crownhill, 4th July and 7th and 30th Aug., 1889 
Ivybridge, 12th May, 1893. Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. 
Torcross, 27th May, 1893. 

Baccha obscuripennis Mg., Tamerton Foliiot, 23rd May, 
1889. Avon Valley, 10th June, 1896. Holne, 19th 
July, 1896. Torcross, 14th Aug., 1903. "Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). 

B. elongate, Fab., Tamerton Foliiot, 6th and 23rd May and 
19th and 27th June, 1889. Ivybridge, 18th May, 
1893. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

Sphegina clunipes Fin., Ivybridge, 25th Sept., 1889. 
Lynton, 17th June, 1883. " Ivybridge and Lyuton " 
(Verrall). Not common. 

Neoascia podagrica Fab., Beer Ferris, 11th April, 1893. 
Ivybridge, 12th April, 1893. Bovisand, 14th April, 
1893. Cornwood, 23rd April, 1893. Torcross, 27th 
May, 1893. 

N. dispar Mg., Ivybridge, 30th April, 1893. Wistman's 
Wood, 6th Sept., 1889. Pentillie (Cornwall), 2nd 
May, 1893. 

N. floraiis Mg., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



230 LIST OF DIPTBRA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Brachyopa bicolor Fin., Walkham Valley, 13th May, 1896. 
Seaton, June, 1908. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

JRhingia campestris Mg., Ivybridge, 30 April, 1893. Shaugh 
Bridge, 22nd April, 1893. Generally distributed. 

Volucdla bombylans Linn., var. plumata Deg., Avon Valley, 
23rd May, 1896. * Dartmeet, June and July, 1912. 
Common. This variety apparently takes Bombus 
terrestris for its " model," and is very generally dis- 
tributed throughout the country. 
var. bombylans linn., Cullompton, July, 1891. <J and $ 
in coitOb. Dartmeet, June and July, 1912. This form 
takes Bombus lajridarius as its " model " and is less 
common than the preceding one. It is interesting to 
note the mating of the pairs taken in coital. Cullomp- 
ton, July, 1891, <J var. plumata, $ bombylans ; 
Nairn, <J var. plumata, $ bombylans ; Abbot's Wood, 
Sussex, <J var. plumata, $ bombylans. 

V. inanis linn., Holne, 17th, 19th and 25th June, 1896. 
Common on blackberry bloom. Walkham Valley, 
31st July, 1896. Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. " Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). Uncommon. 

V. inflata Fab., Avon Valley, 27th May, and 10th and 25th 
June, 1896. Ivybridge, 1st July, 1888. Rare. " Avon 
Valley " (Verrall). 

V. pelludens Linn., Salcombe, 21st May, 1893. Avon 
Valley, 25th May, 1896. One of the most powerful 
hoverers in the family. Common and generally dis- 
tributed. 

Eristaiis sepulchralis linn., Torcross, 23rd and 25th May, 
1893. Crownhill, 24th June, 1889. Common. 

E. ceneus Scop., Yealm Mouth, 3rd April, 1893. Bovisand, 
14th April and 6th May, 1893. Torcross, 26th May, 
1893. "Slapton Ley" (Verrall). Common in the 
spring, on Thrift blossom, near the sea. 

E. cryptarum Fab., Ivybridge, 19th May, 1889. About 
Whortleberry bushes in a recent clearing. Ivybridge, 
30th April, 1893, and 4th May, 1893. Shaugh Bridge 
at hawthorn bloom. Holne, 17th July and 5th Aug., 
1896. On the drying up Spagnum moss, and 
wet mud of a moorland pool. Sparingly at Ivy- 
bridge, Holne and Shaugh. " Holne and Ivybridge " 
(Verrall). 

E. tenax Linn., Plympton, 27th Nov., 1893. Common and 
generally distributed throughout the year. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 231 

E. intricarius linn., Walkham Valley, 28th March, 1893. 
Salcombe, 21st May, 1893. Common and generally 
distributed. 

E. arbu8torum linn., Beer Alston, 31st March, 1893. 
Ivybridge, 30th June, 1889. Common and generally 
distributed. 

E. pertinax Scop., Bovisand, 25th March, 1893. Walkham 
Valley, 28th March, 1893. Common and generally 
distributed. 

E. horticola Deg., Dartmeet, June and July, 1912. Bovi- 
sand, 6th May, 1893. Shaugh Bridge, 22nd April, 
1893. Common. 

E. nemorum linn., Ivybridge, 20th April, 1893. Crownhill, 
17th July, 1889. Bickleigh^21st April, 1893. "Slap- 
ton Ley " (Verrall). Common. 

Myiatropa florea linn., Ivybridge, 15th July and 1st 
Sept., 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 21st May, 1889. War- 
leigh Marsh, 24th June, 1889. Common and generally 
distributed. 

Hdophilus trivittatus Fab. Tamerton Folliot 10th Sept., 
1889. Crownhill 11th, 12th and 30th July, and 5th 
Sept., 1889. Torcross, 12th Sept., 1903. " Slapton 
Ley " (Verrall). 

H. hybridus Lw., Torcross, 1st and 12th Sept., 1903. Less 
common than the previous species. 

H. pendulus Linn., Torcross 25th May, 1893. Beer Ferris, 
11th April, 1893. Common and generally distributed. 

H. versicolor Fab., Torcross, 23rd and 25th May, 1893. 
Pentillie, 12th May, 1893, in some numbers. " Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). 

JST* lunvlatus Mg., Pentillie, 12th May, 1893, and " Hessen- 
ford " (Verrall). Neither of these localities is within 
the county limits, though Pentillie is only the width 
of the Tamar from it. 

H. transfugus linn., Torcross, 23rd, 25th and 26th May, 
1893. Pentillie, 12th May, 1893. " S. Devon" 
(Verrall). 

H. lineatus Fab., Torcross, 23rd and 25th May, 1893. 
" Devonshire " (Verrall). 

Merodon equestris Fab.*, Mr. Coryndon Matthews has kindly 
given me the following notes on this species, as it is 
one which I have never met with personally, " Ivy- 
bridge, 24th May, 1890, and 28th May, 1893. Plym- 
stock, 26th May, 1918. I have taken a considerable 



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232 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

number of this species and see it nearly every year, 
but only during the last week or two in May and the 
first week or two in June, and then only on sunny 
days between the hours of 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. The 
fly scarcely ever settles." Mr. Matthews also draws 
attention to the paucity of males — only three in his 
collection ! The B.M. Collection bears out this observa- 
tion's in that there are 4 $ in a total of 28 specimens. 
Mr. Verrall British Flies Syrphidce, p. 360, has drawn 
attention to the great amount of variation which exists 
in this species. 

Eumerus tuberculatus Bond., Tavistock, bred from- bulbs. 
Not in VerralPs List, but Mr. ColEh informs me that 
he has seen many specimens from the above locality. 

E. strigatus Fin., Woodbury Hill (Rev. A. E. Eaton), 15th 
July, 1891. Holne, 23rd July, 1896. This species has 
been bred from the common onion. 

E. ornatus Mg., " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

E. sabulonum Fin., Salcombe, 7th July, 1889, boxed in the 
burrow of a small f ossorial hymenopteron, by the late 
F. C. Lemann. Bovisand, many specimens boxed by 
the late G. C. Bignell in the same manner. Dartmoor, 
24th June, 1896, on the Pilgrim's Road above South 
Brent, and at Holne, 17th July, 1896. The life 
histories of the insects belonging to this Genus, show 
a marked difference in details. The larvae of E. 
tuberculatus and E. strigatus feed in bulbs, and the 
insects have possibly some affinity to Merodon ; 
whereas E. sabulonum, frequently, if not habitually, 
haunts the burrows of small f ossorial hymenoptera. 

Syritta pipiens Linn., Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. Shaugh, 
3rd May, 1893. Probably the commonest and most 
generally distributed Syrphid met with in the British 
Isles. 

Tropidia scita Harr., Paignton (Wainwright) E.M.M. 2nd 
Series, Vol. XIII, p. 70 (1902). 

Xylota segnis linn., Ivybridge, 26th July, 1889. Cornwood, 
8th Aug., 1889. "Lynton," Aug., 1905 (Verrall). 
Common and generally distributed. 

X. lenta Mg., Avon Valley, 12th and 25th. May, 1896. 
" Devonshire " (Verrall). 

X. sylvarum Linn., Ivybridge, 15th and 26th July, 1889. 
Bickleigh Vale, 18th and 28th July, 1889. Avon 
Valley, 11th June, 1896. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 23S 

Brachypaipus bimaculatus Macq., $ and $ Bickleigh Vale, 
June, 1892. (Bignell). Very rare. 

ChrysocJUamis cuprea Scop., Tamerton Folliot, 17th Sept., 
1889. Ivybridge, 22nd Sept., 1889. Bickleigh, 12th 
April, 1893. Bovisand, 18th April, 1893. Salcombe, 
20th and 22nd May, 1903. Avon Valley, 25th May, 
1896.- Common, and generally distributed. 

Criorrhina ranunculi Pz., Torcross, 25th May, 1909. £ 
and $ between the Torcross Ley, and Widdicombe 
Farm, at laurel blossom. This species is not uncom- 
mon at Laurel, Blackthorn and Sallow, but as these 
flowers show, is on the wing in the early spring. 
Specimens have been seen at the Laurel bloom in 
Mount Edgcumbe Park, near Picklecombe Fort. The 
only possible " model " for this fly seems to be 
Bombus lapidarius, but it is not so good a mimic as 
V. bombylans. 

C. berberina Fab., Ivybridge, 25th May, 1896. " Ivy- 
bridge " (Verrall). 

C. oxycanthce Mg., Ivybridge, 7th and 19th May, 1889, 
and 19th May, 1893. Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. Avon 
Valley, 10th June, 1896. " Devonshire " (Verrall). 

C. floccosa Mg., Bovisand, 18th May, 1893. Pentillie, 12th 
May, 1893. " Devonshire " (Verrall). . % 

Arctophila mussitans Fab., Cornwood, 8th Sept., 1889. 
Tamerton Folliot, 27th Sept., 1889. Shows a decided 
predilection for Scabious flowers near running water. 
" Cornworthy and N. Devon " (Verrall). The Bumble 
Bee Bombus smithianus, appears to be the " model " 
for this fly. 

Sericomyia borealis Fin., Ivybridge, 26th June, 15th and 
26th July and 1st Sept., 1889. Fox Tor Mire, 4th 
Aug., 1889. Cornwood, 3rd July, 1889. Tamerton 
Folliot, 10th Sept., 1889. Wistman's Wood, 6th Sept., 
1889. Common and generally distributed. " South 
Devon " (Verrall). 

8. lappona Linn., Ivybridge, 19th and 26th May and 16th 
June, 1889. Cornwood, 2nd June, 1889. Walkham 
Valley, 13th May, 1896. "Ivybridge" (Verrall). 
Not common. 

Chrysotoxum cautum Harr., Tamerton Folliot, 9th June, 
1889. Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. Torcross, 26th May, 
1893. Salcombe, 23rd May, 1893. " Devonshire " 
Verrall). 



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234 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

C. octomaculatum Curt., Salcombe, 21st and 22nd May, 
1893. 

C. degans Loew., Salcombe, 7th Sept., 1889. " Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). 

C. festivum linn., Tamerton Folliot, 10th Sept., 1889. 
Cornwood, 3rd July, 1889. Salcombe, 22nd May, 
1893. Avon Valley, 18th and 27th June, 1896. 
" Devonshire " (Verrall). 

C. bicinctum linn., Ivybridge, 22nd June, 1889. " Devon- 
shire " (Verrall). Common and generally distributed. 

CaMcera cenea Fab., " Cornworthy " (Verrall). Very 
rare. 

Microdon mutabilis linn., Ivybridge, 12th June, 1889, 
11th and 18th May, 1892, and 2nd June, 1893. Shute 
Hill, near Axminster, 30th June, 1900. Ivybridge, 
17th and 19th May, 1896. " Ivybridge " (Verrall). 
Rare. 

Schizophora. 

Schizometopa. 

(E8TB.IDM. 

Qastrophilus equi Fab., Okehampton, Sept., 1908. Cul- 
lompton, bred from pupae found 14th July, 1898 ; 
flies emerged, 15th to 25th Aug., 1898. Torcross, 
31st Aug. and 3rd Sept., 1903. These flies are to be 
seen in numbers round the horses in the fields, and it 
is interesting to note the behaviour of different animals 
when visited by them. Horses as a rule take not the 
slightest notice, but donkeys display a lively terror 
of them. 

O. nasalis linn., Torcross, 19th to 31st Sept., 1903. Five 
? $ caught round one cob horse in a marshy field near 
Hall Sands. The behaviour of this cob, when one of 
. these flies was flying round him, seems worth placing 
on record ; as usual he took no notice of O. equi, but 
was evidently uneasy when visited by O. nasaiis. 
The latter used to come up wind and steer for the 
cob's head, restricting its field of action to the right- 
angled triangle formed by the horse's forelegs, his 
neck and the surface of the ground. The fly seems 
to be rare though widely distributed. 



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FBOM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 235 

Hypoderma lineatum Vill., Bickleigh Vale, 21st and 25th 
April, 1893. Horrabridge, 28th April, 1893. Salcombe, 
22nd May, 1893. Torcross, 25th May, 1893. Walkham 
Valley, 8th May, 1895, and 13th May, 1896. Common, 
and generally distributed. During May, these flies 
are sometimes in fair numbers just outside Horra- 
bridge Station, on the path leading to the Virtuous 
Lady Mine. 

H. bovis Deg., Cann Wood, 13th Aug., 1896 (G. C. Bignell) 
Avon Valley, 22nd June, 1896. Rare ; these are the 
only two specimens met with during many years 
collecting in South Devon. 

(Estrus ovis linn., Poundstock, 29th June and 1st July, 
1896. Millbrook (Cornwall), 26th June, 1896. These 
specimens were given to me by an old friend, Mr. G. C. 
Bignell. 

Tachinije. 

JServillea lurida Fab., Walkham Valley, 9th April, 1893. 
Bickleigh, 8th and 21st April, 1893. 
var. leucocoma, Ivybridge, 30th June, 1888. Shaugh, 
8th May, 1893. The year 1893 was an exceptionally 
early year. . 

JS. ursina Mg. 9 Walkham Valley, 21st and 28th March and 
6th April, 1893. Bickleigh, 8th April, 1893. 

Echinomyia grossa linn., Yelverton, 17th July, 1889. 
Salcombe, 7th July, 1889. Ivybridge, 15th to 26th 
July, 1889, and 13th to 31st July, 1887. Very common 
in the South Hams district during July ; almost 
every head of Hemp Agrimony, being tenanted by . 
one of these great flies. 

E. fera Linn., Ivybridge, 1st July, 1888, and 26th July 
and 1st Sept., 1889. Shaugh, 3rd May, 1893. Lyd- 
ford, 17th April, 1893. Walkham Valley, 18th April, 
1893. Cornwood. Common, and generally dis- 
tributed. 

Fahricia ferox linn. (Fdbricdla ib. Bezzi, Kert. Kat. Pal. 
Dipt., Vol. Ill, p. 196), Exmouth, Sept., 1889. Holne, 
5th and 17th Aug., 1896. Walkham Valley, 31st 
July, 1896. Not common, but may be taken sitting on 
the bare rock of some of the Granite Tors on Dartmoor. 

Micropalpus vuVpinus Fin., Ivybridge, 13th Aug., 1887. 
Walkham Valley, 21st July, 1889. Probably common 
and generally distributed. 

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236 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Gymnochceta viridis Fin., Ivybridge, 30th March, 3rd 

April and 19th May, 1893. Bickleigh, 12th April, 

1893. Cornwood, 2nd April, 1893. Common on tree- 
trunks in the spring. 
Erigone radicum Fab. (Ernestia radicum Bezzi, l.o.= 

Tachina crissia Walk). Tamerton Folliot, 8th Aug., 

1889. Ivybridge, 11th Aug., 1889. Holne, 22nd 

July, 1896. 
E. rudis Fin., as identified in B.M. Shaugh, 8th May, 1893, 

and 19th May, 1896. There seems to be considerable 

doubt as to the name under which these specimens 

should stand. 
E. sp. inc. Ivybridge, 19th May, 1896. 
Aporomyia dubia Fin. (Lypha dubia Bezzi, I.e.), Ivybridge, 

14th May, 1893. Pentillie (Cornwall), 12th May, 1893. 
Sisyropa angustata Br. and Berg. (Carcdia angustata 

Bezzi, I.e.), Cornwood, 23rd April, 1893. 
Epicampocera succinta Mg., Torcross, 29th Aug., 1903. 
Blepharidea vulgaris Fin. (Phryxe vulgaris Bezzi, I.e.), 

Crownhill, 12th Aug., 1889. 
Ceromasia pumila Mg. ? (Masicera pumila Bezzi, I.e.),. 

Torcross, 14th and 23rd Aug., 1903. B.M. indenti- 

fication. 
C. sp. inc. B.M. Torcross, 6th Sept., 1903. 
Phorocera cilipeda Rnd. (Pales pavida Bezzi, I.e.), Ivy- 
bridge, 21st Aug., 1889, 2 <J and 3 ? bred from Zygcevu 

lonicera. Ivybridge, 28th Aug., 1888. 
Meigenia bisignata Mg., Torcross, 3rd and 6th Sept., 1903. 
M. floralis Fin., Crownhill, 14th July, 1889. Torcross, 

4th, 9th,^28th and 29th Aug., 1903. 
Tachina rustica Mg. (Eutachina Austen), Ivybridge, lltb 

Aug. and 1st Sept., 1889. Torcross, 25th May, 1893. 
T. prcepotens Mg. (T. larvarum Bezzi, I.e.), Torcross, 26th 

May, 1893. Whitsand Bay (Cornwall), 29th April, 

1893. 
Braehychceta spinigera End., Walkham Valley, 4th April, 

1890. 
Oonia ornata Mg., Budleigh Salterton, 23rd and 25th April, 

1898. Torcross, 25th May, 1893. Kingsbridge (Dr. 

Leach ?). 
Plagia ruralis Fin. (Voria ruralis Bezzi, I.e.), Torcross, 

25th May, 1893. 
Phytomyptera nitidiventris Rnd., Avon Valley, 27th June, 

1896. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. ' 237 

Thryptocera minutissima Zett. (Actia minutissima Bezzi, 

I.e.), Avon Valley, 27th June, 1896. 
Do these two records refer to one insect ? 
T. pilipennis Fin. (Actia pilipennis Bezzi, I.e. )=broteas 

Walk. Salcombe, 10th July, 1896. 
Siphona cristata Fab. (Bucentes cristata Bezzi, I.e.), Plymp- 

ton, 27th April, 1893. 
S. geniculata Deg. (B. geniculata Bezzi, I.e.), Wistmans 

Wood, 6th Sept., 1889. Crownhill, 7th Sept., 1889. 

Ivybridge, 22nd Sept., 1889. Common, and generally 

distributed during August and September. 
Pelatachina tibialis Fin., Shaugh, 18th May, 1896. Avon 

VaUey, 23rd May, 1896. 
Degeeria convexifrons Zett., Holne, 22nd July, 1896. As 

identified in B.M. Collection. 
Maequartia flavipes Mg. (M. dispar Bezzi, I.e.), Ivybridge, 

8th and 15th April, 1893. 
M . dispar Fin., Tamerton Folliot, 23rd May, 1889. Bovi- 

sand,6thMay, 1893. Theexponents of these two species 

in the B.M. Collection do not appear to be conspecific. 
M. grisea Fin., Cornwood, 6th Sept., 1889. 
M. sp. inc. Torcross, 6th and 25th Aug. and 1st Sept., 

1903, as identified in the B.M. Collection. 
Demoticus plebejus Fin., Crownhill, 22nd June, 1888, and 

19th July, 1889. 
jD. frontatus Boh. (Bithia spreta Mg., apud Bezzi, I.e.), 

Wistmans Wood, 6th Sept., 1889. Ivybridge, 26th 

July, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 10th Sept., 1889. 
Myiobia fenistrata Mg., Crownhill Fort, 5th Aug., 1889. 

Torcross, 19th Aug., 1903. Avon Valley, 11th June, 

1896. Holne, 9th July, 1896. 
M. inanis Fin., Holne, 20th July, 1896. Cornwood, 8th 

Sept., 1889. 
M . pacifica Mg. (M . inanis apud Bezzi), Budshead Wood, 

22nd July, 1889. 
Olivieria lateralis Fab. (Erioihrix rufomaculatus Deg., 

apud Bezzi, I.e.), Crownhill, 18th July, 1889. Buds- 
head Wood, 22nd July, 1889. Ermington, July to 

Sept. Common, and generally distributed. 
Thelaira leucozona Pz. (T. nigripes Fab. apud Bezzi), 

Salcombe, 22nd May, 1893. Bickleigh Vale, 18th 

July, 1889. 
var. nigripes, Cornwood, 3rd July, 1889. Walkham Valley , 

9th May, 1893. Torcross, 25th June, 1893. (B.M.) 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



238 v LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Dexia rustica Fab., Bickleigh Vale, 18th July, 1889. 

D. vacua Fin., Walkham Valley, 21st July, 1889. 

Dexiosoma caninum Fab., Bickleigh Vale, 18th and 28th 
July, 1889, Ivybridge, 21st June, 1896. Avon 
Valley, 13th June, 1896. Holne, 18th July, 1896. 

Myiocera carinifrons Fin., Ivybridge, 11th Aug., 1889. 

Slevenia maculata Fin. (Plesina maculata apud Bezzi), 
Crownhill, 4th July, 1889. 

Phyto mdanocephala Mg., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 

Clista moerens Mg. (Rhinophora mcerens Bezzi, I.e.), 
Bideford, 8th July, 1906. 

C. lepida Mg. (Rhinophora lepida Bezzi, I.e.), Torcross, no 
date. Do these last two insects belong to one species ? 

Sarcophaga carnaria linn., Ivybridge, 15th July, 1889. 
Bickleigh, 5th April, 1893. Walkham Valley, 9th 
April, 1893, and 19th May, 1914. This last specimen 
had ventured close up to the burrow of the larva of a 
Tiger Beetle, and had been seized, he was being 
drawn down into the hole, when I picked him up and 
dropped him into the cyanide bottle ; he had put up 
a good fight, but the final result was never in doubt. 

8. nigriventris Mg., Slapton, 29th Aug., 1903 (Collin). 

Theria muscaria Mg. (Helicobosca muscaria apud Bezzi, I.e.), 
Ivybridge, 30th June and 1st July, 1888. Very rare ; 
does not appear to have been taken since this capture. 
(C. Matthews.) 

Sarcophila latifrons Fin., Torcross, 6th and 13th Aug., 
1903. 

Nyctia hctiterata Pz., Ivybridge, 1st Aug., 1893. Torcross, 
25th June, 1893. Bovisand, 6th May, 1893. Avon 
Valley, 11th June, 1896. 

Brachycoma devia Fin., Avon Valley, 24th May, 1896. 
Holne, 23rd July, 1896. 

Metopia leucocephala Rossi, Ivybridge, 2nd May, 1893. 
Avon Valley, 27th June, 1896. Seaton, 3rd Aug., 1902. 

M. campestris Fin., Avon Valley, 12th Jtine, 1896. 

. CALLrPHORIN^. 

PoUenia rvdis Fab., Tamerton Folliot, 27th June, 1889. 
Crownhill, 27th July, 1889. (Common; shelters in 
houses in cold weather. C. Matthews.) The life 
history of this fly has recently been worked out ; the 
larva is parasitic on a species of earthworm. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 239 

P. vespitto Fab., Ivybridge, 23rd June, 1889, and 8th 

April, 1893. 
Lucilia ccesar Linn., Tamerton Folliot, 15th Sept., 1889. 

Slapton, 29th Aug., 1884. Common, and generally 

distributed. 
L. nobilis Mg. (L. sericata Mg., apud Bezzi, I.e.), Whitsand 

Bay (Cornwall), 24th June, 1893. 
L. silvarum Mg., Ivybridge, 18th June, 1890. 
Protocailiphora azurea Fin., Exeter, 17th July, 1871. 
CaUiphora vomitoria linn., Ivybridge, 8th Aug., 1889; 

Tor Royal, 4th Aug., 1889. Common and generally 

distributed. 
C. erythrocephala Mg. Common, and generally distributed ; 

but no Devonshire specimens are at hand for reference. 
Ortesia cognata Mg., Crownhill, 17th July, 1889. Devon 

(without date). 
O. sepulchralis Linn., Cornwood, 2nd June and 8th Sept., 

1889. Ivybridge, 11th Aug. and 22nd Sept., 1889. 

Tamerton Folliot, 10th Sept., 1889. Crownhill, 21st 

Sept., 1889. Bickleigh, 21st April, 1893. Walkham 

Valley, 18th May, 1893. Common, and generally 

distributed. 
Cynomyia mortuorum Linn., Ottery Hill, 17th July, 1891. 

This insect seems to be rare in Devonshire. 

Phashnje. 

AUophora hemiptera Fab., Ivybridge, 26th July, 1888., 
8th to 23rd July, 1889. July, 1918. Not uncommon 
on UmJbelliferce, in Stowford Cleeve, during July, 
1918. 

A. pusilla Mg. (Paralhphora pusilla Bezzi, I.e.), Torcross, 
6th to 25th Aug., 1903. 

Muscin^. 

Oraphomyia macvlata Scop., Tor Royal, 4th Aug., 1889- 

Crownhill, 7th and 30th Aug., 1889. Ivybridge, 11th 

and 25th Sept., 1889. Common. 
Morellia hortorum Fin., Tor Royal, 4th Aug., 1889. Plym- 

bridge, 18th May, 1889. 
M . simplex Lw., Plymbridge, 18th May, 1889. Ivybridge, 

30th June, 1889. Wistmans Wood, 6th Sept., 1889. 

Tamerton Folliot, 10th Sept., 1889. Crownhill, 11th 

July, 1889. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



240 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Musca domestica linn. Common, and generally dis- 
tributed ; but no Devonshire specimens are available 
for reference. 

M. corvina Fab., Crownhill, 4th and 9th July, 1889. 
Ivybridge, 30th June, 1888. Tamerton Folliot, 12th 
July, 1889. Common, and generally distributed. 

Pyrellia cyanicolor Zett. (P. serena Mg., apud Bezzi), 
Cornwood, 8th Sept., 1889. Crownhill, 13th Sept., 
1889. Ivybridge, 23rd Aug., 1891. Walkham Valley, 
9th April, 1893. 

P. lasiophthalma Macq. (P. eriophthalma Macq., apud, 
Bezzi), Ivybridge, 6th Aug. and 27th Nov., 1887. 
Mount Edgcumbe, 29th March, 1893. 

Euphoria cornicina Fab. (Pseudopyrdlia cornicina apud 
Bezzi), Crownhill, 11th Oct., 1889. Ivybridge, 11th 
April, 1893. Common, and generally distributed. 

Mesembrina meridiana linn., Tamerton Folliot, 2nd June, 
1889. Crownhill, 12th Aug., 1889. Ivybridge, 20th 
May, 1889. Common, and generally distributed. 

Stomoxys calcitrans Linn., Cornwood, 8th Sept., 1889. 
Torcross, 25th Aug., 1903. Common, and generally 
distributed. At Torcross on the 9th Sept., 1903, a <$ 
dung-fly, Scatophaga stercoraria, was taken preying 
.on a Stomoxys $. Scatophaga may be looked on, 
therefore, as a beneficial insect. 

Hcematobia stimulans Mg., Wistmans Wood, 6th Sept., 
1889. Crownhill, 30th June, 1889. Tamerton Folliot, 
23rd May, 1889. Common, and generally distributed. 
These two species are probably the two worst biting 
pests in the county. 

Lyperosia irritans Linn., Torcross, 25th Aug., 1903. Often 
to be seen in numbers on the necks and shoulders of 
young cattle, but does not appear to annoy human 
beings. 

Anthomyidje. 

Polities lardaria Fab. Although no specimens are forth- 
H coming for record, this is a common and generally 
f*ti distributed species. 
Hyetodesia marmorcUa Zett. (Pha&nia, morio Zett., apud 

Stein), 28th July, 1896. 
H. errans Mg. (Phaonia errans Mg., apud Stein), Ivybridge, 

9th May, 1896. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 241 

H. signata Mg. (Phaonia signata Mg., apud Stein), Dawlish, 

8th June, 1883. 
H. populi Mg. (Phaonia Scutellaria Fin., apud Stein), 

Dawlish, 8th June, 1883. 
Spihgaster trigonalis Mg. (Phaonia trigonalis, apud Stein), 

Lynton, 19th June, 1883. 
Hyetodesia semicinerea Wied. (Trichopticus semicinerea, 

apud Stein), Dawlish, 8th June, 1883. 
Drymeia hamata Fin., Ivybridge, 1st Aug., 1896. 
Hebecnema umbratica Mg., Doone Valley, 18th June, 

1883. 
Myiospila meditabunda Fab. (Mydcea meditabunda Fab., 

apud Stein), Dawlish, 8th June, 1883. Tamerton 

Folliot, 6th May, 1889. 
Mydcea protuberans Zett., Westward Ho ! (Meade) British 

Anthomyidse, Pt. 1, p. 22. Probably common on all 

sandhills. 
M . litorea Mg. (Mydcea protuberans Zett, apud Stein). 
Hydrotcea ciliata Fab., Ivybridge, 2nd June, 1893, and 8th 

June, 1896. " Devon " (Grimshaw), E.M.M., Vol. XVI, 

p. 243. 
H. cyrtoneurina Zett., Ivybridge, 12th June, 1883, and 

4th May, 1893. Lynton, 19th June, 1883. (Grim- 
shaw, I.e.) 
H. irritans Fin., Torcross. Common everywhere. 
H. similis, Meade, Lynton (Grimshaw, I.e.), Ta*merton 

Folliot. 
H. meteorica linn., Torcross, 21st June, 1903. (Grimshaw, 

1.C) 

H. albipuncta Zett., Torcross, 6th Sept., 1903. Ivybridge 
and Torcross. (Grimshaw, I.e.) 

H. militaris Mg., Devonshire. (Grimshaw, I.e.) 

H. parva, Meade, Torcross, 31st July, 1903. Many speci- 
mens. Torcross. (Grimshaw, I.e.) 

Ophyra leucostoma Wied., Torcross, 12th Aug., 1903. 

Homaiomyia hamata Macq. (Fannia hamata 9 apud Stein), 
Ivybridge, 13th June, 1883. 

H. paUitibia Rnd. (Fannia pattitibia, apud Stein), Slapton, 
25th Aug., 1885. 

H. incisurata Zett. (Fannia incisurata, apud Stein), Ivy- 
bridge. (Bred, May, 1891, from nest of Vespa vulgaris, 
by C. Matthews.) Torquay, 8th March, 1914. 

Azdia macquarti Staeg., Lynton, 19th June, 1883. 

A. cilipes Hal., Dawlish, 8th June, 1883. 

VOL. LI. Q 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



242 LIST OP DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Limnophora maculosa Mg. Exeter, 6th June, 1883. 

Ivybridge, 12th June. 
L. denigrata Mg., 1883. West Dunsford, 8th June, 1883. 
CaUiophrys exuta Kow., Dawlish (no date), Collin, E.M.M.,, 

2nd Series, Vol. XXIV, p. 132. 
Lispe tentaculata Deg., downhill, 2nd to 15th Aug., 1889. 

Slapton, 7th Sept., 1889. 
L. pulchella Lw. (Lispe nana Macq., apud Stein), Torcross,, 

8th and 12th Aug., 1903. 
Hydrophoria conica Wied., Ivybridge, 12th May, 1896. 
EusUdomyia hilaris Fall., Avon Valley, 19th June, 1896. 
Chortophila unilineata Zett. (Hammomyia unilineata, apud 

Stein), Seaton, 26th May, 1900. 
Pegomyia rufina Fall., Dawlish (Verrall), no date. E.MJVL 

2nd Series, Vol. XXIII, p. 194. 
P. versicolor Mg., Salcombe, 7th Aug., 1889. 
Phorbia cilicrura Rnd. (Chortophila cilicrura, apud Stein), 

Doone Valley, 18th June, 1883. 
Ph. ignota Rnd. (Chortophila dissecta Mg., apud Stein) r 

Dawlish, 8th June, 1883. Doone Valley, 18th June r 

1883. 
Anthomyia pluvialis Linn., Westward Ho ! 20th July, 1911. 

Probably common and generally distributed. 
A. sulciventris Zett. (Anthomyia cestiva Mg., apud Stein), 

Ivybridge, 12th June, 1883. 
Chirosid parvicornis Zett., Lynton. Verrall, I.e., p. 195. 
Ccenosia tigrina Fab., Walkham Valley, 13th May, 1896. 

Probably common everywhere. 
C. albifrons Zett., Sheviock (Cornwall), 7th Sept., 1912. 
C. tricolor Zett., Port Wrickle (Cornwall), 5th Sept., 1912. 
C. lineatipes Zett., Sheviock (Cornwall), 3rd Sept., 1912. 
Schoenomyza litorella Fall., Torcross. Common in wet,. 

swampy ground. From Agromyzidce in Verrall's List. 
Fucdlia maritima Hal., Torcross. Common on rocks near 

the sea. 
F. fucorum Fall., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 

Holometopa. 

CORDYLURIDiE. 

Cordylura sp. inc. No specimens available for record. 
Patettelomma sp. inc. No specimens available for records 
probably albipes. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 243 

Amaurosoma fasciatum Mg., Lynton, 19th June, 1883. 

Torcross, April, 1909. 
Scatophaga inquinata Mg., Torcross, Sept., 1903. 
8c. maculipes Zett., Torcross, April, 1909. 
8c. lutaria Fab., Torcross, April, 1909. 
8c. stercoraria Linn. Common and generally .distributed. 

cJ Torcross, 9th Sept., 1903, preying on Stomoxys 

calcitrans $, vide Poulton. Predaceous insects and 

their prey. Trans. Ent. Soc, 1907, p. 392. 
8c. merdaria Fab. Common, and generally distributed ; 

but no specimens available for record. 
8c. squalida Mg., Ivybridge, 19th May, 1889. Torcross, 

Sept., 1903. Very common. 
Sc. litorea Fin., Beer Ferris, 11th April, 1903. Budleigh 

Salterton, 23rd April, 1898. Common all round the 

coast. 
8c. villipes Zett., Bay near Lodge Gate at Picklecombe, 

Mount Edgcumbe, common on one occasion. Torcross, 

April, 1909. This insect appears to be uncommon on 

the Devonshire coast, but was in numbers on the shore 

at St. Mary's, Scilly Isles. Frequents freshly thrown 

up seaweed. 
8c. scybalaria linn., Budleigh Salterton, 27th April, 1898. 

Rare in Devonshire. 
Ceratinostoma ostiorum Hal., Bovisand, 3rd July, 1896. 

Budleigh Salterton, 23rd April, 1898. South Pool, near 

Torcross, April, 1909. Torcross, July and Aug., 1903. 

Stonehouse, Aug., 1918. Common on marine rejecte- 

menta. 
Acanthocnema glaucesens Lw., Bickleigh, under viaduct 

near station, 18th May, 1914. (Collin.) 
Nordlia spinimana Fin., Tamerton Folliot, 21st May, 1889. 

Torcross, July* and Aug., 1903. Sheviock Wood 

(Cornwall). Seems to be uncommon in South Devon. 
Trichopalpus fraternus Mg., Torcross, July and Aug., 1903. 

Probably common. 
T. punctipes Mg., Torcross, Sept., 1903. 
Spathiophora hydromyzina Fin., Torcross, July, Aug. and 

Sept., 1903. 

Heteroneurid^. 

Heteroneura albimana Mg., Torcross, 30th Aug., 1903. 
H. gentilis Col., Bovisand, 14th April, 1893. 



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244 LIST OF DIPTEBA HITHERTO RECORDED 



Thyreophorin^:. 

Thyreophora furcata Fab. (Centrophlebomyia furcata, apud 
Becker, Kert. Pal. Dipt., Vol. IV). Although this 
insect has not yet been recorded from the county, 
it seems bound to occur there ; the nearest locality at 
present known, is in Mount Edgcumbe Park, near 
Maker Church, where some half-dozen specimens were 
taken on a dead donkey. These specimens have been 
in the British Museum Collection for many years past. 

Helomyzid^. 

Leria ccesia Mg., Crownhill, 18th May, 1889. 

L. modesta Mg., Crownhill, 29th May, 1889. 

L. serrata Linn., Yealmpton, May, 1906. 

Heteromyza atricornis Mg., Torcross, July and Aug., 1903, 

and April, 1909. 
H< commixta Coll., Salcombe, 26th and 27th Feb., 1908. 

Bovisand, April, 1893. $ and ? in coitH. Collin, 

E.M.M., 1901. Bovisand and Slapton Ley. Collin, I.e. 
Tephrochlamys rufiventris Mg., Mount Edgcumbe, April, 

1904. Torcross, April, 1909. Crownhill Fort, 21st 

March, 1890. 
T. Iceta Mg., Torcross, April, 1909. 
Helomyza variegata Lw., Torcross, Sept., 1903. 
H. affinis Mg., Crownhill, 31st May, 1889, <? and ? in 

coitH. Torcross, Sept., 1903. 
H. similis Mg., Bickleigh Vale, 8th July, 1889. Crownhill, 

15th Aug., 1889. Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), Sept. 

and Oct., 1912. 
H. montana Lw., St. Germans (Cornwall), Sept., 1912. 

Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), Sept. and Oct., 1912. 
H. zetterstedti Lw., Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), Oct., 1911, 

and Sept. and Oct., 1912. 
H. hilaris Zett. (pectoralis Lw.), Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), 

Sept. and Oct., 1912. The Cornish insects were taken 

very near the county border, and are all of them 

insects certain to occur in Devonshire. 
Allophykt, atricornis Lw., Sheviock Wood (Cornwall), Sept. 

and Oct., 1912 
(Ecotheafenestrali8 Fin., Torcross, April, 1909. On windows 

and probably common and widely distributed. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OP DEVON. 245 

Eccoptomera microps Mg., Devon, from moles' nests. 
(Keys.) 

Dryomyzid^. 

Dryomyza fiaveola Fab., Tamerton Folliot, 21st May and 
1st June, 1889. Budshead Wood, 6th June, 1889. 
Crownhill, 13th Sept., 1889. Ivybridge, 30th. April, 
1893. 

D. (Neuroctena) anilis Fin., Torcross, Sept., 1903. Ivy- 
bridge, 14th July and 3rd Sept., 1888, and 11th Aug. 
and 22nd Sept., 1889. 

(Edoparea buccata Fin., Dawlish, 25th February, 1893. 
S. Devon (without other information), Torcross, 
April, 1909. Seems to be uncommon on the Devon- 
shire coast. 

Ccblopid^b. 

Orygma luctuoaum Mg., Salcombe, 7th July, 1889. Tor- 
cross, 11th Sept., 1903. Common under dry seaweed, 
and other marine rejectamenta. 

Ccdopa pilipes Hal., Torcross, 26th Aug. to 8th Sept., 
1903. Very common. 

Malacomyia sciomyzina Hal., Torcross, 21st Aug. to 11th 
Sept., 1903. Common around the coast. 

Fucomyia frigida, Fab. Budleigh Salterton, 26th April, 
1898. Bantham, 26th June, 1896. Dawlish, 25th 
Feb., 1893. Bovisand, 14th April, 1893. Torcross, 
23rd Aug., 1903. Common under seaweed, all round 
the coast. The forms frigida, gravis, parvula and 
eximia, must all be united as one species, for however 
far apart the extremes may be the intermediates merge, 
into one another. 

BORBORIDAE. 

Borborus nigrofemoratus Mcq., Ivybridge, May, 1901. 

B. equinus Fin. Common on horse droppings, all over the 

country. 
Limosina acutangula Zett., Slapton, 31st July, 1903 (Collin). 

* Sciomyzed^. 

Sciomyza dorsata Zett., Torcross, July and Aug., 1903. 



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246 LIST OF DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

S. ventralis Fin., Ivybridge, May, 1901/ Toreross, April, 
1909. 

8. scutdlaris v. Ros., St. Germans (Cornwall). Sheviock 
Wood (Cornwall), Oct., 1911. 

Phceomyia fuscipennis Mg., Lynton, 16th June, 1883. 

Pdidnoptera nigripennis Fab., Ivybridge, 17th May, 1883. 
Chagford (Dr. Meade, E.M.M., 1899, p. 102). Walk- 
ham Valley, June, 1891. 

Tetanura pallidiventris Fin., Lydford, 17th June, 1883. 

Ditcenia cinerella Fin., Toreross, July and Aug., 1903, 
Probably common everywhere. 

D. grisescens Mg., Toreross, Aug., 1903. 

D. nana Fin., Toreross, July and 8th Aug., 1903, land side 
of Slapton Ley, 17th Aug., 1903, Common on wet 
mud, at edge of the Leys. 

D. schonherri Fin., Budleigh Salterton, 29th April, 1898. 
Toreross, Sept., 1903, and April, 1909. 

Benocera pallida Fin., Crownhill, 9th Sept., 1889. Ivy- 
bridge, May, 1901. Very common. 

Ctenvlus distinctus Mg., Toreross, July and 7th and 
15th Aug., 1903. 

C. pectoraiis Zett., Toreross, 7th and 8th Aug., 1903. In 
some numbers on mud at edge of Slapton Ley. 

Tetanocera data Fab., Ivybridge, 14th June, 1883 ; 7th 
May, 1893, and 1st Aug., 1896. Holne, 3rd July, 
1896. Common. 

T. rdbu8ta Lw., Plymbridge, 8th and 15th June, 1889. 
Shaugh Bridge, 23rd April, 1893. Toreross, Aug., 1903. 

T. kevifrons Lw., Toreross, Aug., 1903. 

T. (Lunigera) chcerophylli Fab., Crownhill, 7th Sept., 1889. 
Toreross, Aug., 1903. Bickleigh Vale, 6th July, 1896. 
Plymouth, 17th June, 1904. Common, has appeared 
in our lists as T. coryleti and T. reticulata. 

T. ferruginea Fin., Budshead Wood, 27th June, 1889. 
Toreross, 26th May, and July and Aug., 1903. Bud- 
leigh Salterton, 22nd April, 1898. Tamerton Folliot, 
25th May, 1889. Plympton, 27th April, 1893. Wist- 
man's Wood, 6th Sept., 1889. Crownhill, 15th Aug., 
1889. Bovisand, 16th May, 1896. Very common. 

T. silvatica Mg., Avon Valley, 23rd May, 1896. 

T. (Trypetoptera) punctulata Scop., Ivybridge, 12th June, 
1883. Bickleigh Vale, 10th July, 1893. Shaugh, 8th 
May, 1893. Toreross, August, 1903. Bucfteigh Salter- 
ton, Aug., 1918. 



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PROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON, 247 

Limnia unguicornis Scop., Torcross, Aug., 1903. 

L. rufifrons Fab., Budleigh Salterton, Aug., 1918 (Cham- 
pion). 

Coremacera marginata Fab., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 
Torcross, Aug., 1903. Uncommon. 

Elgiva aJbiseta Scop., Bickleigh Vale, 18th June, 1889. 
Torcross, 25th May, 1893, and Aug. and Sept., 1903. 

E. (Hydromyia) dorsalis, Fab. Avon Valley, 12th May, 
1896. 

Dichcetophora obliterate, Fab., Crownhill, 16th Sept., 1889. 
Torcross, Aug., 1903. 

JSepedon spinipes Scop., Torcross, Aug. and Sept., 1903. 

JS. sphegeu8. No specimen available for record though 
certain to occur. 

Lonch^id^. 

PaUoptera saituum Linn., Lynton, 22nd June, 1883: 

P. ustulata Fin., Torcross, 14th Aug., 1903. 

P. trimacula Mg., Ivybridge, 1st Sept., 1889. 

P. urnbdlatarum Fab., Torcross. 

Lonehcea flavidipennis, Torcross, Aug., 1903. 

SAPROMYZID-3E. 

Peplomyza wiedemanni Lw., Slapton, 24th May, 1885. 

Torcross, Aug., 1903. Kingswear, Sept., 1911. 
Sapromyza longipennis Fab., Ivybridge, 20th* May, 1888, 

21st June, 1887, and 22nd July, 1888. Lynton, 

24th June, 1883. Torcross. 
JS. fasciata Fin., N. Devon, F. Smith, date and locality ? 

(Verrall). A common insect and sure to occur in 

numbers. 
8. inusta Mg., Ivybridge, 14th May, 1893, and 9th and 

14th July, 1888. Crownhill, 3rd July and 15th Aug., 

1889. Cornwood, 24th Aug., 1889. 
8. decempunctata Fin., Plymouth, 17th June, 1894 (Beau- 
mont). 
S. longiseta Lw., Torcross, Aug., 1903. In numbers on this 

elate. 
8. rorida Fin., Plymbridge, 28th May, 1889. Very common 

everywhere. 
JS. notata Fin., Torcross, Aug., 1903. 
JS. quadripunctata Linn., Torcross, Aug., 1903. 



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248 LIST. OP DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

S. paUidiventris Fin., Ivybridge, 22nd Aug., 1888. 
Cnemacanfha muscaria Fall., Stowford Cleeve, 19th Aug., 

1888 (C. Matthews). 
Lauxania cenea Fin., Ivybridge, 9th July, 1887. Torcross., 

Ortalid^:. 

Pteropcectria frondescentice Linn., Whitleigh Wood, 13th 
June, 1889. Ivybridge, 19th June, 1889. Bantham, 
26th June, 1896. Avon Valley, 28th June, 1896. 
Aylesbeare Common, near Exeter, 4th July, 1891 
(Rev. A. E. Eaton). 

TRYPETIDiE. 

Acidia heraclei Linn., Branscombe, 13th May, 1902. Ivy- 
bridge, May, 1889. Torcross, 7th Aug., 1903. 

A. lychntdis Fab., Torcross, July and Aug., 1903. 

Chcetostoma cwvinvrvis Rond., Bickleigh Vale, 1st April, 
1893. I believe still the only record since RondanTs. 

SpUographa abrotani Mg., Ivybridge, July, 1888 (C. Mat- 
thews). Now in the British Museum Collection. This 
is, I believe, the only British record. 

Trypeta onotrphes Lw., Holne, 28th July, 1896. 

T. tussilaginis Fab., Bickleigh Vale, 18th July, 1889. 

Urophora solstitialis linn., Avon Valley, 28th June, 1896. 

jSphenella marginata Fin., Torcross, Aug., 1903. St. Ger- 
mans (Cornwall), Sept., 1912. 

Tephritis (Oxyphora) miliaria Schrk., Avon Valley, llth r 
22nd and 23rd June, 1896. Lynton, 20th June (?) 
(Collin). 

T. vespertina Lw., Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. Tavistock, 
10th June, 1893. 

Urettia stellata Fries, Slapton, 29th Aug., 1903 (Collin). 

Sepsid^. 

Sepsis punctum Fab., Avon Valley, 18th June, 1896. 

8. cynipsea linn., Ivybridge, 10th May, 1893. 

Nemopoda cylindrica Fab., Crownhill, 18th May and 7th 
Sept., 1889. Avon Valley, 18th June, 1896. Ivy- 
bridge, 17th Sept., 1887. Very common. 

Henicita annulipes Mg., Torcross, 25th Aug., 1903. Several 
on this occasion. 

Themira putris linn., Torcross, 12th Aug., 1903. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OP DEVON. 249» 

PsiLID^. 

Psila fimetaria linn., Shaugh, 8th May, 1893. Avon 

Valley, 6th June, 1896. Tamerton Folliot, 19th June, 

1889. Ivybridge, 26th July, 1889. 
P. nigricornis Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), Sept., 1912.- A 

common insect and bound to occur within the county 

limits. This and not P. rosce is the carrot fly of 

the agriculturists. 
Chyliza atriseta Mg., Salcombe, 20th and 22nd May, 1893. 

Rare. I have not seen this species from any other 

British locality. 

C. leptogaster Pz., Kingsbridge, 23rd May, 1893. 
Loxocera albiseta Schrk., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. War- 

leigh Marsh, 7th August, 1889. Crownhill, 15th Aug., 
1889. Torcross, Sept., 1903. 

L. sylvatica Mg., Ivybridge, 20th and 30th April and 19th 
May, 1893. Shaugh Bridge, 22nd April, 1893. Bick 
leigh Vale, 21st and 24th April, 1893. As a rule a 
scarce insect, but appears to be the common form 
round Plymouth. 

Lissa loxocerina Tin., Kingsbridge. 

MlCROPIZIDiE. 

Micropeza corrigiolata Linn., Seaton, 26th June, 1891 
(Rev. A. E. Eaton). 

Ephydrid^. 

Notiphila riparia Mg., Torcross, 7th Aug., 1903. 
N. cinera Fin., Torcross, 15th and 25th Aug., 1903. 
N. dorsata Stenh., Torcross, 14th Aug., 1903. 
N. maculata Stenh., Torcross, 16th Aug., 1903. 
Trimerina madizans Tin., Sheviock (Cornwall), 7th Sept., 

1912. 
Ephygrobia nitidula Fin. (Psilopa nitidula, V.L.), Torcross, 

21st and 25th Aug., 1903. 
Discocerina obscurella Fin., Torcross, 8th Aug., 1903. 

D. pulicaria Hal., Torcross, 9th, 21st and 26th Aug.,, 1903. 
HydreUia discolor Stenh. (=H. obscura, Mg.?) St. Germans 

(Cornwall), 5th Sept., 1912. 
H. albildbris Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 13th Sept., 1912. 



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250 LIST OP DIPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

Philygria stictica Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th Sept., 
1912. Three common insects, and bound to occur 
on the Devonshire side of the boundary. 

.Ochthera mantis Deg., a common insect and bound to occur 
although no specimens are available at the present 
minute. 

Palrhydra fossarum Hal., Torcross, 23rd and 25th Aug., 
1903. 

P. aquila Fin., Torcross, 23rd Aug., 1903. 

P. coarctata Fin., Port Wrickle (Cornwall), 5th Sept., 1912. 

Ephydra micans Hal., Torcross, 12th and 15th Aug., 1903. 

Pelina nitens Lw., Torcross. Collin, E.M.M. 2nd Series, 
Vol. XXII, p. 185. 

Ilythea spilota Hal., Torcross, 28th Aug., 1903. 

Ccenia palustris Fin., Torcross, 10th Aug., 1903. 

JScatella sorbillans Hal., Torcross, 12th Aug., 1903. 

JS. stagnalis Fin., Port Wrickle (Cornwall) 5th Sept., 1912. 

Chloropid^. 

Meromyza laeta Mg., Salcombe, 15th June, 1896. 
Diplotoxa messoria Fin., Torcross, 3rd and 12th Aug., 1903. 
Chhrops tceniopus Mg., Torcross, 20th Aug., 1903. 
Lipara rufitarsis Lw., Seaton in June. Collin, E.M.M. 2nd 

Series, Vol. XXII, p. 152. 
Elachyptera cornuta Fin., Torcross, 3rd Sept., 1903. 

Sheviock (Cornwall) 7th Sept., 1912. 
E. megaspis Lw., Devonshire (Collin) I.e., p. 152. 
Oscinis pratensis Mg., Torcross, Aug., 1903. (Collin) I.e., 

p. 152. 

Drosophilid^b. 

JScaptomyza graminum Fin., Torcross, 10th Aug., 1903. 

Port Wrickle, (Cornwall), 5th Sept., 1912. 
Noterophila glabra Fin., Torcross, 12th Aug., and 9th Sept. 

1903. 

Geomyzid^. 

Diastata unipunctata Zett., Torcross, 8th, 12th, and 18tb 

Aug., 1903. 
D. costata Mg., Sheviock (Cornwall), 10th Sept., 1912. 

Opomyzid^. 

Balioptera combinata Linn., Torcross, 18th Aug., 1903. 
Many on this occasion. 



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FROM THE COUNTY OF DEVON. 251 

B. vmusta Mg., Torcross, 13th Aug., 1903. 

Opomyza germinationis linn., Bickleigh. (G. C. Bignell.) 

One of the commonest flies. 
O. florum Fab., Torcross. 
Pelethophila flava linn., S^aton, 2nd Aug., 1902. (Rev. 

E. A. Eaton.) A common insect. 

Agromyzidjs. 

Leueopis griseola Fin., Ivybridge, 18th July, 1887. Tor- 
cross, 25th Aug., 1903. Bred by C. Matthews from 
Aphids on thistle. 

Ochthiphila flavipalpis Hal., Bantham, 26th June, 1896. 
Common on the sandhills on this date. 

Phytomyzid^e. 
Phytomyza zetterstedtii Schin., Ivybridge, 10th June, 1901. 

Eproboscid^. 

Mdophagus ovinus linn., probably in numbers in every 
flock of sheep in the county. 

Nycteribidjs. 

Nycteribia hermanni Leach., Barnstaple, 11th Oct., 1898. 
Eighteen specimens from Lesser Horseshoe Bat. 
Rhinolophus hipposiderus. 

CONOPIDiE. 

The exact location of this family is still uncertain, con- 
sequently it is placed last of all. 
Conops quadrifasciata Deg., Torcross, 25th Aug., 1903. 

C. flavipes Linn., Ivybridge, 14th June, 1889, 21st and 

26th July, 1889, 11th. Aug., 1889. Many captures in 

June and July, 1889. Holne, 22nd Aug., 1896. 
Physocephala rufipes Fab., Bickleigh Vale, 28th Aug., 1889. 

Avon Valley, 23rd June, 1896. Crownhill, 15th Aug., 

1889. Ivybridge, Aug., 1887. 
Myopa buccata Linn., Walkham Valley, 9th May, 1893. 

Shaugh, 15th May, 1893. Ivybridge, 19th May, 1889. 

Yelverton, 6th June, 1889. 



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252 LIST OP DEPTERA HITHERTO RECORDED 

M. testacea linn., Ivybridge, 19th June, 1889. Tamerton. 

Folliot, 1st June, 1889. 
M. poly stigma Rond., Budleigh Salterton, 23rd May, 1898. 
Oncomyia atra Fab., Torcross, 11th Sept., 1903. Several 

seen, four taken. 
O. jmsilla Mg., Bovisand, 6th May, 1893. Holne, 17th 

July, 1896. 
8icu8 ferrugineus Linn., Avon Valley, 13th and 14th July, 

1896. Holne, 22nd and 27th July, 1896. Common 

everywhere. 



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LIST OP MEMBERS. 



p Indicates Fast Presidents. 

* Indicates Life Members. t Indicates Honorary Members. 

t Indicates Members who retire at the end of the current year. 

The Names of Members of the Council are printed in small capitals ; 

and of Members whose addresses are not known, in italics. 

Notice of Changes of Residence, of Resignations, and of Decease of Members 

should be sent to the General Secretary. 



Year of 
Election. 



1913*H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, e.g., etc. (All communica- 
tions to be addressed to Walter Peacock, Esq., M.V.O., 
Duchy of Cornwall Office, Buckingham Gate, London, S. W.) 



1913 Abell, G. J., 8, Rolle Street, Exmouth. 

1919 Abell, Professor W. S., m.i.n.a., 11, Wedderburn Road, 

Hampstead, London, N.W. 3. 
1913*Adams, E. Amery, 21, Mayford Road, Balham, S.W. 12. 
1896 Adams, Maxwell, c/o Messrs. William Brendon & Son, 

Ltd., Plymouth (Hon. General Secretary). 
1900*Adams, S. P., Elbury Lodge, Newton Abbot. 

1908 Albert Memorial Library, etc. (The Royal), Exeter, per 

H. Tapley Soper, p.r.hist.s. 

1909 Alexander, J. J., m.a., j.p., Grammar School, Tavistock. 
1916/? Allen, E. J., d.sc, p.r.s., The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, 

Plymouth. 
1896*Allhusen, C. Wilton, Pinhay, Lyme Regis. 

1918 Almy, P. H. W., Bank Chambers, Torquay. 

1869 Amery, J. S., Druid, Ashburton (Hon. General Treasurer). 

1919 Amory, Sir Ian Heathcoat, Bart., d.l., j.p., Knightshayes 

Court, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1919 Amory, The Dowager Lady, Hensleigh; Tiverton (Vice-Presi- 
dent). 

1901 Andrew, Sidney, 18, West Southernhay, Exeter. 

1919 Andrew, T. H., f.s.i., Barnborough, Pennsylvania Hill, Exeter. 

1894 Andrews, John, Traine, Modbury, Ivybridge. 

1912tAnstey, A., 13, Lyndhurst Road, Exeter. 

1918 Armstrong, Mrs. A., c/o Mrs. Thomas, Holne, Ashburton. 

1918 Ault, Rev. F. E., Dittisham Rectory, Dartmouth. 

1912 Axe, Rev. Arthur, 18, Southbroom, Devizes. 



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.254 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1912*Babbage, Gilbert, 16, Cathedral Close, Exeter. 
1919 Ball, Miss Marion, Walmer House, Torquay. 

1914 Balleine, Rev. James A., m.a., Elm Brae, Seaway Lane,. 

Cockington, S. Devon. 

1915 Barber, James, Colin traive, Cranford Avenue, Exmouth. 
1878*pBaring-Gould, Rev. S., m.a., Lew Trenchard, Lewdown. 

1918 Barnes, A. E., 107, High Street, Barnstaple. 
1902*Barratt, Sir Francis Layland, Bart., m.a., m.p., 68, Cadogaix 

Square, London, S.W. 1. 

1915 Bartlett, Rev. Lewis Edward, The Vicarage, Countess Weir,. 

Exeter. 
1898*Bayley, Arthur R., b.a., f.r.Hist.s., St. Margaret's, Great 

Malvern. 
1894*Bayly, Miss Anna, Seven Trees, Plymouth. 

1919 Bayly, Mrs. E. C, Highlands, Ivybridge, South Devon. 
1913*Bedford, His Grace The Duke of, k.g., Woburn Abbey,. 

Bedfordshire. 
1914 Bbbbb, Rev. W. N. P., m.a., The Vicarage, Whitchurch,. 
Tavistock. 

1905 Bennett, Ellery A., 17, Courtenay Street, Plymouth. 
1912 Bickersteth, Rev. H. L., b.a., The Vicarage, Tavistock. 
1904 Bird, W. Montagu, j.p., Dacre House, Ringmore, Teign- 

mouth. 
1912 Birdwood, Allan Roger, Yannon Lea, Exeter Road, Teign- 

mouth. 
1889 Birmingham Free Library, Birmingham. 

1916 Blackall, E., 6, Chapel Street, Plymouth. 

1886 Blaokler, T. A., Hillborough House, St. Marychurch,. 

Torquay. 
1917*Blight, Francis J., Tregenna, Wembley, Middlesex. 
1919 Boles, F. J. Coleridge, j.p., 24, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton 

(Vice-President). 

1912 Bond, Francis William, 40, Loughborough Park, Brixton, 

S.W. 9. 
1901 Bond, Miss S. C, 41, Grace Street, Rockland, Knox Co., 
Maine, U.S.A. 

1906 Bond, Rev. W. F., m.a., Lancing College, Shoreham, Sussex. 

1913 Boston Public Library, U.S.A., c/o Mr. Bernard Quaritch, 

11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W. 1. 
1906 Bovey, Thomas William Widger, m.r.o.s., l.r.o.p.Lond.„ 

Winslade, Bampton, N. Devon. 
1912 Bowden, John F., p.s.i., Crossways, West Avenue, Exeter. 
1919 Bowles, Major-General F. A., c.b., Hartnolls, Tiverton. 
1898 Boyer, Commander F., r.n., Home Lodge, Chudleigh, South 

Devon. 

1911 Boyle, Mrs. C. Vicars, Cheldon Rectory, Chulmleigh, North 

Devon. 
1916 Bracken, C. W., b.a., p.e.s., 5, Carfrae Terrace, Plymouth. 
1900*Bradridge, C. Kingsley, 11, Plasturton Avenue, Cardiff. 

1912 Brant, Captain, r.n., St. Martins, Budleigh Salterton. 



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LIST OP MEMBERS. 255 

1905 Brendon, Charles E., 6, Hillsborough, Plymouth. 

1892 Brendon, W. T., The Anchorage, Grand Parade, Plymouth. 

1916 Breton, Rev. H. H., m.a., Sheepstor Vicarage, Horrabridge, 

Devon. 

1917 Briggs, T. H., Rock House, Lynmouth, N. Devon. 

1918 Brockman, W. S., Rose Tor, Torquay. 

1918 Brodrick, W. B. B., 42, Southernhay West, Exeter. 

1917 Brokenshire, F. A., 2, Rock Avenue, Barnstaple. 

1916 Brown, W. L. Trant, f.rj.b.a., 332, High Road, Kilburn, 

London, N.W. 6. 
1916 Brown, J. P., j.p., Abbey Stores, Plymouth, , 

1911*Brushfield, Miles Nadauld, 13, Allfarthing Lane, Wandsworth 

Common, Surrey. 
1911 Buckfast, The Right Rev. The Lord Abbot of (Donn 

Anscar Vonier, o.s.b.), Buckfast Abbey, Buckfast, S. 

Devon. 

1918 Burdick, G., Clovelly, Mansfield Road, Ilford. 

1911 Burn, Colonel C. R., A.D.C. tp the King, m.p., 77, Cadogan. 

Square, London, S.W. 1. 
1887£>Burnard, Robert, j.p., f.s.a., Stoke-in-teignhead, Teign- 

mouth. 

1916 Burton, R. Fowler, 2, Osborne Villas, Devonport. 
1914 Butcher, Francis J., The Manor House, Tavistock. 

1914 Butcher, Mrs. Francis J., The Manor House, Tavistock. 

1917 Byne, Loftus St. George, m.sc, p.l.s., Laracor, Elwyn Road,. 

Exmouth. 

1902 Calmady, Charles Calmady, Stoney Croft, Horrabridge. 

1919 Campbell, J. D., Howden Court, Tiverton (Vice-President). 
1908*Card, F. F., Broadlands, Newton Abbot. 

1919 Carew, Charles Robert Sydenham, b.a., m.p., j.p., Warni- 
combe, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1915 Carey, N. M., 37, Sea View Avenue, Lipson, Plymouth. 
18^*Carpenter, H. J., m.a., ll.m., Penmead, Tiverton (Vice-Presi- 
dent). 

1866*Carpenter-Garaier, J., j.p., Rookesbury Park, Wickham,. 

Hants. 
1908 Carr-Smith, Miss Rose E., Harlow, Leamington. 
1902 Carter, Miss E. G., Hartland, North Devon. 
1899 Cartwright, Miss M. Anson, 11, Mont-le-Grand, Heavitree> 

Exeter. 

1918 Cary, Lt.-Commander H. L. M., r.n., c/o Capt, L. Cary, r.n.> 

Torre Abbey, Torquay. 
1918 Cary, Captain L., r.n., Torre Abbey, Torquay. 
1895*Cash, A. Midgley, m.d., Limefield, Torquay. 
1898 Cave, Sir C. D., Bart., Sidbury Manor, Sidmouth. 
1910 Chalk, Rev. E. S., m.a., Kentisbeare Rectory, Cullompton 

(Vice-President). 
1911*Chalmers, R. W. S., Holcombe, Moretonhampstead. 
1899*Champernowne, A. M., m.a., j.p., Dartington Hall, Totnes. 



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256 LIST OF MEMBERS, 

1918 Champernowne, Major Philip H., b.a., Beckhams, Manaton, 

Moretonhampstead, Devon. 
1917 Chanter, Frank W., Bloomfield, Braunton, N. Devon. 

1901 Chanter, Rev. J. F., m.a., f.s.a., Marlands, Exmouth. 
1884 Chapman, H. M., St. Martin's Priory, Canterbury. 
1881pChapman, Rev. Professor, m.a., ll.d., Crofton, Byronshill, 

Torquay. 
1906 Chapple, W. E. Pitpield, The Shrubbery, Axminster. 
1906 Chappie, Miss Pitfield, The Shrubbery, Axminster. 

1902 Charbonnier, T., 9, Cornwallis Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

1908 Chennells, Rev. A. W., b.a., ll.d., The College, Newton 

Abbot. 

1911 Chichester, Miss, Arlington Court, Barnstaple. 

1917 Chichester, Rev. Charles, m.a., Sherwell Rectory, Barn- 
staple. 

1914 Chilcott, Edward W., b.a., Chollacott Lane House, Tavis- 

tock. 

1919 Chope, H. F., Whiteley. Wood Road, Ranmoor, Sheffield. 
1896 Chope, R. Pearse, b.a., The Patent Office, 25, Southampton 

Buildings, London, W.C. 2. 

1912 Clapp, Cecil Robert Main waring, m.a., ll.m. (Cantab.), 

2, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 
1905 Clarke, Miss Kate, 2, Mont-le-Grand, Exeter. 
1919 Clarke, Miss, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 
1901pClayden, Principal A. W., m.a., f.g.s., Royal Albert Memorial 

College, Exeter. 

1903 Clay-Finch, Mrs., 17, Chester Road, Whitchurch, Salop. 
1912 Clifford, Colonel E. T., v.d., 6, Cranley Gardens, South 

Kensington, London, S.W. 7. 
1919tCockram, George Edward, Cowley Moor, Tiverton (Vice- 
President). 

1909 Colborne, The Hon. Mrs. Mabel, Venn, Ivy bridge. 
1898*pCoLERiDGE, Right Hon. Lord, m.a., The Chanter's House, 

Ottery St. Mary. * 

1896 Collings, The Right Hon. Jesse, m.p., Edgbaston, Bir- 
mingham. 

1915 Commin, H., 230, High Street, Exeter. 

1912 Cornish, Frederick John, 44, Magdalen Road, Exeter. 
1908 Cornish-Bo wden, Peter, Zaire, Newton Abbot. 

1910 Cornwall Polytechnic Society, The Royal {per the Secretary, 

E. W. Newton, Camborne). 

1904 Coryndqn, R. T., Government House, Entebbe, Uganda, 

South Africa. 
1911*Crabbe, Herbert Ernest, f.r.g.s., Teignbridge House, Kings- 

teignton, S. Devon. 
1919 Cramp, Miss Viola, 28, Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 11. 
1908 Crang, W. H., 11, Collingwood Villas, Devonport. 

1911 Cree, W. K, m.d., Penryn, Watts Road, Tavistock. 

1904 Crespin, C. Legassicke, 51, West Cromwell Road, London, 
S.W. 5. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. * 257 

1907 Cresswbll, Miss Beatrix F., 23, WonfordRoad, Exeter.' 

1918 Crocker, F. J., j.p., Castleton, Torquay. 

1898^Croft, Sir Alfred W., k.c.i.e., j.p., m.a., Rumleigh, Bere 

Alston, K.S.O. 
1886 Cumming, Stephen A., 40, Palmerston Crescent, Palmer's 
. Green, London, N. 13. 

1916 Dallas, Miss Margaret Frazer, Moorfield, Mannamead, Ply- 

mouth. 
1911 Davey, G. W., 16, John Street, Bedford Row, London, 
W.C. 1. 

1911 Davie, G. C, j.p., c.c, The Elms, Bishop's Tawton, Barnstaple. 

1917 Davies, W. R., Kingsclear, Camberley, Surrey. 
1902 Daw, Mrs., Yeoldon, Northam, N. Devon. 

1918 Day, C. B., Allerdale, Torquay. 

1912 Depree, Mrs. Lilian May, 3, Pensylvania Park, Exeter. 
1911 Devon and Exeter Club, Exeter (per Hon. Sec). 

1905 Dewey, Rev. Stanley D., m.a., Rectory, Moretonhampstead. 

1919 Dixon, Captain Jos. P., Tiverton. 

1918 Dohson, F., 55, Fleet Street, Torquay. 

1919 Dodd, Colonel Anthony, a.m.s., Windycroft, Instow, North 

Devon. 

1919 Dodridge, A. E., Moulin, Cromwell Road, Beckenham, Lon- 
don, S.E. 20. 

1882 I?oe, George M., Enfield, Great Torrington. 

1898*Donaldson, Rev. E. A., Pyworthy Rectory, Holsworthy, North 
Devon. 

1913 Downes, Harold, M.B., f.l.s., p.g.s., f.r.m.s., Ditton Lea, 

Ilminster, Somerset. 

1907 Drake, Capt. F. Morris, Cathedral Yard, Exeter. 

1917 Drake-Brockman, Rev. E., a.r.s.m., 2, Bartholomew Terrace, 

Exeter. 

1902 Drayton, Harry G., 201, High Street, Exeter. 

1910 Drewe, Julius C, j.p., Wadhurst Hall, Sussex. 

1909 Duke, The Rt. Hon. The Lord Justice, P.O., 37, Alleyn 
Park, Dulwich, London, S.E. 21. 

1889 Duncan, A. G., j.p., South Bank, Bideford. 

1913 Dunn, Miss Mary Rouse, Riverside, Bideford. 

1898*Dunning, Sir E. H., Knt., j.p., Jacques Hall, Bradfield, 
Essex. 

1919 Dunsford, F. B., j.p., Ashleigh, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1901*Durnford, George, j.p., c.a., f.c.a.can., Greenhythe, West- 
mount, Montreal, Canada. 

1918 Dutton, Miss A. V., Somerdon, Sidmouth. 

1919 Dwelly, Edward, The Oaks, Pinewood Hill, Fleet, Hants. 
1879 Dymond, Arthur H., 24, Burton Court, Chelsea, London, S.W. 
1916 Dymond, G. P., m.a., 6, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. 

1902 Dymond, Mrs. Robert, The Mount, Bideford. 

1919 Eales, C. E., The Limes, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1908 Eames, Miss Kate, Cotley, near Chard. 
VOL. LI. R 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



258 LIST OF MEMBERS. •. 

1907 Eames, Miss Maria Deane, Cotley, near Chard. 

1917 Eames, Miss Sarah E., Carlton House, Exmouth. 
1919 Easton, H., 1, Lombard Street, London, E.C. 3. 

1918 Ede, Harry P., Applegarth, Maidencombe, near Teign- 

mouth. 
1901 Edye, Colonel L., United Service Club, London, S.W. 1. 
1896 Elliot, Edmund A. S., m.r.c.8., m.b.o.u., Slade House, near 

Kingsbridge. 
1898*Evans, Arnold, 4, Lithfield Place, Clifton. 
1904 Evans, Major G. A. Penrhys, Furzedene, Budleigh Salterton. 
1895 Evans, H. Montagu, 2, Mount Tamar Villas, St. Budeaux, 

Devon. 
1914 Evans, Rev, A. C, m.a., The Vicarage, Lamerton, 

Tavistock. 
1880*Evans, Parker N., Park View, Brockley, West Town, R.S.O., 

Somerset. 
1902*Eve, The Hon. Sir H. T., 19, Kildare Gardens, Bayswater, 

London, W. 2. 
1904 Every, Richard, Marlands, Heavitree, Exeter. 
1917 Exeter, The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of (Lord William Cecil), 

The Palace, Exeter. 



1912 Fairbrother, G. H., Whitehall, Bideford. 

1905 Falcon, T. A., m.a., Hill Close, Braunton, Devon. 

1919 Fargus, Brigadier-General Harold, o.b., c.m.g., d.s.o., Alex- 
andra House, Alexandra Terrace, Exmouth. 

1919 Fargus, Mrs. Harold, Alexandra House, Alexandra Terrace,. 
Exmouth. 

1896*Firth, R. W., Place, Ashburton. 

1919 Fisher, E. C, m.a., Milverton Lodge, Tiverton. 

1919 Fisher, Frederic Bazley, j.p., Elm Cottage, Tiverton (Vice- 
President). 

191& Fisher, Mrs. S. H., 18, Fore Street, Tiverton (Vice-Presi- 
dent). 

1918JFisher, T. Carson, b.a., m.d., Carisbrooke, Teignmouth Road,. 
Torquay. 

1911 Fleming, George Mcintosh, c.c, Loventor Manor, Totnes. 

1918 Forster, Robert Henry, m.a., ll.b. (Cantab.), Kilmar House,. 
Liskeard. 

1906 Fortescue, Rt. Hon. the Earl, Castle Hill, South Molton. 
ISflO Foster, M, T., Fore Street, Cullompton. 

1918 Foster, James Murray, c/o M. T. Foster, Fore Street* 

Cullompton. 
1876*Fowler, Rev. Canon W. W., Earley Vicarage, Reading. 

1918 Fradd, Martin, Aubrey House, Reading. 

1892 Francis, H, c.e., 12, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. 
I960 Francken, W. A., Okehampton Park, Okehampton. 

1919 French, Rev. W., m.a., Cadeleigh Rectory, near Tiverton. 
1914 Frost, Miss Dorothy, Regent Street, Teignmouth. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 259 

1912pFROUDE, Ashley A., c.m.g., Collapit Creek, Kingsbridge, 

S. Devon. 
1908 Fulford, Francis A., Great Fulford, Dunsford, Exeter. 

1880 Furneaux, J., j.p., Tor View, Buckfastleigh, Devon. 

1908 Gallsworthy, Frank, Wellesley Buildings, Wellington Street, 

Leeds. 
1919pGamble, The Very Revd. H. R., d.d., Dean of Exeter, The 

Deanery, Exeter (President). 
1906 Gardiner, John, The Elms, Rudgeway, R.S.O., Glos. 
1913 Gates, Dr. Mabel, m.d., b.s. (lond.), 15, York Road, Exeter. 

1901 Gauntlett, George, 27, Dix's Field, Exeter. 
1900*Gervis, Henry, m.d., f.r.o.p., p.s.a., j.p., 15, Royal Crescent, 

Bath. 
1910- Gidley, G. G., m.d., Heyford House, Cullompton. 

1909 Giffard, Edward Walter, 13, Chesham Place, London, 

S.W. 1. 
1919 Gilbert, Commander Walter Raleigh, R.N., Bishopsteignton 

House, Bishopsteignton, Devon. 
1892*Gill, Miss, St, Peter's Street, Tiverton. 
1919 Glover, Rev. W., f.r.g.8., St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 

1902 Goaman, Thomas, j.p., 14, Butt Gardens, Bideford. 

1918 Gordon, Thomas Hodge tts, b.a. (lond.), Belhelvie, Alexandria 

Road, Sidmouth. ' 
1917 Gotto, Mrs. M. C, St. Catherine's, Exmouth. 

1917 Greaves, Hasiehurst, North Devon AthensBum, Barnstaple. 

1918 Green, F. W., Welstor, Ashburton. 

1881 Gregory, A. T., Gazette Office, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1917 Gribble, Miss Rose M., Splatton, S. Brent. 

1913*Grigg, H. W., Cann House, Tamerton Foliot, Crownhill, 
S.O., Devon. 

1892j>Halsbury, The Right Hon. the Earl of, 4, Ennismore Gardens, 

London, S.W. 7. 
1895*Hambleden, The Right Hon. Viscount, 3, Grosvenor Place, 

London, S.W. 1. 
1880*Hamlyn, Joseph, Fullaford, Buckfastleigh. 

1918 Harpley, Mrs. H. Avery, Northcote, Torre's Park, Ilfracombe. 
1893 Harris, Miss, Sunningdale, Portland Avenue, Exmouth. 
1916 Harris, George Thomas, Kelso, Knowle Park, Sidmouth. 
1905 Harte, Prof. Walter J., Royal Albert Memorial College, 

Exeter. 
1908 Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., per 

Messrs. Edward G. Allen and Son, Ltd., 14, Grape Street, 

Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 
1900 Harvey, Sir Robert, d.l., j.p., Dundridge, Totnes. 
1919JHatchard, Rev. D. Perceval, m.a., St. Paul's Vicarage, 

Tiverton. 
1875*Hatt-Cook, Herbert, Hartford Hall, Cheshire. 



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260 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1917JHaughton, B., East Down House, near Barnstaple. 
1913 Hawker, Capt. Henry Gore, Strode, Ivybridge, S. Devon. 
1910 Hawkins, Eev. Edward J., b.a., 18, Marlborough Road, Exeter. 
1912 Hearn, Mrs. Eliza Christine, Ford House, Alphington Road, 
Exeter. 

1918 Heath, Miss Alice, 9, Wellswood Park, Torquay. 

1919 Hebditch, W. Anstey, Juryhayes, Tiverton. i 
1919 Hebditch, Mrs. J. T., Juryhayes, Tiverton. 
1890*Heberden, W. B., c.b., Elmfield, Exeter. 

1919 Hepburn, Lady, Dunmore, Bradninch, Cullompton. 
1919 Herapath, Mervyn, Cintra, Budleigh Salterton. 
19 19 J Herring, Francis, m.a., 6, Redlands, Tiverton. 

1907 Herron, H. G. W., c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., 54, Parlia- 

ment Street, S.W. 1. 

1908 Hext, George, Kingstone, Newton Abbot. 

1918 Hicks, Colonel John George, v.d., McWhirter House, Abbey 

Road Mansions, St. John's Wood, London, N.W. 8. 
1882*pHiERN, W. P., M.A., F.R.8., j.p., c.A., The Castle, Barnstaple. 

1916 Hill, H. S., 29, Staddon Terrace, Plymouth. 
1892*Hingston, C. A., m.d., j.p., 3, The Esplanade, Plymouth. 
1907 Hitchcock, Arthur, Bettysground, Shute, Axminster. 

1912 Hitchcock, Capt. Walter M., Sunnyside, 51, The Boulevard, 
Weston-super-Mare. 

1918 Hockaday, F. S., p.r.hist.s., Highbury, Lydney, Glos. 
1898 Hodgson, T. V., Municipal Museum, Plymouth. 

1901 Holman, H. Wilson, f.s.a., 1, Lloyd's Avenue, Fenchurch 

Street, London, E.C. 3. 
1901 Holman, Herbert, m.a., ll.b., Haldon Lodge, Teignmouth. 
1893 Holman, Joseph, Downside House, Downlewne, Sneyd, Bristol. 
1906 Holman, Francis Arthur, Jerviston, Streatham Common, 

London, S.W. 2. 
1906 Holman, Ernest Symohs, 1, Lloyd's Avenue, Fenchurch 

Street, London, E.C. 3. 

1919 Holman, Sidney H., The Dene, Denewood Road, Highgrfte, 

London, N. 

1917 Holmes, A. H., Bodley Cottage, Parracombe, Barnstaple, 

N. Devon. 
1914*Hooper, H. Dundee, m.a., Ardvar, Torquay. 

1918 Hooper, W. R., Great Torrington, N. Devon. 

1910 Hooppell, Rev. J. L. E., St Peter's Vicarage, 10, Hokton 

Square, London, N. 1. 

1911 Hopper, A. E., Queen Anne's Chambers, Barnstaple. 
1896*Hosegood, S., Pendennis, Rockleaze, nr. Bristol. 
1895*IIughes, T. Cann, m.a., f.s.a., Town Clerk, Lancaster. ' 

1918 Hunt, Mrs. A. R., South wood, Torquay. 

1917 Hunt, F. W., j.p.* c.c, High Street, Barnstaple. 
1906 Hunt, Rev. Jas. Lyde, Efford, Paignton. 

1919 Hutchinson, Rev. F, E., m.a., Court Place, Cove, Tiverton 

(Vice-President). 
1886 Huxtable, James, 51, The Avenue, Kew Gardens. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 261 

1919 Huxtable, William Henry, 2, St. Paul's Square, Tiverton 

(Vice-Presidbnt). 
1918 Huxtable, W. S., Carisbrooke, Torquay. 
1908 Hyde, The Venble. H. B., The Vicarage, Bovey Tracey. 

1893 Iredale, A., Strand, Torquay. 

1918 Jackson, Rev. Edward E., m.a., The Rectory,*" Parracombe, 

Barnstaple, N. Devon. 
1890* Jackson, Mark, Homelea, Purley, Surrey. 
1904 Jackson, Rev. Preb. P., St. Martins, Exeter. 
1908 James, S. Boucher, Hallsannery, Bideford. 

1912 Jenkins, Rhys, m.i.m.e., The Patent Office, 25, Southampton 

Buildings, London, W.C. 2 

1916 Jenkins, Rev. W. T. LI., The Rectory, Instow, N. Devon. 
1901 Jerman, J., f.r.i.b.a., p.r.m.s., The Bungalow, Topsham Road, 

Exeter. 

1917 Jewell, F. A., The Mayor's Parlour, Barnstaple. 

1911 Joce, Thomas James, 3, Manor Crescent, Newton Abbot. 

1918 Johnston, Rev. J. Charteris, Mount Warren, St. Luke's 

Road, N., Torquay. 

1919 Johnstone, F., Wilcombe Villa, Tiverton. 
1883 Jordan, W. F. C, The Cedars, Teignmouth. 
1916 Judge, J. J., 15, Hill Park Crescent, Plymouth. 

1899* Julian, Mrs. Hester Forbes, p.g.s., f.r.a.i., Redholme, 
Torquay. 

1913 Keene, Rev. E. G. Perry- r Dean Prior, Buckfastleigh. 

1916 Keily, The Rt. Rev. Bishop John, d.d., Bishop's House, 

Plymouth.- 
1919 Kidwell, W. G., 16, Twyford Place, Tiverton. 
1918 Kirkwood, Major J. H. Morrison, d.s.o., Yeo Vale, Bideford. 

1918 Kitson, Major Robert, Hengrave, Torquay. 

1919 Knight, Rev. Francis, d.d., Kincraig, Forest Road, Torquay. 
1901 Knight, Mrs. J. H., The Firs, Friar's Walk, Exeter. 

1914 Knight, N. Hine, 5, Borringdon Terrace, Plympton. 

1903 Laing-Oldham, Philip M. T., m.a., Strawbridge, Hatherleigh, 

N. Devon. 
1919 Lake, T., j.p., c.a., 5, St. Aubyns, Tiverton. 
1871 Lake, William Charles, m.d., Benton, Teignmouth. 
1919 Lancefield, Rev. A. P., m.a , St. Mary Arches Rectory, 18, St. 

Leonards Road, Exeter. 
1913 Lane, Rev. W. H. Cecil, m.a., The Parsonage, Postbridge, 

Prince town, Devon. 
1907 Lane, John, The Bodley Head, Vigo Street, London, W. 1. 

1904 Lang, Charles Augustus, The Shiel, Elgin Road, Weybridge. 
1898 Langdon, Rev. F. E. W., Membury Vicarage, Axminster. 
1916 Langford, Rev. Canon John Frere, Southbrook, Starcross, 

Devon. 



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262 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1906 Lartbr, Miss C. Ethblinda, f.l.s., 2, Summerland Terrace, 
St. Marychurch, Torquay. 

1905 Laycock, C. H., Cross Street, Moretonhampstead. 

1919 Lazenby, Miss, b.a., Eastfield, Tiverton (Vicb-Prbsidbnt). 
1889*Lee, Col. J. W., Budleigh Salterton, South Devon. 
1914 Lewin, L. H., Willowby Park Villas, Yelverton, S. Devon. 
1911 Lindsay, W. A., j.p., d.l., k.c, m.a., f.s.a., Norroy King of 

Arms, College of Arms, London, E.C., and Deer Park, 

Honiton. 
1919 Littledale, F. Woodhouse, St. Marychurch, South Devon. 
1890*Longstaff, G. B., m.d., Twitcham, Mortehoe, R.S.O. 
1919 Lovett, W. T., Highfields, Halberton, Tiverton. 
1898 Lowb, Harford J., f.g.s., Kotri, Chelston, Torquay. 

1918 Lupton, Henry, Courtlands, Chelston, Torquay. 

1906 MacDermot, E. T., Lillycombe, Porlpck, Somerset. 

1919 Mahood, A. G., Sunny side, Tiverton. 

1919 Mclntyre, Rev. James, b.d., The Rectory, Washford Pyne, 
Morchard Bishop, Devon. 

1907 McLennan, Frank, Lynch Villa, Axminster. » 
1894 Mallet, W. R, Exwick Mills, Exeter. 

1904 Manchester Free Reference Library, Kiug Street, Manchester. 

1905 Manisty, George Eldon, Nattore Lodge, Budleigh Salterton, 

1903 Manlove, Miss B., Moor Lawn, Ashburton. 
1901 Mann, F., Leat Park, Ashburton. 

1914 # Mardon, Evelyn John, b.a., ll.b., f.r.g.s., New Court, 

Topsham, Devon. 
1897*Mardon, Heber, Clifden, Teignmouth. 

1901 Marines, The Officers Plymouth Division R.M.L.I., Royal 

Marine Barracks, Stonehouse, Devon. 
1919 Marquand, C. V. B., Y Glyn, Llanfarian, Cardiganshire. 
1917 Marsh, Charles, Cross Street, Barnstaple. 

1904 Marshall, James C, Oak Hill, Stoke-on-Trent. 

1917 Martin, Major Arthur J., r.a.m.c, 45, Delaware Mansions, 

Maida Hill, London, W. 9. 

1918 Martin, Mrs. C. L., Clanmarina, Torquay. 

1919 Martin, W. H., Tiverton (Vicb-Presidbnt). 

1918 Mason, Samuel, 15, College Road, Newton Abbot. 

1908 Matthews, Lieut.-Colonel Alfred, Gratton, Bow, N. Devon. 
1887 Matthews, Coryndon, f.e.s„ Stentaway, Plymstock, S. Devon. 
1894 Maxwell, Mrs., Lamorna, Torquay. 

1909 May, W. H., 23, Lockyer Street, Plymouth. 

1917 May, Mrs. Mary Elizabeth, Sefton House, Northam, 

N. Devon. 
1898 Melhuish, Rev. George Douglas, m.a., Ash water Rectory, 

Seaworthy. 

1902 Messenger, Arthur W. B., Staff Paymaster R.N., Salvage 

Section, Admiralty, London, S.W. 1. 
1900 Mildmay, Lt.-Colonel the Rt. Hon. F. B., m.p., Flete, Ivybridge. 

1919 Miller, Brian S., The Castle, Exeter. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 263 

1910 Monkswell, Right Hon. Lord, 117, St. James's Court, 

London, S.W. 1. 
1919 Montgomery, R., m.a., School House, Tiverton. 
1919 Montgomery, Mrs., School House, Tiverton. * 

1905 Moon, W. J., j.p., 20, Home Park Villas, Devonport. 
1919 Moore, R., m.a., Tidcombe House, Tiverton. 

1906 Morley, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of, Saltram, Plympton. 

1909 Morris, R. Burnet, m.a., ll.b., Belair, Exmouth. 

1914 Morris, Miss E. A., Nirvana, Ivybridge, S. Devon. 
1908 Morrison-Bell, Colonel E. F., Pitt House, Chudleigh. 

1910 Morrison-Bell, Major A. C, m.p., 13, Seymour Street, Portman 

Square, London, W. 
1898 Morshbad, J. Y. Anderson, Lusways, Salcombe Regis, 

Sidmouth. 
1886 # Mortimer, A., 1, Paper Buildings, Temple, London. 
1912 Mortimer, Fleet-Surgeon, Edgar F., r.n., Rock Mount, 

Torrington, N. Devon. 

1917 Mortimer, Miss, 2, The Myrtle, Sidmouth. 

1919 Mott, Rev. L. O., m.a., Hennock Vicarage, Bovey Tracey, S. 

Devon. 
1919 Mudford, K, 12, Fore Street, Tiverton. 
1904 Murray, Sir O. A. R., kc.b., The Admiralty, London, 

S.W. 1. 

1918 Murrin, A. J., j.p., c.c, Powderham Road, Newton Abbot. 

1918 Myers, Rev. T., Elm Tree, St. Marychurch, S. Devon. 

1919tNeal, J. W., Melbourne House, Tiverton. 
1885*Neck, J. S., J. p., Great House, Moretonhampstead. 

1919 New, H. G., j.p., Craddock, Cullompton, Devon (Vice- 

President). 
1912 Newberry Library, Chicago (per Messrs. B. F. Stevens and 
Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, London, WXJ. 2.). 

1912 Newman, Sir Robert, Bart., d.l., j.p., m.p., Mamhead Park, 

Exeter. 
1902 Newton Club (per T. W. Donaldson, Esq., Hon. Sec.) 
Newton Abbot. 

1913 New York Public Library (per Messrs. B. F. Stevens and 

Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.). 
1918 Nixon, Sidney E., Wayside, Watcombe, near Torquay. 

1908 Northcote, Gordon Stafford, Willowmead, Budleigh Salterton. 

1909 Northcote, The Rt. Hon. Lady Rosalind, Pynes, near 

Exeter. 
1915*Northmore, John, Moorfield, Lee-on-the-Solent, Hants. 

1915 Notley, Rev. J. T. B., b.a., c/o Lloyd's Bank, Totnes. 
1904 Nourse, Rev. Stanhope M., Shute Vicarage, Axminster. 

1914 Odell, Rev. F. J., b.n., Endsleigh, Totnes, Devon. 
1918 Odell, William, m.d., p.r.c.s., Ferndale, Torquay. 
1917 Oliver, Bruce W., a.r.i.b.a., Bridge End, Barnstaple. 
1914 Openshaw, Oliver, The Grange, Kentisbury, near Barnstaple. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



264 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1913 Paige, Henry, j.p., Broomborough, Totnes. 

1910 Palmer, Frederick William Morton-, m.d., m.a., b.c. (Cantab, ), 

f.s.a., 13, Orchard Gardens, Teignmouth. 

1911 Pannell, Rev. A. P., Bulmer Vicarage, Sudbury, Suffolk. 
1919 Parker, Oxley Durant, j.p., c.c, Sharpham, Totnes. 
1906 Parry, H. Lloyd, b.a., b.Sc, ll.b m Guildhall, Exeter. 

1912 Pastfield, John Robinson, 7, Victoria Terrace, Magdaleo 

Road, Exeter. 
1908 Pateman, Arthur F., Braeside, Belle Vue Road, Exmouth. 

1902 Patey, Rev. Charles Robert, Sowton Rectory, Exeter. 

1903 Peacock, H. G., l.r.c.p., m.r.c.s., Mem. Brit. Mycol. Soc. t 

. Hareston Lodge, Ash Hill Road, Torquay. 

1914 Pearse, Major A. B. Rombulow, 6 th Gurka Rifles, c/o Messrs. 

Cox and Co., 16, Charing Cross, London, S.W. 1. 
1901 Pearse, James, 11, Salutary Mount, Heavitree, Exeter. 

1910 Peck, Miss Charlotte L., Maiclencombe House, St. Mary- 

church, Torquay. 

1911 Peek, C, j.p., The Keep, Kingswear, S. Devon. 

1882 Penzance Library, Penzance. 

1919 Perkin, Emil S., The Wilderness, Tiverton (Vice-President). 

1917 Perry, Francis A., 4, Kirchen Road, West Ealing, London, W. 1 3. 

1908 Peter, Claude H., Craigmore, Launceston. 

1883 Petherick, J., 8, Clifton Grove, Torquay. 

1916 Pethybridge, H. M., 11, Frankfort Street, Plymouth. 
l918*Phillpotts, Eden, Eltham, Torquay. 

1918 ^Pillar, James Elliott, Drake Circus, Plymouth. 

1912 Pinder, William Henry, Shillingford Lodge, near Exeter. 
1899 Pinkham, Colonel Charles, m.b.e., m.p., j.p., c.a., Linden 

Lodge, 7, Winchester Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 6. 

1919 Pinnock, Miss A., Head Mistress, Girls' Middle School, 

Tiverton. 

1918 Pitman, C. E., o.i.e., Drewton, Chelston, Torquay (Vice- 

President). 

1879 Plymouth Free Public Library, Plymouth. 

1916 Plymouth Proprietary Library, Cornwall Street, Plymouth. 

1880 Pode, J. D., j.p., Slade, Corn wood, Ivybridge. 
1919{Pollock, J. R., Bampton Street, Tiverton. 
1892pPoLLOCK, Sir F., Bart., ll.d., f.s.a., etc., 21, Hyde Park 

Place, London, W. 2. ( 

1900*Ponsonby, Rev. Preb. Stewart Gordon, m.a., Rectory, Stoke 

Damerel, Devonport. 
1900*Pope, John, Coplestone House, Copplestone. 

1919 Powell, Alfred S., Hill Garden, Torquay. 

1909 Prance, H. Penrose, Whitchurch, Mannamead, Plymouth. 
1919 Pratt, Miss, Ottery St. Mary, Devon. 

1919 Pratt, William, 34, Lawn Road, Exmouth. 

1915 Prideaux, Charles S., f.rs.m., l.d.s. Eno., Ermington, Dor- 

chester, Dorset. 
1901 # Prideaux, W. de C, p.r.s.m., ii.D.s.ENo., F.S.A., 12, Frederick 
Place, Weymouth. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 265 

1918 Priestley, C. W., b.Sc, Richmond Lodge, Torquay. 
1887*Prowsb, Lt.-Colonel Arthur B., r.a.m.c.(t.), m.d., p.rc.s., 

5, Lansdown Place, Clifton. 
1891 Prowse, W. B., L.R.C.P., m.r.c.s., 31, Vernon Terrace, 

Brighton. 
1894*Pryke, Rev. Canon W. E., m.a., The Close, Exeter. 

1919 Pugsley, J. Follett, How Hill, Tiverton (Vice-Prbsident). 
1919 Purvis, John Archibald, d.Sc., p.r.s.b., 6, Pennsylvania Park, 

Exeter. 
1919*Pyne, H. B., Farnham, Surrey. 
1919 Pyne, Taylor, Drumthwacket, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

1918 Radcliffe, Alexander Nelson, Bag Park, Wideconibe-in-the- 

Moor, Ashburton.' 
1901 Radford, A. J. V., p.s.a., Vacye, College Road, Malvern. 
1898*Radford, Arthur L., p.s.a., The Manor House, Bradninch, 

Devon. 

1919 Radford, H. G., f.s.a., Lested Lodge, Well Walk, Hampstead, 

London, N.W. 3. 

1888 Radford, Lady, f.r.hist.s., 2, Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

1919 Radford, Miss Cecily, 2, Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

1916 Raymond, Miss Mildred, St. Michael's Lodge, Stoke, Ply- 
mouth. 

1918 Rea, C. F., B.A., b.Sc., j.p., Lake Mead, Totnes. 

1915 Record Office Library, The Public, c/o The Supt. of Publica- 

tions (Book Dept.), Stationery Office, Princes Street r 

Westminster, London, S.W. 1» 
1896 Reed, Harbottlb, p.ri.b.a., 12, Castle Street, Exeter. 
1912 Reed, Capt. Herbert, Thornlea, Cowley Road, Exeter. 
1912 Reed, William Henry, Thornlea, Cowley Road, Exeter. 

1919 Rees, Rev. J. J., m.a., Sampford Peverell Rectory, Tiverton. 
1909 Reform Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. (per Librarian). 
1885*Reichel, L. H., Beara Court, Highampton, North Devon. 
1872 Reiohbl, Rev. Oswald J., b.o.l., p.s.a., A la Ronde, Lymp- 

stone, Devon. 
1911 Rendell, Dr., 19, Norfolk Crescent, Hyde Park, London, W. 2. 
1904 Reynell, B., Gorse Hill, 61, Albion Street, New Brighton. 
1898*Reynell-Upham, W. Upham, 4, Keat's Grove, Hampstead r 

London, N.W. 3. 

1918 Rich, W. J., 21, New North Road, Exeter. 

1916 Rider, Alonzo J., Outram Terrace, Devonport. 

1919 Riding, Miss Laura, Treaslake, Stevenstone Road, Littleham, 

Exmouth. 
1914 Roberts, Herbert James, Redgate, Postbridge, Princetown, 

S. Devon. 
1906 Roberts, Rev. R. O., East Down Rectory, Barnstaple. 
1905/>Robbrtson, Thb Rt Rbv. Dr., Oxford. 

1916 Rogers, Henry J., 8, May Terrace, Plymouth. 

1917 Rogers, Inkerman, p.g.s., Inkerman House, Clovelly Road, 

Bideford. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



266 LIST OP MEMBERS. 

1909 Rogers, R. B., Hexworthy, Lawhitton, near Launceston. 

1902*Rogers, W. H., j.p., Orleitfh Court, Bideford. 

1914 Rowe, Miss Flora A. M., Wonwood, Lamerton, Tavistock. 

1912 Rowley, F. R., f.r.m.s., Royal Albert Memorial Museum, 

Exeter. 
1918 Royse, Rev. William Henry Harvey, r.n., Holne Vicarage, 

Ashburton. 
1899 Rudd, E. E., 18, Gladys Road, London, N.W. 6. 
1905*Rundell, Towson William, p.r.Mkt.8oc, Terras Hill, Lost- 

withiel, Cornwall. 

1914 Rylands Library (The), Manchester. 

1912*pST. Cyres, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, j.p., m.a., Pynes, near 

Exeter. 
1898*St. Maur, Harold, d.l., j.p., Stover, Newton Abbot. 
1904 Sanders, James, j.p., c.c, 21, South Street, South Molton. 
1881 # Saunders, Ernest G. Symes, m.d., 20, Ker Street,* Devon port. 
1877*Saunders, George J. Symes, m.d., Lustleigh, Burlington Place, 

Eastbourne. 

1918 Sayers, Rev. A. H., The Manse, North Gate, Totnes. 

1917 Scarlett, J. F., Orchard Mount, Ashburton. 

1919 Scott, Miss M. E., m.a., Broomfield, Tiverton. 

1906 Scott, S. Noy, d.p.h. lond., l.r.c.p. lond., m.r,c.s. kn«., 
Elmleigh, Plymstock. 

1918 Sbarlby, A. W., Northernhay, KingskerswelL 

1906 Segar, Richard, 64, St. Gabriel's Road, Cricklewood, 
London, N.W. 2. 

1916 Sexton, F., 3, Queen Anne Terrace, Plymouth. 
1894 Shapland, A. E., j.p., Church House, South Molton. 

1919 Shapland, Hubert R., Bellaire, Barnstaple. 
1919 Sharland, H. B., 13, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton. 
1919 Shearman, Frank, Stoodleigh Court, Tiverton. 

1909 Sheldon, Gilbert, 70, Longton Grove, Sydenham, London, 

S.E. 26. 

1910 Sheldon, Miss Lilian, 70, Longton Grove, Sydenham, London. 

S.E. 26. 
1882 Shelley, Sir John, Bart., d.l., j.p., Shobrooke Park, 
Crediton. 

1915 Shepherd, Captain E., 2, Cornwall Road, Westbourne Park, 

London, W. 11. 

1917 Shepherd, W. J., The Pharmacy, Barnstaple. 

1918 Sherwin, Rev. Charles, m.a., Clyst Hydon Rectory, near 

Exeter. 
1885 Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton S. Philip, Bath. 

1919 Siddalls, John, m.i.m., c.b., Drumore, Tiverton, N. Devon 

(Hon. Local Secretary). 

1913 Simmons, Sydney, j.p., Okehampton, Torrington Park, Friern 

Barnet, London, N. 12. 

1914 Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., 4, Stationers' 

Hall Court, London, E.C. 4. 



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LIST OF MBMBBBS. 267 

1907 Simpson, S., Cleeve, Christow, near Exeter. 
1919 Skelt, R. A., Uffculme, Cullompton. 

1902 Skinner, A. J. P., Colyton. 

1906 Skinner, Miss Emily, 21, St. Peter's Street, Tiverton (Vice- 
President). 
1914 Small, A., Taw View, Pitt Hill, Appledore, N. Devon. 

1918 Smith, Mrs. C. H., The Hey, St. Marychurch, S. Devon. 
1916 Snell, H. J., Grimston, Houndiscombe Road, Plymouth. 

1905 Snell, M. B., j.p., 5, Copthall Buildings, London, E.C. 

1909 Snell, William D., 27, Chapel Street, Stonehouse, Ply- 
mouth. 

1912 Soper, H. Tapley, p.r.Hist.s., The Monastery, Waverley 
Avenue, Exeter. 

1891 Southcomb, Rev. H. G., m.a., Orchard Dene, Budleigh 
Salterton. 

1906 Sparks, Miss Hilda Ernestine, Suffolk House, Putney Hill, 

London, S.W. 15. 

1919 Squire, H. Brimsmead, 90, Wood Street, London, E.C. 2. 

1918 Staines, A. W., 69, Union Street, Torquay. 
1868*/?Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., m.a., f.r.s., Ephraim Lodge, The 

Common, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
1900 Stiff, J. Carleton, Alfoxden, Torquay. 
1919JStolterforth, Charles S., m.r.o.s., m.r.c.p., 1, Grey Friars, 

Chester. 
1885*Strode, George S. S., d.l., j.p., clc, Newnham Park, 

Plympton. 
\875*Sulivan, Miss. 

1919 Sydenham, J. F., m.d., Dulverton, Devon. 
1919 Sydenham, Miss K. S. B., Dulverton, Devon. 

1899 Symonds, F. G., The Firs, Sturminster Newton, Dorset. 
1896 Swansea Devonian Society (per S. T. Drew), Swansea. 

1899*Tanner, C. Peile, B.A., Chawleigh Rectory, Chulmleigh. 

1890 Tavistock Public Library, Bedford Square, Tavistock. 

1900*Taylor, Alfred, p.r.g.s., The Mission House, Sehore Canton 
ment, Central India. 

1886 Taylor, Arthur Furneaux, Ingleside, Han well, London, 
W. 7. 

1918 Thomas, Mrs. F. S., The Old Vicarage, Holne, near Ash- 
burton. 

1912 Thurgood, Ernest Charles, Beverley, Dagmar Road, Exmouth. 

1918 Tidman, Arthur, m.a., Petit Saleve, Croft Road, Torquay. 

1903 Tindall, J., Marino, Sidmouth. 

1906 Toley, Albert, Devonia, Golden Manor, Hanwell, W. 7. 

1908 Torquay Public Library, Torquay. 

1918 Tracey, Miss B., Bovey Tracey, Devon. 

1908 Treglohan, William Thomas, b.a., Conington, Clarendon Road, 

Watford, Herts. 
1902 Trelawny-Ross, Rev. J. T., d.d., Ham, near Devonport. 

1919 Treliving, Norman, Central Library, Leeds. 



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\ 



i* * *^* oh*"*"* sal 

Uftft Turner, O- ^lias, ^* . 

1918 turner, *"#*. ^ , *. <*«*>*» ** 
lflt Turner,* ^l^fij^***. * reStOD ' 

\Vl\ tJ>r^ tt li Victor, E^ 



Digitized by ' 



"Xjlf 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 269 

1872tWhitaker, W., b.a., f.r.s., f.g.s., Assoc. Inst. C.E,, F* San. 

Inst., 3, Campden Road, Croydon. . . 
1893. White, T. Jeston, 39, Burne Street, London, N.W. 
1 907 JWhite way- Wilkinson, W. H., f.rc.s.b., Inverteign, Teign-t 

mouth. 
1897 Whitley, H. Micb;ell, m.inst.cb., Broadway Court, West- 
minster, London, S.W. 1. 
1914 Wickham, Rev. H. M., St. John's Vicarage, Bovey Tracey, 

Devon. 
1883*Willcocks, A. D., m.r.c.8., Park Street, Taunton. 
1918*Willcocks, Lieut. RE., 9, Rod way Road, Roehampton, 

London, S.W, 15. 
1918*Willcocks, Lieut. Roger Hussey, r.p. a., 4, College Hill, 

Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4. 
i876*Willcocks, W. K., m.a., 1, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, 

London, W.C. 
1912*Willey, Mrs. Emilie L., Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 
1913 Williams-Lyouns, H. F., The Knowle, Kingsbridge, Devon. 
1912 Wills, Sir E. Chaning, Bart., m.a., f.c.s., Harcombe, 

Chudleigh, S. Devon. 
1911 Wilson, A. H., Sandridge Park, near Totnes. 
1916 Wimbush, Mrs., Altamira, Topsham, Devon. 
1875*Windeatt, Edward, j.p., c.a., Heckwood, Totnes. 
1896*Windbatt, Major George E., o.b.e., t.d., Totnes (Hon. 

General Sbcrbtary). 

1896 Winget, W., Glen Almond, Cockington, Torquay. 
1872*Winwood, Rev. H. H., m.a., f.g.s., 11, Cavendish Crescent, 

Bath. 
1884*Woodhouse, H. B. S., 7, St. Lawrence Road, Plymouth. 
1896*Woodley, R. W., Place, Ashburton. 

1907 Woollcombe, Rev. A. A., Leusden Vicarage, near Ashburton. 
1904 Woollcombe, Gerald D., Cranmere, Newton Abbot. 
1916 Woollcombe, J. Y., 6, Queen's Gate, Plymouth. 
1901 Woollcombe, Robert Lloyd, m.a., ll.d., f.i.inst., f.r.g.s., 

f.rb.s., F.S.S., 14, Waterloo Road, Dublin. 
1891*Worth, R. Hansford, mbm.inst.cb., f.g.s., 32, Thornhill Road, 

Plymouth. 
1919 Worthington, Rev. John, m.a., St. Denis, Avenue Road, 

Torquay. 
1895*Wykes-Finch, Rev. W., m.a., j.p., The Monks, Chaddesley 

Corbett, Kidderminster; and North Wyke, near North 

Tawton. 
1919 Wynne, A. E., m.a., Old Blundells, Tiverton (Vice-Presi- 
dent). 
1919 Wynne, Mrs. A. E., Old Blundells, Tiverton. 

1897 Yacht Club, The Royal Western, The Hoe, Plymouth. 
1910 Yale University Library, New Haven, U.S.A., per Messrs. 

Edward G. Allen and Scm, 14, Grape Street, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



270 list of Members. 

l900*Yeo, Miss Mary E. J., Holsworthy, Rossi Street, Yass, New 

South Wales. 
1900 Yeo, "W. Curaon, 10, Beaumont Avenue, Richmond, Surrey. 
1895 Young, E. H., m.d., Darley House, Okehampton. 



The following Table contains a Summary of the foregoing list. 

Honorary Members . . . 1 

Life Members . . . • .87 

Annual Members • . ... 500 

Total, 1st December, 1919 . . . 588 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 

By MAXWELL ADAMS. 
Abbreviations used. — Bot. = Botany ; Dipt. = Diptera ; obit. = obituary. 



Abbeys : Torre, 188 
Abbots : Buckfast, 208 ; Buck- 
land, 208; Malmesbury (Aid- 
helm), 166 ; Tavistock, 188, 208 
Aberalva, cholera at, 54 
Accalan : 38 ; Hugh de, 38 
Accounts, Statement of, 22, 23 
Achard : Cicely, 190 ; Peter, 190 
Acland : Rt. Hon. Arthur Herbert 
Dyke, 39 ; Sir C. T. D. (obit.), 38, 

39 ; Gertrude, 39 ; John Dyke, 
38; Sir John, 38; Major 
Thomas, 34 

Acquitaine, Duchy of, 185, 197 
Address of the President (Dean 

Gamble), 47 
Adou, John (priest), 199 
Agromyzidas (Dipt.), 251 
Albemarle, Countess of (Isabella de 

Fortibus), 31, 190 
Aldestowe, John de, 209 
Aldhelm, bp., 165, 166, 168; 

Abbot . of Malmesbury, 166 ; 

Bishop of Sherborne, 166 
Aldridge : Dr. Charles (obit.), 39, 

40 ; Joseph, 39 
Alexander III (Pope), 183 
Alexander, J. J., 210 ; on When 

the Saxons came to Devon, 152 

Alfred, King, Life of (Asser), 177 w. 

Algm (Bot.), 119, 120; (Fresh- 
water), 118, 121 

Alton Locke (Kingsley), 52, 53, 55 

Alverdiscott Font, 217 

Ambrosius Aurelianus, 163 

America, 38, 43 

Amory : Sir Ian Heathcoat, 31 ; 
Lady, 31 

Ancient Tenures (Blount), 187 

Anderson : Dorcas, 42 ; Sir 
Francis, 42 

Angel, John and Joseph (Gold- 
smiths), 87, 88 

Anselm, archbp. of Canterbury, 
183 

Anthomyidas (Dipt.), 240 

Anthony, manor of, 193, 210 



Archbishops : Anselm of Canter- 
bury, 183 

Archdeacon : Alianora, 194 ; 
Alice, 186, 188, 200, 203, 204; 
Alis, 190, 191, 199, 203 ; Amicia, 
Amitia, 187, 188; Anne, 189- 
91 ; Cecilia, 202, 206, 207, 209 ; 
Cecily, 201, 203, 205, 206; 
Constance, 205 ; Geoffry, 187 ; 
John, 185, 189, 192, 194, 200-03, 
205-07, 210; John Silvester, 
184 ; Sir John, 187, 205, 208-10 ; 
Jordan, 206; Lord, 193, 196; 
Martin, 207 ; Matilda, 192, 200- 
02, 205 ; Maud, 200 ; Maurice, 

184 ; Mauritius, 184 ; Michael, 
185, 186, 190, 191, 207, 208, 210 ; 
Sir Michael, 185, 186 ; Odo, 184- 
9, 192, 193, 195, 199, 202-05, 
207; Sir Odo, 188; Sir Otho, 

185 ; Ralph, 184, 203, 204, 206, 
207, 210 ; Reginald, 207 ; Rey- 
mundus, 184 ; Richard, 207 ; 
Robert, 207;, Roger, 184; 
Stephen, 184,210 ; Thomas, 185- 
205; Sir Thomas, 185, 186, 
194, 197, 198, 200, 201 ; Warin, 
185, 194, 206, 207, 210 ; William, 
184 ; Arms of, 184 ; Brasses 
of, at Hexham, 210 

Archdeacon family : as Members 
of Parliament, 185; possessions 
in Cornwall, 185 ; connections 
with Cornish families, 185 ; 
various spellings of the name, 
181-3 

Armorials : 97 ; Archdeacon, 
184 ; Arundell, 192 ; Ayshford, 
85 ; Bluett, 90 ; Carew, 201 ; 
bp. Cotton, 95 ; Donne, Dun 
(of Dunn), 190; Holway, 96; 
Knovill (of Batteshorn), 190 ; 
Lansladron, 188 ; Luscott, 191 ; 
Marker, 96 ; Moeles, Mules, 200 ; 
Newte, 108; Pipard, Pypard, 
205 ; Portman, 91 ; Roberts, 
82 ;#Roche, 199 ; Seymour, 91 ; 



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272 



INDEX. 



Tracy, 201 ; Trenwith, 201 ; 

Worth, 112; Wyndham, 82 
Arondell. See Arundell 
Arrowheads found on Dartmoor, 

175 
Arundell, Arondell : Joan, 190 ; 

Lady Johanne, 192 ; John, 196 ; 

Sir John, 190 ; Arms of, 192 
Aschiza (Dipt.), 223 
Ashthorpe : family of, 35 ; Sir 

William, 35 
Ashwater : Font, 212 ; Manor, 203, 

204 
Asselond (Hasland in Petrock- 

stowe), 206, 207 
A8ser, Life of King Alfred, 177 n. 
Assheleye, Robert de, 198 
Asshewauter (Ashwater), manor of, 

203, 204 
Aurelius Conan, K. of Demetia, 163 
Auroras, 59 
Axe, River, 165 
Axminster, 164 
Ayre : Arthur, 106 ; Katherine, 

106 

Bacon, Francis, 28 

Bagge, Sir James, 205 

Bampton : 33, 34 ; excursion to, 

33, 34 ; church, 34 ; description 

of, 34 ; church screen, 34 ; the 

" Mote," 34 
Bannockburn, battle of, 193 
Barbitt, Joseph (Goldsmith), 86 
Barnack, 46, 48 
Barnard : E. (Goldsmith), 85, 105, 

106; Messrs. (Goldsmiths), 82, 

85-7, 90-3, 103, 107, 111, 113 
Barnes, Sir Frederick Gorell, 45 
Barrows, Report of Committee 

on, 79 
" Barrows, The " (Exmoor), 34 
Bartholomew, bp. of Exeter, 183 
Barton, Rev. E. J., 32 ; on Hol- 

combe Bogus Church, 32 
Basset: Elizabeth, 185; Sir 

Robert, 185 ; Sir William, 208 
Bath, capture of, by Crawlin, 162 
Batteshorn, manor of, 190, 191 
Bayley, Richard (Goldsmith), 110 
Baynard, Mary, 91 
Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset, 

35 
Beaupre, Richard de, 195 
Bedford, bp. of (Dr. Walsham How), 

41 
Belgian Refugees' Relief (1914), 42 
Bello Prato, John de, 187 
Bengal Educational Dept., 44 
Bermondsey, 54 



Berwick, 195 

Bibliography, Report of the Com- 
mittee on, 130 

Bideford, 56 

Billounde, John, 193 

Birinus, 161, 164 ; his mission to 
West Saxons, 161 

Bishops : Aldhelm, 168 ; Boniface, 
165, 168 ; Watson, 49 ; Winfrith, 
165, 166 ; of Bedford (Walsham 
How), 41 ; of Exeter (Bartholo- 
mew), 183 ; (Bronescombe), 35 ; 
(Grandison), 165, 201 ; (Leofric), 
30 ; (Walter de Stapeldon), 196, 
204 ; (Temple), 31, 40 ; London 
(Creighton), 41 ; (Temple), 40 ; 
Oxford (Stubbs), 49 ; Peter- 
borough, 47 ; Sherborne (Aid- 
helm), 165, 166; Wakefield 
(Walsham How), 41 

Blackdown Hills, 167 

Blackmore, Rev. R. D., 34; his 
Lorna Doone, 34 

Blount on Ancient Tenures, 187 

Bloyou : Henry, 199 ; Ralph, 192 

Bluett : family of, 32 ; tombs of, 
32 ; Luckland Nutcombe, 32 ; 
Elizabeth, 32; Eliza, 90; 
Francis, 90 

Blundell's School, 28, 29, 31 

Bocyny, Radulph (deacon), 199 

Bodmin, 203 

Bodwenan, 203 

Bokeland (Buckland-in-the-Moor), 
206, 207 

Bond, Francis, on Fonts and Font- 
covers, 211, 213 

Boniface, bp., 165, 168 

Borboridce (Dipt.), 245 

Bosyweyn, manor of, 202 

Botanical: Districts: Barnstaple, 
116; Exeter, 120; Honiton, 
121 ; Plymouth, 128 ; South 
Molton, 120; Tavistock, 128; 
Torquay, 123 ; Torrington, 119 ; 
Exchange Club, 114; Society 
and Exchange Club, 114 

Botany : ll,th Beport of the Com- 
mittee on (Hiern), 114 

Botriaux, Walter, 209 

Bouchier, family of, 34 

Bowringsleigh (Kingsbridge), 41 

Bradford -on -Avon, battle of, 164 

Bradley Hall (Durham), 42 

Bratton Clovelly Font, 213 

Braunton, Adam de, 204 

Brendon Hills, 164 

Brictric of Gloucester, 35 

Bridgtown, 34 

Bristol, 37, 198 



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INDEX. 



273 



Broadclyst Jubilee School, 38 

Bronescombe, bishop, 35 

Brown Heath (Erme Pound), Kist- 
vaen on, 79 

Bruwyn, Richard (priest), 199 

Buckf ast, Abbot of, 208 

Buckf astleigh, 43 

Buckland, Abbot of, 208 

Buckland Brewer, 56 

Buckland, Roger de, 205 

Buckland-in-the-Moor, 205, 206 

Budlake, 38 

Budleigh Salterton, 171 ; cob house 
at, 171 

Burbidge : Emma, 35 ; Frederick, 
45 

Burghal Hidage, tempo K. Alfred, 
160 

Burgoyne, Gen., 38 

Burroughs, Rev. Preb., 30 

Burrows, Alice and George (Gold- 
smiths), 110 

Bye -laws, 16 



Cadbury, Elizabeth, 89 

Cadogan, the Lord, 48 

Cadson, Cadsonbury (St. Ive), 

206 
Caedwalla, king of Wessex, 156 
Calcutta : Presidency College, 44 ; 
University, 44 ; Quarterly Re- 
view, 44 
CaUiphorince (Dipt.), 238 
Calstock, Sir John de Plimstoke, 

Rector of, 209 
Cambridge, 48, 49 
Cambridgeshire, Place-names of 

(Skeat), 177 w. 
Candey, Mr., 36 
Canonsleigh, Prioress of (Matilda 

de Haccombe), 201 
Canopidce (Dipt.), 251 
Canterbury, Anselm, archbp. of, 

183 
Capern, Edward, 56 
Caractacus, 34 

Carew : Alexander, 185 ; Richard, 
185 ; Rev. Theo., 100 ; W., 101 ; 
Arms of, 201 
Carew family : of Anthony, 185 ; 

of Haccombe, 31 
Carew' s Survey of Cornwall, 183 
Carkel : Joan, 187 ; John, 187 
Carlisle, 195 
Carlyle, T., 51, 52 
Carpenter, H. J., 31, 32 ; his 

account of Tiverton Castle, 31 
Carru, John, 189 
Carslake, William, 193 
Cartularium Saxonicum (Birch), 153 

VOL. LI. S 



Castles : Launceston, 194, 202, 
209 ; Lanyhorn, 193 (see also 
Whitley) ; Roch (Pembroke), 
200; Tintagel, 196, 197, 203; 
Tiverton, 28, 30, 31 ; Trematon, 
204 
Ceawlin, K. of Wessex, 161-3 
Celliwig (Callington), 165 
Centwine, K. of Wessex, 164-6, 168 
Cenwealh (son of Cynegils), 164, 

166, 168 
Ceol, K. of Wessex, 162 
Ceolric, K. of Wessex, 162 
Cerdic, 161, 163 

Chadwick, H. M., on Origin of the 
English Nation, 161 ; James 
(Goldsmith), 95 
Chalices : Holcombe Rogus, 33 ; 

Sampford Peverell, 35 
Chalk, Rev. E. S., 30, 32 
Chanter, Rev. J. F., 28, 33-6; 
Report of the Committee on 
Church Plate, 80 
Chapels : Bluett (Holcombe 
Rogus), 32 ; Courtenay (Tiver- 
ton), 30 ; Greenway (Tiverton), 
28, 30 
Charlemagne, Emperor, 42 
Charters : Crawford, 167 ; Tre- 

gothnan, 184, 186, 195 
Chartist movement, 51 ; Letters 

to the Chartists (Kingsley), 51 
Cheap Clothes and Nasty (Kingsley), 

53 
Chelsea, 48 

Chester Natural History Society, 57 
Chloropidas (Dipt.), 250 
Chope, R. Pearse, 33 ; on Devon's 
Greatest Worthy : Sir Walter 
Ralegh, 33 
Christ's Hospital (Lond.), 46 
Chronicles : Winchester, 167 
Church Plate : Tenth Report of 
Committee on (Chanter), 80 
Rural Deanery of Cullompton, 
80 : Ashill, St. Stephens, 97 
Ash Thomas, 89 ; Blackbbrough 
82; Bradfield, All Saints, 97 
Bradninch, 82 ; Burlescombe, 
84; Butterleigh, 85; Clay 
hanger, 85; Clayhydon, 86 
Cullompton, 86; Culm Davey. 
90 ; Culmstock, 87 ; Halberton 
88 ; Hele Chapel, 83 ; Hemyock 
89; Hockworthy, 90; Hoi 
combe Rogus, 91 ; Huntsham, 
92 ; Kentisbeare, 93 ; Sampford 
Peverell, 93; Silverton, 95 
Unculme, 96; Uploman, 97 
Willand, 98 : Rural Deanery of 



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274 



INDEX. 



Tiverton, 98 : Bampton, 100 ; 
BicMeigh, 100 ; Cadeleigh, 101 ; 
Calverleigh, 101 ; Cruwys Mor- 
chard, 102 ; Loxbeare, 103 ; 
Morebath, 103 ; Okeford, 104 ; 
Petton, 105; Puddington, 106; 
Rackenford. 106 ; Stoodleigh, 
106 ; Templeton, 107 ; Tiverton 
Chevithorne, 107 ; Tiverton 
Cove, 108 ; Tiverton St. George, 
108; Tiverton St. Paul, 109; 
Tiverton St. Peter, 10*9 ; Tiver- 
ton Withleigh, 111 ; Washford, 
112; Washford Pyne, 112 

Churches : Axminster, 199 ; 
Bampton, 34 ; Holcombe Bogus, 
32,-33; Landulph, 184; Lany- 
horne, Lanrihoern, Lanrihorn, 
199, 202, 203; Liskeard, 184; 
Sampford Peverell, 35 ; Teign- 
mouth (St. James), 199 ; Tiver- 
ton (St. Peter's), 30; its history, 
32 

Churchull (Churchill in East Down), 
206, 207 

Cirencester, capture of, by Crawlin, 
162 

Clarke, Miss K. M., on the Baptis- 
mal Fonts of Devon, IJart vi, 211 

Clayton, Oliver, 195 

Clement VI (Pope), 202 

Clifford, manor of, 205 

Clifton (Notts.), 47 

Climate : Report of the Committee 
on (Worth), 134 ; Observers, 
137, 138; Observing Stations, 
137, 138 ; Statistics, 139-151 

Cliste, Clyst, 201 

Clovelly : 48 ; Font at, 219 

Clummer Magna, 195 

Clyst, Cliste, 201 

Cnovill. See Knovill 

Cob Cottages for the Twentieth 
Century (Joce), 169 

Codex Diplomaticus (Kemble), 153 

Coelopidce (Dipt.), 245 

Coffin, Thomas (Goldsmith), 92 

Cokayne (Gibbs), 193 

Cokebiry (Cookbury), 203, 204 

Cokebirwyk, Cokebyrywyk (Cook- 
bury Wick), 203, 204 

Colan, Elizabeth, 32 

Cole, John (Sheriff of Cornwall), 192 

Coleman, Rev. John James, 34 

Colenso controversy, 41 

Colrigg (Colridge in Egg Buckland), 
206, 207 

Columb-John, 38 

Combhall in Drewsteignton, 190 

Committees, 20, 24-6, 30 



Compton, Lord A., 210 
Constantino, K. of Damnonia, 163- 
Corbet, family of, 194 
Cordyluridce (Dipt.), 242 
Cornburgh, Avery, 194 
Cornu, Walter de, 188 
Cornubin (Cornwall), 166 
Cornwaille, Henry (priest), 199 
Cornwall : Edmund, Earl of, 186 r 

188 ; Margaret, Countess of* 

186, 188 ; Richard, Earl of, 187 
Cornwall, Survey of (Carew), 183 
Cory, John (Goldsmith), 95 
Cotlegh (in Coliton), 199 
Cottell, Sir Charles, 35 
Council : Meetings of, 20, 27, 30* 

32 ; Members of, 8 ; Report of, 

20 
Courtenay : Edward (E. of Devon), 

31 ; Hugh de, 31, 208, 209 ; 

Hugo de, 198 ; Princess- 
Catherine (dau. of Edw. IV), 31 
Coventry, 196 

Cowie, Dr., Dean of Exeter, 41 
Cox, Rev. S., 32, 34 
Crantock Collegiate Church, 193 
Crawford Charters, 167 
Crawford Collection (Napier and 

Stevenson), 153 
Crawlin, his victory at Deerham 

(Glos.), 162 
Crediton, 41, 186, 198 
Creedy Wiger, 185 
Creighton, bp. of London, 41 
Creoda, 161 
Cresswell, Miss B., 35 ; on Samp- 

ford Peverell Church and Manor v 

35 
Croft (Crist in St. Ive), 206 
Crossleigh, Rev. Charles, 84 
prossley, Dr., 81 
Cruwys, Rev. G. S., 103 
Cryptomatic Vegetation, 115 
Culme, Philip, 84 
Cullompton, 45 
Culmstock, 164 

Cunoglasse, K. of North Wales, 165 
Curzon, the Lord, 46 
Cutts, Dr., his Parish Priest, 183 
Cyclorrapha Athericera (Dipt.), 225 
Cynegils, K. of Wessex, 162, 164 
Cynewulf, King of Wessex (756-86), 

156, 157 
Cynric, K. of Wessex, 161, 162; 

his victory over Britons, 162 

Damnonia, Domnonia, 163, 166 
Darcy, John (Justiciar of Ireland), 

185 
Darling, Lord Justice, 28 



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INDEX. 



275 



Dartmoor : 168 ; Memorandum of 

Flint Implements found on 

(Hodgson), 175 
Dauney, John, 192 
Davidson, J. B„ 155, 156, 157, 166- 

8 ; on The Saxon Conquest of 

Devonshire, 152 
Deerham, Dyrham, 162 
Demetia (South Wales), 163 
De Situ Britannioe, 152 
Despenser, Hugh de, 198 
Dessia (Ireland), 184 
Dessimonia (Ireland), 184 
" Devil's Punch Bowl " (Exmoor), 

34 
Devon : Countess of (Isabella de 

Fortibus), 31, 190; Earls of 

(Ed. Courtenay), 31 ; (Richard 

de Redvers), 31 * 

Devonport, S. and E. (Goldsmiths), 

90 
Dimensions of Fonts, 221 
Dinham, family of, 35 
Dinnerdake, 206 
Dionysius Exiguus, 161 
Diptera : sub-orders of, 222 • 
Diptera of Devon (Yerbury), 222 
Diptford, manor of, 200 
Dixon, Major, 37 
Doe, G. M., SOth Report of the 

Scientific Memoranda Committee, 

59 
Domesday, The Devonshire, 153 
Domnonia, Damnonia, 156, 163, 

166 
Doncaster, 196 
Donne, Dun : Elinor, 190 ; John, 

190 ; Arms of, 190 
'Donnynge, Thomas, 199 
Dorchester-on-Thames, 161, 164 
Downe, Viscountess Louise Maria, 

88 
Drake, Rev. George, 94 
Draper's Company, 41 
Drew : Charles, 83 ; Elizabeth, 83 
Drosophilidas (Dipt.), 250 
Dryomyzidce (Dipt.), 245 
Dublin, 198 

Dulchet in Edeford, 189 
Dulverton, 33, 34 
Dun. See Donne 
Dyrham, Deerham, 162 

Earle : Rt. Rev. Alfred (obit.), 40 ; 

Col. F. A., 41 ; Henry, 40 
Eastry (Kent), 42 
Eaton, W. (Goldsmith), 104 
Edeford, Yudeford, 189 
Edward : IV, 31 ; VI, 33 
Eggesford Font, 218 



Egremont, Earl of, 82 

Elerky (S. Veryan), manor of, 186- 
8, 194, 202, 203, 208, 210 

Eley, William (Goldsmith), 100, 110 

Elizabethan Church Plate, 81, 99 

Elizabeth, Queen, 28, 54 

Elston : John (Goldsmith), 94, 95, 
97, 101, 102, 108 ; Philip, 87, 92, 
106, 109 

Emes, Rebecca (Goldsmith), 105, 
106, 113 

England, Hist, of (Froude), 57 

English, Major, 31, 32, 35, 37 ; on 
Old Priory House, 35, 36 ; Mrs., 
31, 37 i 

Ephydridoe (Dipt.), 249 

Eproboscidce (Dipt.), 251 

Ercedecne, Ercedekne. See Arch- 
deacon 

Erme Valley, Kistvaens in, 79 

Etcheborne, Exbourne (Dom.), 44 

Ethandun, site of the battle of, 177 

Eton, 40 

Eversley (Hants), 49, 50 

Exbourne, Etcheborne, Manor, 44 

Exe, River, 165 

Exeter : 20, 164, 168 ; bishops 
of, Bartholomew, 183 ; Brones- 
combe, 35 ; Grandison, 165, 201 
Leofric, 30 ; Stapeldon, 196, 204 
Temple, 31, 40 ; Cathedral, 184 
Deans of, Cowie, 41 ; Earle, 41 
Gamble, 29, 47 ; St. James 
Priory, 30 ; Saxon Monastery at, 
165 

Exford, 34 

Exmoor : 33, 39 ; Excursion tc, 
33 ; ancient memorial stone on, 
33, 34 ; the " Barrows," 34 ; 
" Pevil's Punch Bowl," 34 ; 
Forest Hotel, 34 

Expenditure, Statement of, 23 

Exton, 31, 34 

Falmouth, 196 
Faversham (Kent), 45 
Ferris, George (Goldsmith), 97 
Field-names, The Study of (Rose- 

Troup), 177 
Finlay : Eliza, 45 ; Washington, 45 
Fitz- Anthony, Thomas, 184 
Fitz-Stephen : Isold, 200; Sir 

Richard, 200 
Flint Implements found on Dart- 
moor, Memorandum of (Hodgson), 
175 
Florence of Worcester, 153, 164 
Fonts : Cushion Bowls : Alverdis- 
cott, 217 ; Ashwater, 212 ; High 
Bickington, 214 ; Bratton 



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276 



INDEX. 



Clovelly, 213; Clovelly, 219; 
Eggesford, 218 ; Hock worthy, 
219 ; Instow, 219 ; Inwardleigh, 
215 ; Landcross, 218 ; Sheep- 
wash, 216 ; Upton Helions, 220 ; 
Dimensions of Fonts, 221 

Fonts, Baptismal, of Devon (Clarke), 
211 ; Fonts and Font-covers 
(Bond), 211, 213; Ornamenta- 
tions of Fonts, 213, 214 

Fortibus, Isabella de (Countess of 
Devon and of Albemarle), 31 

Fossil Fish in the Devonian Rocks of 
North Devon (Rogers), 32 

Fotheringay, 35 

" Four Portions," Tiverton, 31 

Foxford : John, 105 ; Mary, 105 

Francis, A. L., 29, 32 

Freeman, Edward Augustus 
(1823-92), 154, 164, 166; on 
King Ine, 166 ; his Norman 
Conquest, 168 

Froude, A., 49, 57 ; his History of 
England., 57 

Fulford, 186 

Fulmere (Berks), manor of, 198 

Fungi (Bot.), 120, 127 

Fursnap, 206 

Futur : Dionisia, 186 ; Reginald, 
186 

Gafulford, battle of, 157 
Galmpton (Galemtona in Churston 

Ferrers), 189 
-Gamble, Dr. H. R. (Dean of Exeter) 

on Charles Kingsley, 47 ; his 

Presidential Address, 29, 47 
Gascony, 198 
Gattesden, John, 187 
Gaveston, Piers, 196 
Gazman, Don, 54 

Genoa : 42 ; bombardment of, 42 
Geoffry of Monmouth, 152, 153, 

155 
Geological Magazine, 32 
Geological Society, Quarterly Jour- 

nal of, 60 
Oeomyzidce (Dipt.), 250 
George III., 42 
Gereint, 167 
Gerunt, K. of West Wales, 156, 

165-7 
Gibbins, Mr., 50 
Gibbs, Vicary, 196, 200, 209 ; his 

Cokayne, 193 
Giffard, Roger, 31 
Gilbert, C. S., his Survey of Cornwall, 

193 
GUdas, 162, 163 
Glasney, 193 



Gloucester, capture of by Crawlin, 

162 
Glyvan, William (priest), 209 
Godolphin : Constance, 205 ; 

Richard, 205 
Godolphin, manor of, 188 
Going, Richard (Goldsmith), 85,, 

86, 102 
Golden Book of Genoa, 42 
Goldsmiths : Angel, John, 87, 88 ; 
Angel, Joseph, 87, 88 ; Barbitt, 
Joseph, 86 ; Barnard, E., 85, 
105, 106 ; Barnard, Messrs., 82, 
85-7, 90-3, 103, 107, 111, 113 ; 
Bayley, Richard, 110 ; Burrows, 
Alice, 110 ; Burrows, George, 
110; Chad wick, James, 98; 
Coffin, Thomas, 92 ; Cory, John, 
95 ; Devonport, S. & E., 90 ; 
Eaton, W., 104 ; Eley, William, 
100, 110; Elston, John, 94, 95, 
97, 101, 102, 108; Elston, 
Philip, 87, 92, 106, 109 ; Ernes, 
Rebecca, 105, 106, 113 ; Ferris, 
George, 97 ; Going, Richard, 85, 
86, 102; Hicks, Joseph, 113; 
Jones, John, 35, 81, 84, 85, 
88, 93, 94, 98, 106, 113 ; Keith, 
John, 102, 107, 111 ; Lake, J. E., 
82 ; Langwith, John, 111; Ley, 
Timothy, 90 ; Lias, J. H., 100 ; 
Lias, G., 100 ; Manners, James, 
104 ; Maunday, W., 84 ; Murch, 
John, 100, 105 ; Neale, Richard, 
87 ; Osborne, Richard, 99, 101 ; 
Osment, John, 109 ; Parkin, 
Isaac, 96 ; Payne, Humphrey, 
110; Pearse, I., 95 ; Pierce, W., 
95 ; Pyne, B., 28 ; Ruslen, John, 
92 ; Strang, James, 97, 108, 109 ; 
Thomas, Mathew, 99 ; Webber, 
John, 98 ; Whipham, T„ 89 ; 
Wright, C, 89 

Gomersale, Sir Richard, 193 

" Good Peers," meeting of, con- 
vened by Earl of Lancaster, 196 

Goundrv, J. A., Ill 

Grandison, bp. (1327-69), 165, 201 

Gras, John, 199 

Grave, Walter de la, 198 

Green way : John, 30, 31 ; rebuilds 
Tiverton Church, 30 ; Brasses, 
31 

Greenway's Chapel, Tiverton, 28 

Gregory : A. T. (Mayor of Tiver- 
ton), 27, 29, 31 ; Civic Reception 
by, 27 ; entertainment by, 28 

Grimaldi : Alexander, Marquis of, 
42 ; Charles Beaufort, 42 ; 
Dorcas, 42 ; Flora, 42 ; Louisa 



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INDEX. 



277 



Beaufort, 42 ; Prince of Monaco, 

42 ; William, 42 
Grosse, Ezekial, 194 
Guest, Edwin (1800-80), 154 

Haccombe : Andrew de, 208 ; 
Cecilia, 202; Cicely, 201, 203, 
205; Isabel, 205; Jordan de, 
201-3, 205 ; Matilda, 201 ; 
Richard de, 198 ; Stephen de, 
210 

Haccombe : Archpresbytery of, 
210 ; foundation of Archpresby- 
tery, 209 ; manor of, 185, 205 

Haccombe, Part II. (Searley), 181 

Halberton : 33, 35, 36 ; excursion 
to, 33, 35, 36 ; Church, 36 ; its 
dedication, 36 ; Font, 36 ; Pulpit 

36 ; Screen Doors, 36 ; College 
of Monks, 36 ; its dedication, 

37 ; " Friday Circle," 36, 37 ; 
"Old Priory," 31, 36; its 
history, 36, 37 ; Manor (Bridwell), 
36 

Hall, T. M., 61, 62 

Ham, Margrett, 98 

Ham (Georgeham), 206, 209 

Hamely, John (Sheriff of Cornwall), 
192 

Harwich : 29 ; Water Bailiffs 
staff, 29 

Heaunton Punchardon, 186 

Helomyzidce (Dipt.), 244 

'Helston School, 48 

Henley, Rev. Bertie, 95 

Henry of Huntingdon, 153 

Henry : I, 183 ; II, 35 ; IV, 35 ; 
VIII, 41 

Hepatics (Bot.), 114, 123, 126, 129 

Hereford, Synod of, 164 

Hereward the Wake (Kingsley), 48 

Hertford, Synod of, 165 

Heteroneuridce (Dipt.), 243 

Hexham : manor of, 210 ; Arch- 
deacon Brasses at, 210 

Hicks, Joseph (Goldsmith), 113 

Hiern, W. P., 11th Report of the 
Botany Committee, 114 

High Bickington Font, 214 

Hillitor in Edeford, 189 

Historical Review, The English, 
Win. 

Hockworthy Font, 219 

Hodgson, T. V., Memorandum of 
Flint Implements found on Dart- 
moor, 175 

Hole, Francis, 110 

Holcombe Rogtjs : 31-3 ; excur- 
sion to, 32 ; Bluett Chapel, 32 ; 
Church, 32, 33 ; description of, 



32 ; Screen in, 32 ; Church 
Plate, 33 ; Chalice, 33 ; Sacred 
Vestments, 33 ; Parish Register, 
33 ; curious entry in, 33 ; Court,. 
31-3 ; Vicarage, 33 

Holmes, Dr. Peter, 43 

Holne, 47 

Holnicote (Som.), 39 

Holometopa (Dipt.), 242 

Holonde, John de (Canon of Exe- 
ter), 209 

Honiton, 168 

Hoo (Hoe in Plymstock), 206, 207 

How : Dr. Walsham, bp. of Bed- 
ford, 41 ; bp. of Wakefield, 41 

Hubbaston, 177 

Hughes, Tom, 51, 53 ; his Tom, 
Brown's School Days, 51 

Hugh College, 44 

Hull, 29 ; Water Bailiff's staff, 29 

Hundred Rolls, 186 

Hurst, Cecil P., on Ilfracombe 
Mosses and Hepatics, 114 

Hypatia (Kingsley), 54 

Ideford, Yedeford, 191 
Ilbert, William Roope, 41 
Imperial Service League, 44 
Ine, K. of Wessex, 156, 165-8; 

Freeman on, 166 
Inge, John, 208 
Inner Temple, 43 
Instow Font, 219 
Inwardleigh" Font, 215 
Ipplepen, 189 
Ireland, Rev. G. W. R., 35, 36, 81, 

94, 95 
Itinerary of Cornwall (William of 

Worcester), 194 

Joce, T. J., on Cob Cottages for the 

Twentieth Century, 169 
John, King, 184 
Jones : John (Goldsmith), 35, 81, 

84, 85, 88, 93, 94, 98, 106, 113 ; 

Rev. J. S., 89 ; Miss E. M., 110 
Jordan : Mrs. Flora, 42 ; on 

Dawlish Parish Church, 43 ; 

W. F. C, 42 
Journals : of Echology, 115 ; of 

Botany, 114, 116 
Jutes, in Hants, I. of Wight and 

Kent, 161, 163 

Keith, John (Goldsmith), 102, 107, 

111 
Kennith, 177 
Kentisbeare: 30, 170; XVth- 

Century Cob Clergy House at, 

170, 171 



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278 



Index. 



Kerfclake : Thomas (1812-91), 154, 
155, 167 ; Rev. William, 103 

Kestel, 203 

Kesteltalcarn, 202 

Khrishnagar College, 44 

Killagorok (in Duloe), 203 

Killerton Park, 38 • 

King, Richard John, 155 

King's College, London, 46, 48 

Kingske'rswell, 200 ; manor of, 
200 

Kingsley, Charles (Gamble), 47. 

Kingsley : Rev. Charles, 29, 30, 49- 
58 ; Canon of Chester, 49 ; of 
Westminster, • 49 ; his Presi- 
dential Address in 1871, 29 ; his 
Alton Locke, 52, 53, 55 ; The 
Bad Squire, 52, 53, 55 ; his 
Ballads, 52, 54, 55; Cheap 
Clothes and Nasty, 53 ; Hereward 
the Wake, 48 ; Hypatia, 54 ; Let- 
ters to Chartists, 51 ; Politics for 
the People, 51 ; Saints 1 Tragedy, 
.49, 54 ; Two Years Ago, 53 ; 
Water Babies, 55 ; Westward 
Ho /, 54 ; Yeast, 51, 52, 53 

Kistvaens : on Brown Heath 
(Erme Pound), 79; in the 
Erme Valley, 79 

Knovill, Cnovill (of Batteshorn) : 
Anne, 189-91 ; Cicely, 190 ; 
Elinor, 190 ; Gilbert, 191 ; Sir 
Gilbert, 189-91 ; Sir John, 189- 
91 ; Margaret, 191 ; Michael, 
190 ; Arms of, 190 

Knightshayes Court, 31 

Kyldare, 184 

Lake, J. E. (Goldsmith), 82 

Lancaster : Earl of, 196 ; con- 
venes meeting of " Good Peers," 
196 

Landcross Font, 218 

Landeke, Langedeke, 186, 187 

Langley, Flora, 42 

Langwith, John (Goldsmith), 111 

Lanhern, Lanherne, Lanihorn, 
Lanrihorn, Lanrihoern, Lanryon, 
Lanyhern, Lanyhorn, Larihorn, 
Larihorne : Castle, 193 ; Church, 
202, 203, 209 ; Manor, 188, 194, 
196, 202, 203, 208, 210 ; Presenta- 
tions to the Living of, 209 

Lanihorn. See Lanhern 

Lanrihorn, Lanrihoern. See Lan- 
hern 

Lanryon. See Lanhern 

Lanyhern, Lanyhorn. See Lanhern 

Lanyhorn Castle and its Lords 
(Whitley), 193, 194 



Lansladron : Amioia, 188 ; Serlo, 
188 ; Arms of, 188 

Lanslaveton (Launceston), 186 

Larcedekne. See Archdeacon 

Larihorn, Larihorne. See Lanhern 

Launceston : 184, 192, 196, 203 ; 
Castle of, 194, 202, 209 

Launceveton, Launceston, 1Q2 

Laund, Eurinus de la, 189 

Laundege, manor of, 202, 203 

Laycock, C. H., 32nd Report of 
Committee on Verbal Provincial- 
isms, 65 

Leden, William de, 190 

Leeds, 39 

Leigh, Amyas, 54 

Leisching, Dr., 37 ; Mrs., 37 

Leofric, bp. of Exeter, 30 ' 

Lercedekne. See Archdeacon 

Lerchedekne, Sir John, 183 

Lethbridge : Edward, 43 ; Eliza, 
45 ; Emma, 45 ; Col. F. W., 45 ; 
Capt. W. A. L., 45 

Lethbridge, Sir Roper (obit.), 43 ; 
on Hands Across the Sea, 43 ; 
on a Proposed Railway between 
Bideford and Okehampton, 43 ; on 
Some Hatherleigh Worthies of the 
XVIIth Century, 43 ; on Tithe 
Commutation in Exbourne in the 
XVIIth Century, 43 ; on John 
Endecott, 43 ; History of the 
Lethbridge Family, 44 

Ley, Timothy (Goldsmith), 90 

Lias, J. H. and G. (Goldsmiths), 100 

Libro d'Oro of Genoa, 42 

Lichens, 118, 121, 123, 126, 128, 129 

Linnington, Dulcibella, 83 

List of Members, 253 

Lister, G., on Mycetozoa recorded as 
British since 1909, 116 

Little Colan (Cornwall), 32 

Liverworts, 118, 121 

Lobba (Lobb in Braunton), 206, 207 

Loddiswell, 189, 191 

Lodeswell (Loddiswell), 189, 191 

Lonchceidoe (Dipt.), 247 

Londay, Sir William, 193 

London : bishops of (Creighton), 
41 ; (Temple), 31, 40 

Lorna Doone (Blackmore), 34 

Lostwithiel, 210 

Louis XIV, 42 

Ludlow, , 53 

Luscot : Alice, 190 ; Alis, 190, 191 ; 
Joan, 190 ; Jone, 191 ; John de, 
190 ; Matilda, 190 ; Sir Walter, 
190 ; William, 190, 191 ; Sir 
William, 190, 191 ; Arms of, 191 

Luscot in Braunton, 190, 191 



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INDEX. 



279 



Lucy : Alianora, 194 ; Sir William, 
194 

I-uyeny (in St. Ewe), 204 

Lygham (Leigham .in Egg Buck- 
land), 206, 207 

X.ynher, River, 165 

Maglocune, K. of North Wales, 163 

Malmesbury, Abbey of, 166 

Mannamead School (Plymouth), 43 

Manners, James (Goldsmith), 104 

Manors : Anthony, 193 ; Ash- 
water, 203, 204; Batteshorn, 
190 ; Bosyweyn, 202 ; Bridwell, 
(Halberton), 36 ; Clifford, 205 ; 
Depeford (Diptford), 200; 
Elerky (in S. Veryan), 186-8, 
194, 202, 203, 208, 210; Ex- 
bourne, 44 ; Fulmere (Bucks), 
198; Godolphin, 188; Hac- 
-combe, 185 ; Hexham, 210 ; 
Karswell (Kingskerswell), 200 ; 
Lanhern, Lanyhern, Lanyhorn, 
Lanrihoern, 188, 194, 196, 202, 
203, 210 ; Laundege (Kea), 202, 
203 ; Redwyk (in Magor), 190 ; 
Ringmore, 205 ; Rodwory, 202 ; 
Ruddory (in Gwinear), 187 ; 
Ryvers (in Phillack), 187; 
Sheepstall, 193 ; Treberveth, 
200, 202; Trevisquite (in St. 
Mabyn), 200 

Manyton (Manaton), 206 

Margaret of Richmond (mother of 
Henry VII), 35 

Marker : Anna, 96, 97 ; Richard 
John, 96, 97 

Marlborough : 208 ; (Devon), 40 ; 
bishops of, 41 

Mary, Q. of Scots, 35 

Matilda, Queen, 35 

Mauger : Isold, 200 ; John, 200 

Maunday, W. (Goldsmith), 84 

Maurice, F. D., 51 

Meetings : Annual, 9, 10, 27, 28 ; 
of Council, 20, 27, 30, 32; 
General, 27, 31 ; Places of, 9 

Members, List of, 253 

Mendip Hills, 164 

Mercians, 161 

Mertone : Joan, 209 ; Sir Thomas 
de, 209 

Micklefield, 45 

Micropizidce (Dipt.), 249 

Middle Temple, 39 

Mileburne, Sir William, 199 

Mine-workers, Conditions of, in 
1842, 50 

Moeles, Molis, Molys, Mules : Alice, 
200; John, 200; Matilda, 200; 



Maud, 200; Nicholas, 200; 

Roger, 200 ; Arms of, 200 ; 

family of, 200 
Molis. See Moeles 
Molys. See Moeles 
Monasticon (Oliver), 193 
Monketon, William (Sheriff of Corn- 

wall), 187 
Monkton Farleigh (Wilts), 40 
Monmouth, Geoffry of, his Historia 

Regum Britannia, 152 
Monte Acuto, Katherine, 187 
Monumenta Historica Britannica 

(Petrie and Sharpe), 153 
Morris, R. B., Report of the Com- 
mittee on Bibliography, 130 
Mosses, 114, 118, 121, 122, 125, 

128 
" Mote," The (Bampton), 34 
Mules. See Moeles 
Murch, John (Goldsmith), 100, 105 
Muscince (Dipt.), 239 
Mycetozoa (Bot.), 116, 123 

Nansladron : Amicia, 188 ; Serlo, 

188 
Nansladron in St. Ewe (Cornwall), 

188 

Neal, , 53 

Neale, Richard (Goldsmith), 87 
Neave : Emma, 45 ; John, 45 
Netherhamme (in Georgeham), 206, 

207 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 42, 196 
Newman, Father, 57 ; his Apologia 

pro Vita Sua, 57 
Newte, Rev. John, 108 
Newton Abbot, 42 
Norfolk Island, 43 
Norman Conquest (Freeman), 168 
North Kensington, 44 
Norrys, Richard (Canon of Exeter), 

209 
Notes and Gleanings, 184 
Nycteribidce (Dipt.), 251 

Ober-Ammergau, 83, 84 
Obituary Notices : 38 ; Acland, 
Sir C. T. D., 38 ; Aldridge, C, 
39 ; Earle, Rt. Rev. A. E., 40 ; 
Jordan, Mrs. F., 42 ; Lethbridge, 
Sir R., 43; Powell, W., 45; 
Upcott, Col. Sir F. R., 45 
(E strides (Dipt.), 234 
Officers of the Association, 8 
Okeford (Oakford), 206, 207 
Oliver, Dr., his Monasticon, 193 
Oman, on England before the Nor- 
man Conquest, 161 n. 
Opomyzidce (Dipt.), 250 



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280 



INDEX. 



Oratories : Luacot, 191 ; Spray- 
combe, 191 

Ortalidce (Dipt.), 248 

Osborne, Richard (Goldsmith), 99, 
101 

Osment, John (Goldsmith), 109 

Ottery St. Mary, various spellings 
of the name, 179 

Overhamme, 206, 207 

Oxford: Amateur Musical Society, 
44 ; Bishop of (Dr. Stubbs), 49; 
Exeter College, 43 ; Magdalen 
Hall, 40 

Parish Priest, The (Cutts), 183 

Parish Registers, 130, 131 

Parkin : Isaac (Goldsmith), 96 ; 

Rev. James, 104 
Parret : Marshes (Som.), 164 ; 

River, 164 
" Parson Lot " (Kingsley), 51, 52 
Payne, Humphrey (Goldsmith), 

110 
Pearse, I. (Goldsmith), 95 
Pebble Ridge, N. Devon, 60, 61 
Penryn, 196 

Penstradou (in St. Ewe), 204 
Peonna (Penselwood), battle of, 

164 
Periam, Sir William, 185 | 

Peterborough, Bp. of, 47 j 

Petermaritzburg, 41 | 

Petit : Amitia, 188 ; Sir Michael, | 

188 ! 

Peverell : Sir Hugh, 35 ; tomb of, 

35 ; family of, 35 
Pewter vessels (church), 85, 86, 

91, 99, 101 
Pharamond, King of the Francks, 

42 
Phasiince (Dipt.), 239 
Phytomyztdoe (Dipt.), 251 
Pidkeswell, 206 
Pierce, W. (Goldsmith), 95 
Piers Plowman's Vision, 183, 184 
Pipard, Pypard : Margaret, 205 ; 

William, 205 ; Sir William, 205 ; 

Arms of, 205 
Pipunculidce (Dipt.), 223 
Pistre, Adam, 206 
Place-names' : of Cambridgeshire 

(Skeat), 177 n. ; of Devon, Saxon 

origin of, 157, 158 ; The Study of 

(Rose-Troup), 177 
Places of Meeting, 9 
Platypezidoe (Dipt.), 223 
Plimstoke, Sir John de (priest), 209 
Plymouth : College, 43 ; Municipal 

Museum, 175 
Plympton : 39, 40 ; St. Maurice, 40 



Pockington (Som.), 190 

Pole, Sir William, 200 

Politics for the People (Kingsley), 51 

Pomerai, Pomeray : Henry de,. 

194 ; Orger, 186 
Pomeray. See Pomerai 
Ponte : Eymer de, 187 ; Matilda, 18T 
Popes : Alexander III, 183 ^ 

Clement VI, 202 
Popham : H. L., 89 ; the Lord 

Justice, 28 
Porthmur, 202 
Portsmouth, 197 
"Postman Poet," The (Edw. 

Capern), 56 
Poulett : Sir Amias, 35 ; Margaret,. 

35 ; brass of, 35 
Powell : Henry (obit.), 45 ; William, 

45 
Poyle, Roger de la, 188 
Presidential Address, 47 
Presidents, List of, 9, 10 
Prickman : J. D., 175 ; Mrs., 175 
Prideaux, Miss E. K., 31, 32 
Priories : Canonsleigh, 201 ^ 

Exeter, St. James", $0 
I Priory House, Halberton, 32 
I Proceedings at Tiverton, Report of ^ 
I 27 
! Provincialisms, Report of Committer 

on, 65 
Prowse, John, 131 
PsilidoB (Dipt.), 249 
Pugsley, J. Follett, 28, 32 
Pydikville (Pickwell in Georgeham),. 

206, 207 
Pyne, Benjamin (Goldsmith), 28 
Pypard. See Pipard 

Quantock Hills, 164 

Ralegh, Peter, 187 

Ralegh, Sir Walter : Devon's- 
Greatest Worthy (Chope), 33 

Rayer : Mrs., 31, 33 ; Mrs. Char- 
lotte, 91 ; Rev. William, 92, 107 ^ 
William Carew, 33 

Receipts, Statement of, 22 

Record Office : 44 ; MSS. in, 130 

Redvers, Richard de (1st E. of 
Devon), 31 

Redruth, Gregory of (sub-deacon), 
199 

Redwyk (in Magor), manor of, 190- 

Rees, Rev. J. J., 32, 36 

Religious Houses : Canonsleigh,. 
201 ; Crantock, 193 ; Halbertoix 
College, 37 ; Totton, 199 

Religious Orders, St. Augustine,. 
35, 36 



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INDEX. 



281 



Bendy (in Breage), 186 

Beports : of Council, 20, 21 ; of 

Treasurer, 22, 23 
Beswori, 194 
Beynell : Peryam, 186 ; Richard, 

185 
Bicbard, K. of Creedy Valley, 167 
Bichard II, 38 
Bichmond House, Sampford 

Peverell : 35 ; inscription on, 

36 
Richmond, Margaret of, 35 
Biddell, Mrs., 103 
Bingmore, manor of, 205 
Boche, Bupe : Alice, 200 ; Alis, 

199 ; Sir John, 199 ; Bobert, 

199 ; Sir Thomas, 199 ; Arms of, 

199 
Bock, Mr., 56 
Bodam, 184 

Bodwory, manor of, 202 
Bogers : Inkerman, 32 ; on F/>ssil 

Fish in the Devonian Rocks of N. 

Devon, 32 ; Bev. William, 41 
Books, 63 

Boscof, Oliver de, 198 
Bose-Troup, Mrs. Frances, on The 

Study of Place- and Field-names, 

177 
Bossiter, Mrs., 36 
Botherham, 39 
Roxburgh, 208 
Buan (Cornwall), 194 
Buan Larihorn, 210 
Buddory (in Gwinear), manor of, 

187 
Buel, Boger (sub-deacon), 199 
Bules, 11 
Bupe. See Boche 
Buskin, 51, 53 

Buslen, John (Goldsmith), 92 
Byvers (in Phillack), manor of, 187 

St. Addresse (Dieppe), 43 

St. Albans, 203 

St. Aubyn : Isabel, 205 ; Mauger de, 

205 
St Jude, 37 

Saint's Tragedy (Kingsley), 49 
Salisbury : 197 ; battle of, 162 
Salter : Ernest, J. B., Ill ; Mary 

B., Ill 
Sampford Peverell : 33-5 ; Church, 

35 ; history of, 35 ; Aumbry, 

35 ; Font, 35 ; Piscina, 35 ; 

Tower, 35 ; Church Plate, 35 ; 

manor of, 35 ; Bichmond House, 

35 ; excursion to, 33, 35 
Sancto Albino, Isabella de, 202 
JSapromyzidce (Dipt.), 247 



Saxons in Devon (See Alexander), 
152 ; Saxon Conquest of Devon 
(Davidson), 152 ; sources of 
h^tory of, 153 ; mid -Victorian 
writers, 154 ; migrations of 
Saxon Settlers, 162 

Sayings (Devonshire), 77 

Schizometopa (Dipt.), 234 

Schizophora (Dipt.), 234 

Scientific Memoranda, Report of 
Committee on, 59 

Sciomyzidas (Dipt.), 245 

Searley, A. W., on Haccombe, 
Part II, 181 

Sele Monachorum, 208 

Sepsidce (Dipt.), 248 

Shakespear, William, 28 

Sheepstall, Shepestall, in Elerky, 
189, 193, 208 

Sheep wash Font, 216 

Sherborne : Aldhelm, Bp. of, 166 ; 
episcopal See of, 165 ; School, 46 

Shiplake, 45 

Shogbrooke (Shobrooke), 186 

Siddalls, J., 27, 31, 34, 37 

Simeon of Durham, 153 

Simla Education Committee, 44 

Simonsbath, 34 

Sittingbourne (Kent), 44 

Skeat, Dr., 177, 178 ; on Place- 
names of Cambridgeshire, 177 n. 

Smith, Bev. H. Wade, 32, 36 

Somerset, Duke of (John Beaufort), 
35 

South Huish, 40 

South Kensington Museum, 37 

South Milton, 40 

South Molton, 168 

Southtaunton (South Tawton), 206, 
207 

Sowy, John, 200 

Sparrowhawks, 63, 64 ; definition ( 
of •" Sore " Sparrowhawk, 187 

Spearheads found on Dartmoor, 
176 

Spearing, H. G., on The Recent 
encroachment of the Sea at West- 
ward Ho /, 60 

Specot : Edmond, 190 ; Matilda, 
190 

Speed : Hugh, 87 ; Mrs. Bichard, 87 

Split Pebbles, 60-2 

Spraycombe in Morthe, 191 

Squier, Squyer : Boger, 186 ; 
William, 186 

Stamford, 192 

Standing Orders, 16 

Stapeldon : Bichard de, 204 ; 
Walter de (Bp. of Exeter), 196, 
204 



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282 



INDEX. 



State Papers, Callendar of (Domes- 
tic), 130 
Stevenson, W. H., 177 
Stork, Storke, William, 198, 199 
Strang, James (Goldsmith), 97, 108, 

109 
Stubbs, Dr., Bp. of Oxford, 49 
Survey of Cornwall (Gilbert), 193 
Sulthorne, John de (priest), 209 
JSwallows, 63 

Sydenham, Dr. G. W., 33, 34 
Synods : Hereford, 164 ; Hertford, 

165 
Syrphidce (Dipt.), 224 

Tachinias (Dipt.), 235 

Tagullou: Albreda, 186; John, 
186 

Talley, W., 110 

Tamar, River, 165 

Taunton, 166, 167 

Tavistock, Abbot of, 188, 208 

Temple, Dr., Bp. of Exeter, 31, 
40 

Testa de Nevil, 186 

Theakston, Louisa Agnes, 111 

Theodore, the Greek Archbp., 164 

Thomas, Mathew (Goldsmith), 99 

Thunderstorms, 62 

Thyreophorince (Dipt.), 244 

Tintagel Castle, 196, 197, 203 

Tiverton : 27, 28, 37, 56, 168 ; 
Almshouses, 28 ; Blundell's 
School, 28, 29, 31 ; Castle, 28, 
30, 31 ; its history, 31 ; its Siege, 
30 ; Charters of, 28 ; Courtenay 
Chapel, 30 ; Fires, 28 ; " Four 
Portions," 31 ; Great House, 37 ; 
Green way Brasses, 31 ; Green- 
way Chapel, 28 ; Parish Church 
rebuilt by John Greenway, 30 ; 
Leat, 28 ; Maces, 28, 29 ; Mayor 
of, 27-9, 31 ; Mayoress, 31 ; 
Corporation Plate, 28 ; Proceed- 
ings at, 27 ; Regalia, 28 ; St. 
Peter's Church, 30, 32 ; its 
history, 30, 31 ; Screen removed 
to Holcombe Rogus, 32 ; Victory 
Pageant, 28; Water Bailiffs 
Staff, 29 

Tom Brown's School Days (Hughes), 
51 

Torbay Hospital (Torquay), 45 

Torquay, 20, 45, 168 

Torre Abbey, 188 

Totnes, 27, 168 

Totton, Convent of, 199 

Tracy, Tracey : Sir Henry, 200 ; 
Isold, 200 ; John, 200 ; Maud, 
200 ;] Arms of, 201 



Transactions :"• Societies receiving 

copies of, 20 ; Stock of, 21 
Treasurer's Report, 22, 23 
Treberveth, manor of, 200, 202,. 

205 
Trebigau : Matilda, 186 ; Richard, 

186 
Treganhay, Jullanus de, 201 
Tregarek, 195 

Tregelles, GK F., on Auroras, 59 
Tregennen, 204 

Tregian, Tregyon, family of, 194 
Tregony, 186, 187 
Tregors, Sir Andrew de, 209 
Treiago, Treiagu, John (Sheriff of 

Cornwall), 188, 208 ; his career, 

188 
Trematon Castle, 204 
Trenausmaur, 189 
Trenewyth, Trenowith, Trenwith, 

Trenywith, Michael de, 200, 202, 

203 ; Arms of, 201 
Trenewyth, Trenwith (in Probus), 

201, 202 
Trenowith. See Trenewyth 
Trenwith, See Trenewyth 
Trenywith. See Trenewyth 
Trenrys, 205 
Trerygon, 210 
Tresodorn, 184 
Trethuwel, 193 
Trevalsu, 202 
Trevayles, Richard, 199 
Trevelyan, 204 
Trevisquite in St. Mabyn, manor 

of, 200 
Treworgy Scor, 194, 195 
Tripp : C. L. H., 105 ; Mary E. H.„ 

105 ; Rev. Robert, 93 
Troyte, Arthur H. D., 92 
Trypetidce (Dipt.), 248 
Turner : Dr., 40 ; Harold, 46 ; 

Jessie, 46 
Tyenham, the Baron, 45 

Upcott : Col. Sir Frederick Robert 
(obit), 45, 46 ; J. S., 45 ; Jessie, 46 
Upham, 206 
Upton Helions Font, 220 

Vaux: Sir William, 194; family 

of, 194 
Vice-Presidents, 8 
Victoria, Queen, 40 
Vidal, E., on Split Pebbles, 60-2 

Wakefield, Bp. of (Dr. Walsham 

How), 41 
Waldron : Gertrude, 39 ; Sir John 

W., 39 



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INDEX. 



28a 



Waleran, The Lord, 39 

Wallop, Sir Henry, 194 

Water Babies (Kingsley), 55 

Watkin, Hugh R„ 20, 28-30 

Watson, Bp., 49 

Watson, Dr. W., on Cryptomatic 
Vegetation of the Sand-Dunes of 
the West Coast of England, 115 

Webber, John (Goldsmith), 98 

Wellington, 164 

Were, Thomas, 88 

Wessex : Episcopal See of, 16,1, 
164 ; removal from Dorchester 
to Winchester, 164 ; kingdom of, 
168; kings of, 156, 161, 162; 
origin of, 160 

West, family of, 31 

West Alvington, 40, 41 

West Liddaton (Brentor), 187 

Westminister : 28. 187, 204, 206 ; 
Maces of, 28 

Westward Ho !, Recent encroach- 
ment of the Sea at (Spearing), 60 

Westward Ho / (Kingsley), 54 

Whipham, T. (Goldsmith), 89 

Whitby, 44 

Whitley, H. M., on Lanyhorn 
Castle and its Lords, 193, 194 

Wight, Isle of, 161 ; early settlers in 
161 



Wilcocks, Rev. John, 87 

William of Malmesbury, 153 

William of Worcester, 194 ; his 
Itinerary of Cornwall, 194 

Willibald (c. 680), 165 

Winchester : 28, 161, 164 ; bishop- 
ric of, 162 ; Maces of, 28 

Windeatt, E., 27 

Winfrith (Bp. Boniface), 165, 166 

Wingfield, Mrs., 31 

Winsford, 34 

Withybrigg (Withyhedge in Plym- 
stock), 206, 207 

Woodward, A. Smith, 32 

Worcester, 186 

Worth: John, 112; R. H., 38/fc 
Report of the Barrow Committee, 
79 ; on the Climate of Devon in 
1918 134 

Wright, C. (Goldsmith), 89 

Wynne : A. E., 29, 31 ; Mrs. A. E., 
31 

Yeast (Kingsley), 53 
Yedeford, Ideford, 191 
Yeomanry, Royal 1st Devon, 39 
Yerbury, Col. J. W., on Dvptera of 

Devon, 222 
York, 196, 197, 202, 204, 208 
Yudeford, Edeford, 189 



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